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Smiths  onian  year 

197 A 

Smithsonian  Year  •  7974 


Secretary  S.  Dillon  Ripley  cuts  an  anniversary  cake  at  a  ceremony  in  the  Smithsonian 
Castle  on  February  26,  1974,  commemorating  his  decade  of  service  as  director  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution.  Among  others  who  joined  in  the  celebration  are  former 
Secretary  Alexander  Wetmore,  Mrs.  Ripley  (center),  and  Mrs.  Reginald  Bragonier. 


Smithsonian  Year  •  1974 




JUNE  30,  1974 

Smithsonian  Institution  Press  •  City  of  Washington  •  1974 




^ve  o^ 

Smithsonian  Publication  5229 

Library  of  Congress  Catalog  Card  Number  67-7980 

For  sale  by  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.S.  Government  Printing  Office 
Washington,  D.C.,  20402— Price  $6.65  (paper  cover)  Stock  Number:  4700-00323 

Smithsonian  Year  •  7^74 


The  Smithsonian  Institution  was  created  by  act  of  Congress  in  1846 
in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  the  will  of  James  Smithson  of  Eng- 
land, who  in  1826  bequeathed  his  property  to  the  United  States  of 
America  "to  found  at  Washington,  under  the  name  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution,  an  establishment  for  the  increase  and  diffusion 
of  knowledge  among  men."  After  receiving  the  property  and  accept- 
ing the  trust.  Congress  incorporated  the  Institution  in  an  "establish- 
ment," whose  statutory  members  are  the  President,  the  Vice 
President,  the  Chief  Justice,  and  the  heads  of  the  executive  depart- 
ments, and  vested  responsibility  for  administering  the  trust  in  the 
Smithsonian  Board  of  Regents. 


Richard  M.  Nixon,  President  of  the  United  States 

Gerald  R.  Ford,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States 

Henry  A.  Kissinger,  Secretary  of  State 

William  E.  Simon,  Secretary  of  Treasury 

\    James  R.  Schlesinger,  Secretary  of  Defense 

William  B.  Saxbe,  Attorney  General 

Rogers  C.  B.  Morton,  Secretary  of  Interior 

Earl  L.  Butz,  Secretary  of  Agriculture 

Frederick  B.  Dent,  Secretary  of  Commerce 

Peter  J.  Brennan,  Secretary  of  Labor 

Caspar  W.  Weinberger,  Secretary  of  Health,  Education  and  Welfare 

James  T.  Lynn,  Secretary  of  Housing  and  Urban  Development 

Claude  S.  Brinegar,  Secretary  of  Transportation 

Board  of  Regents  and  Secretary  •  June  30, 1974 


Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  Chancellor 

Gerald  R.  Ford,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States 

J.  William  Fulbright,  Member  of  the  Senate 

Henry  M.  Jackson,  Member  of  the  Senate 

Hugh  Scott,  Member  of  the  Senate 

George  H.  Mahon,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

William  E.  Minshall,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

John  J.  Rooney,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

John  Paul  Austin,  citizen  of  Georgia 

John  Nicholas  Brown,  citizen  of  Rhode  Island 

William  A.  M.  Burden,  citizen  of  New  York 

Robert  F.  Goheen,  citizen  of  New  Jersey 

Crawford  H.  Greenewalt,  citizen  of  Delaware 

Caryl  P.  Haskins,  citizen  of  Washington,  D.C. 

A.  Leon  Higginbotham,  Jr.,  citizen  of  Pennsylvania 

Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr.,  citizen  of  Connecticut 

James  E.  Webb,  citizen  of  Washington,  D.C. 


Warren  E.  Burger,  Chancellor  (Board  of  Regents) 

William  A.  M.  Burden 

Caryl  P.  Haskins 

James  E.  Webb  (Chairman) 

THE  SECRETARY  S.  Dillon  Ripley 

UNDER  SECRETARY     Robert  A.  Brooks 



David  Challinor,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Science 
Charles  Blitzer,  Assistant  Secretary  for  History  and  Art 
Paul  N.  Perrot,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs 
Julian  Euell,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Public  Service 
T.  Ames  Wheeler 
Peter  G.  Powers 


Smithsonian  Year  •  1974 







59  Center  for  the  Study  of  Man 

61  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 

65  Fort  Pierce  Bureau 

68  National  Air  and  Space  Museum 

74  National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

95  National  Zoological  Park 

107  Office  of  International  and  Environmental  Programs 

112  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory 

124  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory 

129  Smithsonian  Science  Information  Exchange,  Inc. 

132  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute 


V  145  Archives  of  American  Art 

147  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Decorative  Arts  and  Design 

150  Freer  Gallery  of  Art 

154  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

162  Joseph  Henry  Papers 

163  National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board 

164  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

170  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

187  National  Portrait  Gallery 

191  Office  of  Academic  Studies 

193  Office  of  American  Studies 


page  195  MUSEUM  PROGRAMS 

200  Conservation-Analytical  Laboratory 

202  National  Museum  Act  Program 

204  Office  of  Exhibits  Central 

204  Office  of  Museum  Programs 

206  Office  of  the  Registrar 

207  Smithsonian  Institution  Archives 

208  Smithsonian  Institution  Libraries 

214  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service 


220  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 

222  Division  of  Performing  Arts 

225  Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education 

227  Office  of  Public  Affairs 

232  Office  of  Smithsonian  Symposia  and  Seminars 

235  Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc. 

239  Smithsonian  (magazine) 

240  Smithsonian  Associates 

247  Smithsonian  Institution  Press 


251  Support  Activities 

262  Financial  Services 

267  Office  of  Audits 

269  International  Exchange  Service 

270  Smithsonian  Women's  Council 





292  Members  of  the  Smithsonian  Council,  June  30, 1974 
294  Academic  Appointments,  1973-1974 

303  Smithsonian  Associates  Membership,  1973-1974 

311  Progress  on  Building  Construction,  Restoration,  and  Renovation 

313  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  Grants  Awarded 

in  Fiscal  Year  1974 

316  News  Releases,  Radio  Programs,  and  Leaflets  Issued 

by  the  Office  of  Public  Affairs  in  Fiscal  Year  1974 

329  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press 

in  Fiscal  Year  1974 

336  Publications  and  Selected  "Contributions  of  the 

Smithsonian  Institution  Staff  in  Fiscal  Year  1974 

408  Visitors  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  in  Fiscal  Year  1974 

409  Staff  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  June  30, 1974 

434  List  of  Donors  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  in  Fiscal  Year  1974 


Smithsonian  Year  -1974 



Joseph  Henry  and  his  family  in  1862  outside  the  Castle  where  he  lived  for  twenty- nine  years, 
in  the  park  —  the  "people's  park"  —  now  the  familiar  Mall,  and  still  the  people's  park.     > 

A  Decade  of  ''Increase  and  Diffusion" 


This  is  the  tenth  Annual  Report  of  the  Institution  which  I  have  had 
the  honor  to  prepare.  In  these  years  it  has  been  a  surcease  to  find  how 
stable  the  aspects  of  the  Smithsonian  have  been  which  match  the 
needs  of  the  people.  "Increase  and  diffusion/'  that  tantalizing  phrase, 
continues  to  be  our  watchword.  We  attempt  to  adhere  steadily  to  cer- 
tain goals,  and  to  eschew  transitory  fads. 

This  past  year  in  Washington  has  been  one  of  a  kind  of  misty  sus- 
pension, like  the  haze  that  hangs  over  the  river  bottom  in  the  early 
mornings  spring  and  fall,  in  our  famous  marshes  of  reclaimed  land, 
known  as  'Toggy  Bottom."  This  curious  state  of  suspense  has  been 
somewhat  akin  to  sitting  in  an  operating  theatre,  although  the  sur- 
geons were  invisible  and  the  body  only  faintly  lighted  in  a  penumbral 
shade,  waiting  for  the  eclipse  to  go  away.  Day  by  day  there  were  con- 
flicting sounds,  adumbrations  which  swirled  about  us  through  the 
medium  of  the  news.  The  shadows  lengthened  during  the  year  as  if 
the  operation  was  too  long  and  the  body  might  turn  into  a  cadaver. 
But  later  the  pall  eased,  we  breathed  again,  realizing  that  the  patient 
would  recover,  the  body  politic  was  alive  after  all.  For  in  the  process 
we  all  survived.  The  surgery  had  not  really  been  directed  entirely  to 
any  one  person.  It  has  been  a  kind  of  psychosurgery  or  mental  vivi- 
section directed  at  us  all,  and  in  the  end  we  may  have  emerged  better, 
we  hope,  for  the  ordeal.  From  the  Smithsonian  towers  we  can  docu- 
ment the  events,  hopeful  that  in  time  we  can  present  an  objective  vi- 
sion of  this  segment  of  the  history  of  our  times  for  those  who  come  to 
see  and  learn  from  our  "diffusion." 

In  science  the  Smithsonian's  research,  our  "increase,"  continues  in 
the  study  of  the  natural  world  about  us,  the  objects  of  creation  on  the 
land,  the  seas,  and  the  phenomena  they  enclose;  and  the  planets,  the 

measuring  of  our  Earth  against  them,  the  Sun  and  its  effect  upon  us/j 
and  the  steady  tabulation  of  the  phenomena  of  outer  space. 

In  history  we  continue  with  our  encyclopaedic  endeavors  in  the 
history  of  American  culture  and  the  preservation  of  that  history; 
whether  by  conserving  the  objects  or  the  processes  of  creation  which 
they  represent. 

In  art  we  continue  to  follow  our  mandate  to  preserve,  collect,  ex- 
hibit, and  encourage  the  study  of  American  art,  its  roots  in  the  rest  of 
the  world,  and  its  current  evolution.  With  the  present  interest  of  our 
government  in  sponsoring  and  supporting  the  arts  and  humanities,  a 
new  partnership,  in  theme  at  least,  begins  to  emerge.  Although  sepa- 
rate, the  Smithsonian  maintains  common  interests  and  close  ties  withi 
the  National  Endowments  for  the  Arts  and  for  the  Humanities.  Both 
share  common  tasks,  and  both  work  together  progressively  through 
the  Federal  Council  on  the  Arts  and  the  Humanities.  This  is  especially 
important  in  the  forthcoming  events  of  the  Bicentennial  years.  In  ad- 
dition there  is  much  to  interest  the  Endowments  in  the  new  art  mu- 
seum opening  on  the  Mall  in  October,  1974,  and  in  the  burgeoning; 
studies  in  art  and  art  history  being  undertaken  by  the  various  Smith- 
sonian enterprises,  as  well  as  in  the  living  Folk  Festivals.  What  a, 
celebration  of  the  American  Spirit  these  Endowments  have  become, 
and  how  vital  their  part  in  encouraging  American  creativity  as  well  as; 
cultural  history  and  research! 

All  of  which  is  to  say  that  like  the  Endowments  the  Smithsonian  is< 
alive  and  well,  whether  in  science  or  in  art,  and  that  each  year  its; 
purposes  and  its  services  are  becoming  increasingly  apparent  and: 
comprehensible  to  our  people.  As  the  Institution  becomes  more  un- 
derstood so  the  morale  of  its  staff  improves.  We  all  realize  the  impor- 
tance to  our  citizens  of  what  we  are  doing,  and  this  improves  our  own" 
quality  and  our  dedication.  So  be  it.  j 

As  we  become  more  important  to  people,  our  visitors  increase,  ouri 
memberships  in  the  Associates  increase,  our  magazine  and  related^ 
publications  and  benefits  reach  out  further  and  further  (our  member-? 
ships  now  are  622,000)  and  so  our  responsibilities  to  be  true  to  ouri 
goals  and  to  increase  and  diffuse  knowledge  become  more  evident. 
Our  obligations  to  ourselves  for  standards  and  quality  have  not*' 
changed,  but  these  very  traditions  of  ours  become  more  visible.  As;, 
this  happens,  we  pay  a  kind  of  penalty — that  of  being  noticed.  For 
years  I  had  thought  many  of  the  things  that  the  Smithsonian  just, 

4  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

went  on  doing  quietly  and  competently  were  underappreciated  and 
in  effect  undervalued.  Our  knowledge  about  the  environment  of  the 
planet  and  our  knowledge  of  the  solar  system  seemed  to  me  so  com- 
prehensive that  I  was  disturbed  that  more  people  did  not  know  about 
all  this,  or  that  only  those  in  cloistered  circles  were  party  to  our  work 
and  failed  to  noise  it  abroad.  Now  with  our  new  exposure  there  is  by 
contrast  a  penalty  to  popularity.  It  is  what  I  used  to  call  "joining  the 
cold  shower  club."  By  becoming  noticed  one  becomes  the  subject  of 
curiosity,  sometimes  the  object  of  criticism,  or  even  envy  (if  doing 
things  well).  We  are,  I  am  sure,  prepared  to  pay  the  penalty  for  con- 
tinuing to  do  well  what  we  are  charged  with  doing,  and  to  that  we  can 
say,  amen. 

Suffice  it  to  affirm  that  we  will  continue  to  prepare  to  play  host  to 
an  increment  of  several  million  visitors  a  year  who  come  in  spite  of 
the  obstacles  of  traffic,  outmoded  transportation,  increasing  costs, 
and  stultifying  living  and  travel  handicaps.  And  we  will  continue  to 
fight  for  their  right  to  come  in  spite  of  obstacles  placed  in  their  way 
by  time  and  circumstance.  For  we  know  that  it  is  in  the  interests  of 
the  people  and  their  increasing  desire  to  know  themselves  that  they 
should  come  and  see  our  Institution,  and  we  know  that  in  this  we 
Kave  the  support  and  the  enthusiasm  of  the  Congress  who  continue 
to  find  the  work  of  the  Smithsonian  refreshing.^ 

Last  year  I  wrote  a  good  deal  about  the  Bicentennial  and  the  Smith- 
sonian's essential  activities  in  the  long-past  Centennial  of  1876, 
Vleanwhile,  sparked  by  the  new  administration  under  John  Warner, 
the  1976  Bicentennial  approaches  with  every  breath  we  breathe,  and 
bur  own  preparations  for  '76  wax  apace.  Our  first  major  Portrait  Gal- 
ery  exhibition  has  opened  to  critical  acclaim.  Our  renovations  of  the 
\rts  and  Industries  Building  have  started  in  order  to  make  it  an  evoc- 


^  Professor  Wilcomb  Washburn  reminds  me  of  a  diary  entry  of  Congressman 
ienry  L.  Dawes  of  Massachusetts  who  came  to  Washington  to  serve  in  1852, 
ind  speaks  of  the  Institution  — 

"The  Smithsonian  Institute  is  the  noblest  of  all  monuments  ever  erected  in 
he  United  States.  Washington  lives  in  the  affections  and  reverence  of  his  coun- 
rymen  justly  before  all  others  and  the  great  monument  going  up  to  his  memory 
s  in  a  corresponding  degree  an  object  of  interest.  (The  Washington  Monument 
vas  still  under  construction.)  But  the  Institute  is  at  once  a  monument  and  an 
ingine  of  power,  a  fountain  of  knowledge,  a  bulwark  for  the  preservation  of 
he  liberties  Washington  bequeathed.  It  has  been  founded  and  is  rising  in  grand 
ofty  proportions  'for  the  diffusion  of  knowledge  among  men.'  And  so  long  as 
t  shall  fulfill  its  mission  fears  are  idle  —  Man  will  be  free." 

Statement  hy  the  Secretary  I  5 

ative  setting  of  what  the  Centennial  of  1876  was  all  about.  Addition- 
ally we  are  planning  on  a  strong  effort  to  accon^modate  our  visitors 
with  guidance,  information,  food,  protection,  and  a  sense  of  wel- 
come and  enthusiastic  reception.  i 

A  whole  series  of  things — exhibits,  happenings,  publications,  tes-  I 
taments  to  human  curiosity,  and  just  plain  fun — will  be  awaiting  ; 
them  in  1976,  not  least  of  which  will  be  an  entire  new  museum  dedi-  i 
cated  to  America's  single  and  most  salutary  technological  achieve-  ; 
ment,  an  achievement  which  has  helped  to  expand  and  rework  our  ; 
culture  in  all  its  ramifications,  the  conquest  of  air  and  space.  Can  | 
there  be  any  insentient  people  alive  today  in  this  country  who  do  not 
realize  that  the  conquest  of  air,  and  now  of  space,  has  changed  our 
perspectives,  our  culture,  indeed  our  ethos?  In  essence  increasingly 
rapid  modes  of  flight  have  abolished  time,  pressed  the  concept  of 
communications  close  to  human  tolerance  through  the  continuing 
evolution  of  the  computer,  helped  to  abolish  faith,  and  prepared  us 
for  a  new  and  as  yet  uncharted  way  of  viewing  the  human  condition. 

America,  I  hope,  will  be  thinking  of  2076  by  the  time  the  Bicenten- 
nial comes  along.  And  in  that  connection  we  might  as  well  have  a 
look  at  the  panorama  showing  how  we  reached  our  present  predica- 
ment. Our  untrammeled  will  to  succeed,  to  better  our  style  of  life 
through  our  communication  and  transport,  has  put  us  where  we  are. 
We  could  call  our  Air  and  Space  Museum  last  year's  Pandora's  Box, 
and  looking  in  visualize  what  we  had  better  do  about  next  year's.  For 
we  have  not  stopped  the  clock  in  the  past,  and  if  we  are  to  slow  it  ; 
down  in  the  future  we  will  have  to  realize  what  has  been  happening 
to  make  so  much  of  that  future  inevitable.  In  his  recent  (1974)  short 
book,  Robert  Heilbroner  questions  the  continued  hegemony  of 
organized  science  under  the  present  threat  of  a  new  Dark  Age  for  our  \ 
civilization.  That  we  face  the  possibility  of  a  new  Dark  Age  in  history 
is  evident  to  many.  As  an  ecologist,  I  have  found  the  recent  discus- 1 
sions  of  economists  and  social  scientists  on  the  subject  of  the  inter- 
dependence of  population  trends  and  the  use  of  natural  resources,  | 
agriculture,  industrial  growth,  and  pollution,  a  kind  of  coming  home 
to  roost,  neo-Malthusian  thinking  caught  up  with  Volterra-Gause 
hypotheses  of  strategies  of  competition  in  nature.  Heilbroner  believes 
that  science  and  technology  have  developed  in  an  inimical  manner  to 
foster  runaway  population,  cataclysmic  wars,  and  environmental 
degradation  without  compensating  restraints  and  standards,  includ 

6  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

ing  moral  and  ethical  controls.  He  postulates  that  religion  will  and 
must  rise  again  to  insure  the  reawakening  of  civilization  itself.  As 
with  a  see-saw,  he  envisages  science  losing  its  paramountcy  as  reli- 
gion arises  once  more.  This  to  me  is  overly  simplistic.  An  economist 
can  afford  perhaps  to  be  an  agnostic,  but  most  philosophically  in- 
clined scientists — physicists  (who  perforce  must  be  philosophers), 
molecular  biologists,  and  the  best  of  the  ecologists — will  tell  you  that 
they  hold  to  an  essential  faith  in  laws  of  creation,  which  are  indeed 
the  moral  and  ethical  presumption  on  which  religion  is  based.  What- 
ever limits  to  creation  we  may  have  plumbed,  it  is  a  popular  fiction 
to  assume  that  in  the  process  scientists  have  destroyed  our  faith. 

All  of  which  is  not  to  say  that  it  is  not  worthwhile  to  have  men  of 
the  caliber  of  Heilbroner,  as  social  scientists,  becoming  aware  of  eco- 
logical principles.  Jan  Tinbergen,  winner  of  the  Nobel  prize  in  eco- 
nomics, told  me  recently  that  he  owed  a  great  part  of  his  somewhat 
unorthodox  theoretical  assumptions  to  new  insights  he  had  gained 
from  his  brother  Nikolaas,  a  Nobel  prize  winner  in  biological  medi- 
cine, who  is  a  pioneer  in  the  study  of  the  behavior  of  animals  under 
field  conditions,  away  from  laboratory  controls,  where  they  are 
guided  by  and  demonstrate  ecological  principles.  It  is  sad  that  the 
social  sciences  have  classically  paid  so  little  attention  to  the  broad 
truths  of  ecology. 

In  the  past  year  we  had  the  novel  experience  of  the  turning  off  of 
the  taps  which  supply  our  gasoline  pumps,  and  Americans — repre- 
senting six  percent  of  the  world's  population  but  conditioned  to 
gobbling  up  nearly  forty  percent  of  the  world's  resources — are  just 
now  beginning  to  get  the  message.  Our  massive  indifference  to  in- 
ternational bureaux  and  offices  talking  about  one-world  politics,  eco- 
nomics, and  world  interdependence  has  been  conditioned  over  the 
years  by  the  perfect  conviction  that  being  an  American  is  a  natural 
condition  v  'hich  we  assume  carries  with  it  all  the  perquisites  of  tech- 
nological superiority  over  our  fellow  inhabitants  of  the  planet.  No 
matter  that  there  are  inequities  in  the  United  States  itself — we  know 
that  also — but  what  many  citizens,  temporarily  enraged  by  such  in- 
equities, overlook  is  our  commonly  held  assumption,  all  of  us,  that 
the  automobile  and  the  open  road,  the  shopping  center,  and  the  fan- 
tastic and  dazzling  distribution  of  material  goods  at  all  levels  is  a 
natural  right.  As  Americans,  either  richer  or  poorer,  we  have  it  way 
over  eighty  percent  of  the  rest  of  the  people  of  the  world. 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  7 

Whether  we  deserve  it  all  or  not  seldom  gives  us  pause,  although 
last  winter's  threat  of  gas  rationing  was  at  least  a  temporary  aberra- 
tion in  the  hiatus  between  winter  holidays  and  summer  vacation. 
Now  that  the  gas  taps  have  turned  on  again,  it  is  easy  to  believe  that 
all's  right  with  the  world  once  more.  It  is  easy  to  forget  the  unpleas- 
antness of  the  spectre  of  declining  resources. 

In  this  state  of  vague  malaise  the  conviction  has  come  to  many 
younger  and  also  minority  group  members  that  the  survival  of  the 
Republic  is  uncertain.  Whereas  historians  or  political  scientists  glori- 
fied the  successes  of  America,  based  on  the  application  of  intelli- 
gence, others  such  as  Jean-Fran(;:ois  Revel  now  describe  what  is  hap- 
pening in  America  as  a  revolution,  which  indeed  it  is.  But  we  can  take 
heart  in  his  definition  of  revolution,  provided  ethics  survive,  for  in 
the  process  we  may  approach  a  truer  mode  of  life  and  an  understand- 
ing of  what  we  are  about.  I  have  written  before  of  what  the  Smith-  [ 
sonian  could  provide  as  a  means  of  exhibiting  this  process  of  under- 
standing. I  feel  it  could  be  done  in  what  I  have  called  a  Museum  of 
the  Family  of  Man,  a  synthesis  of  thinking  about  man's  place  in  the 

People  in  the  United  States  have  come  full  circle  in  their  ideas.  Two 
generations  ago  and  more  the  thought  was  that  this  new  frontier,  this 
boundless  Nation,  would  serve  as  a  melting  pot  wherein  all  would 
be  remade  into  an  indigenous  American  mold.  Here  all  the  nations 
would  provide  of  their  best,  most  daring,  and  adventurous  spirits, 
who,  in  this  heady  atmosphere  of  opportunity,  would  become 
blended  into  what  de  Tocqueville  and  others  thought  of  as  the  new 
American  breed. 

The  romantic  spirit,  descendant  of  the  philosophical  idealism  of 
the  spirit  of  the  revolutions,  took  no  account  of  the  remainder  of  the 
native  Americans,  that  remnant  which  thoughtful  men  at  the  time  of 
the  Nation's  Centennial  had  feared  would  have  gone  extinct  by  the 
twentieth  century.  Nor  were  the  blacks  or  Mexican-Americans  con- 
sidered. Eighty  years  later,  by  the  1930s,  the  Indian  population  was 
recovering  from  its  doldrums  of  the  turn  of  the  century,  the  Mexican 
and  Latin  American  minorities  were  increasing  in  the  Southwest  and 
in  the  eastern  urban  centers,  and  the  blacks — Raymond  Pearl  had 
prophesied  that  the  black  population  would  disappear  for  genetic 
reasons  in  two  hundred  years  or  so.  Instead  of  homogenization  we 
now,  approaching  our  Bicentennial,  celebrate  ethnic  diversity  and 

8  /  Smithsotzian  Year  1974 

cultural  pluralism.  Whether  our  blacks  or  other  minority  types  with 
recognizable  physical  features  disappear  or  not  is  moot.  Black  is 
beautiful  and  the  liberated  American  today  eschews  the  melting  pot 
and  embraces  the  reawakened  realization  that  traditions  of  old  ways 
persist  in  the  New  World,  that  song,  dance,  drama,  the  arts,  lan- 
guage— all  the  stuff  of  culture — continue  to  exist,  to  be  perpetu- 
ated in  strongly  persistent  patterns.  We  cannot  entirely  forget  our 
cultural  heritage  even  as  a  multiplicity  of  physical  types  remains 
permanent  in  our  midst.  Perhaps  then  we  have  learned  a  lesson  that 
biologists  of  years  ago  would  have  been  tempted  to  support,  that 
blending  inheritance  is  far  more  rare  than  the  persistence  of  basic 
traits  and  types,  and  that  cultural  patterns  mirror  in  their  persever- 
ance these  physical  verities. 

Under  the  circumstances,  it  is  appropriate  that  the  Smithsonian, 
too,  should  come  full  circle.  We  can  create  a  summing  up  of  the 
American  experience,  a  synthesis  of  all  that  we  have  learned,  the  in- 
teractions of  man  on  this  part  of  the  planet,  the  interface  between 
ourselves  and  our  environment.  A  Museum  of  the  Family  of  Man 
then  would  include  certain  demonstrable  American  themes,  includ- 
ing the  history  of  the  United  States  folk,  who  had  come  here,  when 
and  how,  and  how  this  had  changed  the  land  and  sea  and  air,  its  past 
and  present  face.  Hopefully,  such  an  illumination  of  our  times  could 
i  include,  with  the  aid  of  computer  systems  and  current  technology,  an 
i  informed  projection  of  our  evolution,  both  physically  and  culturally, 
into  the  future,  our  own  "Brave  New  World." 

More  importantly,  as  my  colleague  Under  Secretary  Brooks  has 
emphasized,  such  a  museum  must  suggest  the  continuing  process  of 
man's  evolution  as  a  creator.  As  he  phrases  it,  "From  all  the  testa- 
ments of  man's  creativity,  we  can  recognize  at  least  two  kinds  of 
multi-millennial  chains  of  men  and  women  who  have  created  things, 
technique^;,  or  concepts  relating  to  the  physical  world.  The  first  kind 
is  in  its  important  phase  pre-literate  and  inventive;  it  has  evolved  the 
basic  physical  conditions  of  human  society  and  survival —  as  for  in- 
stance the  cultivation  of  grains,  domestication  of  animals,  shelter, 
mobility,  etc.  The  second  kind  of  succession  is  post-literate  and  con- 
ceptual; it  has  evolved  understanding  of  the  world,  the  universe, 
man's  own  nature,  and  the  structures  of  thought  itself.  The  two  have 
common  ground  but  different  approaches  to  understanding,  and  de- 
serve equal  honor.  They  proceed  in  common  from  man's  bio-psycho- 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  9 

logical  heritage — his  visual  brain,  manual  dexterity,  capacity  for  use 
of  symbols  and  language." 

To  suggest  the  process  means,  of  course,  to  avoid  the  static  quality 
of  museums  encompassed  in  arrays  of  finite  objects,  but  rather  to 
formulate  a  kind  of  multimedia  display,  "engaging  the  viewer's  own 
processes  of  thought  and  imagination."  The  process  is  a  speed-up 
process  too.  From  the  unique  fact  that  evolution  provided  the  tools, 
man's  ability  to  communicate  effectively,  and  the  evolution  of  man- 
ual dexterity,  has  come  the  unfolding  of  brain  integration  in  these 
functions.  Each  system  has  buffered  and  supported  the  other,  devel- 
oping an  end  product  unlike  any  other  known  on  the  planet.  Thus 
the  diverging  into  the  two  types  of  creativity:  the  technologies  of  sur- 
vival and  the  evolution  of  thought.  In  this  latter  aspect  of  creativity 
there  are  the  social  inventions:  "elaborations  upon  the  family,  the 
tribe,  the  state,  the  organs  of  justice,  legislation,  administration, 
caste,  class,  trade,  education,  war."  Then  there  is  the  invention  of 
social  institutions,  "and  the  creators  who  formulated  social  thought 
and  promoted  social  action."  These  historical  creations  are  all  rooted 
in  man's  biological  heritage  as  well,  and  of  course  have  speeded  up 
enormously  along  with  the  evolution  of  technology. 

In  any  discussion  of  process  it  is  instructive  to  speculate  about  the 
possibility,  achieved  five  years  ago,  of  landing  a  man  on  the  moon. 
Although  the  technologies  existed  to  create  orbiting  machines  in 
space,  James  Webb  has  pointed  out  to  me  that  the  human  factor,  the 
men  who  could  manipulate  the  machines  effectively  enough  to  land 
themselves  on  the  lunar  surface,  and  then  blast  off  again  to  join  up 
with  their  circling  companion,  must  have  been  brought  up  from 
childhood  in  an  atmosphere  where  the  commonplaces  of  advanced 
technology  all  worked.  Communication  by  telephone,  for  example,  is 
randomly  so  taken  for  granted  in  the  U.S.A.,  because  the  telephones 
work  so  relatively  perfectly,  that  we  are  brought  up  and  accustomed 
to  have  perfect  transmittal  of  ideas  or  mechanical  concepts  in  using 
them.  We  do  not  have  to  have  meetings  or  conferences  face  to  face. 
Our  generations  of  people  are  thus  habituated  for  learning  and  the 
transfer  of  vital  information  in  a  way  that  a  considerable  part  of  the 
rest  of  the  world's  population  is  not,  or  has  not  been  until  very  re- 
cently indeed.  Thus  the  time  lags  implicit  in  technological  condition- 
ing and  familiarity  make  for  different  phased  levels  of  assimilation 
of  the  processes  of  learning.  The  chances,  therefore,  are  that  only 

10  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

one  particular  segment  of  peoples  or  culture  may  be  capable  of  land- 
ing on  the  moon  at  any  one  time.  And  I  might  add,  at  the  risk  of 
sounding  complacent  or  overweening,  that  even  the  prospect  of  a 
perfect  link-up  in  space  as  between  the  products  of  two  cultures,  our 
own  and  the  U.S.S.R.'s,  may  be  more  difficult  because  of  the  back- 
ground and  training  of  the  participants  than  our  global  strategists 
and  politicians  would  wish. 

This  is  one  example  of  a  truism  in  contemplating  the  history  of  the 
family  of  man.  No  one  group  or  segment  of  man,  through  the  biolog- 
ical and  physical  phenomena  of  geographical  isolation,  is  exactly  like 
any  other  at  points  in  time,  as  well  as  through  the  panorama  of  his- 
tory, thus  horizontally  as  well  as  vertically  in  a  diagrammatic  sense. 
No  museums  have  ever  entirely  encompassed  all  of  the  philosophical 
and  moral  and  physical  implications  which  have  resulted  in  our  com- 
plex world.  It  is  a  new  way  of  looking  at  a  subject  that  goes  back  to 
ideas  expressed  in  the  last  century,  vested  in  the  creation  of  the 
Musee  de  I'Homme  in  Paris  in  1877.  Unfortunately  the  Musee  de 
I'Homme  was  an  anthropology  museum,  and  as  I  have  said  else- 
where,^ until  very  recently  it  had  been  thought,  rather  uncomfort- 
ably, that  anthropology,  being  a  kind  of  biological  discipline,  should 
concentrate  on  early  man  and  the  present  so-called  primitive  races 
of  man,  leaving  Western  civilization  to  the  classicists  and  the  stu- 
dents of  folk  history  and  the  decorative  arts.  This  situation  has  now 
begun  to  change.  In  Washington  we  are  thinking  of  drawing  from 
everything  that  our  museums,  whether  of  natural  history,  history  of 
science,  culture  and  technology,  or  art  museums,  are  exhibiting,  each 
in  its  own  way.  We  are  concerned  here  with  a  new  concept,  a  syn- 
thesis of  the  whole  family  of  man  and  how  it  got  that  way. 

Interestingly  enough  we  are  not  alone  in  this  idea.  We  claim  no 
hegemony,  of  course.  At  the  1974  meeting  of  the  International  Coun- 
cil of  Museums  held  in  Copenhagen,  Mme.  Nelly  Motrocilova  of  the 
Academy  in  Moscow,  speaking  on  June  3rd,  announced  that  the 
U.S.S.R.  too  was  thinking  of  the  creation  of  a  Museum  of  Man. 
Suffice  it  to  say  that  we  shall  be  threshing  out  this  concept  over  the 
next  year  or  two  with  ourselves,  our  committees  such  as  the  Smith- 
sonian Council,  and  individual  colleagues,  with  the  hope  that  eventu- 

Ripley,  Dillon.  The  Sacred  Grove.  New  York:  Simon  and  Schuster,  1969,  p.  79. 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  1 11 

ally  we  can  present  a  plan  to  the  Congress  for  a  new  kind  of  museum 
which  could  somehow  embody  the  dreams  of  their  constituencies 
across  this  land,  the  realization  by  people  of  the  United  States  that 
their  strength  lies  in  the  strength  of  their  origins,  their  diversity  and 
the  pride,  courage,  and  hope  that  this  can  and  must  give  them.  Let 
there  be  no  despair  then  but  a  reasoned  pride,  measured  with  cour- 
age and  tempered  with  the  sobering  responsibilities  that  such  self- 
knowledge  brings.  The  soothsayers  and  necromancers  of  today 
adjure  the  young  to  think  of  themselves  first,  to  cultivate  their  id,  to 
think  first  of  "happiness"  in  a  subjective  sense.  They  have  forgotten, 
and  the  young  with  them,  that  they  are  not  alone,  but  that  within 
themselves  rests  all  the  history  of  man. 

The  Institution's  "increase,"  its  research  progress  in  history,  the 
arts,  and  the  sciences,  is  listed  in  Smithsonian  Year  1974.  Suffice  it 
to  say  that  both  in  astronomy  and  astrophysics,  work  under  Director 
George  Field  is  taking  form  in  programs  of  great  promise,  particu- 
larly in  regard  to  new  observations  of  the  Sun  made  during  the  flight 
of  the  Orbiting  Space  Laboratory  in  the  past  year.  Additionally,  suc- 
cessful research  and  construction  proceeds  in  concert  with  the  Uni- 
versity of  Arizona  on  the  multiple-mirror  telescope.  In  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History  a  vigorous  new  array  of  exhibits  is  in 
the  planning  stage  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Porter  Kier.  Temperate 
and  tropical  environmental  studies  are  being  vigorously  pursued  at 
our  stations  in  the  United  States  as  well  as  in  Panama. 

In  the  latter,  significant  efforts  to  enhance  the  staff  as  well  as  the 
inventory-taking  capability  of  the  stations  should  begin  to  narrow 
the  gap  between  what  we  know  about  the  New  World  tropics  and 
what  limits  to  tolerance  they  possess  in  the  face  of  man's  destructive 
abilities.  For  in  the  vast  New  World  tropics  where,  contrary  to  con- 
ventional wisdom,  perhaps  only  ten  percent  of  the  land  is  susceptible 
to  agriculture,  there  is  precious  little  time  to  measure  the  norms  of 
the  tropical  environment.  Human  population  pressure  is  seeing  to 
that,  be  it  for  better  or  worse.  Few  biologists  could  argue  that  any- 
thing that  is  happening  in  the  tropics  today  is  for  the  better,  but  their 
voices  will  not  be  heard  in  the  tendentious  political  clamour  of  the 
developing  world.  At  the  very  least  we  hope  that  the  data  we  gather 
will  serve  as  a  guide  to  the  essential  diversity  of  the  tropical  environ- 
ment and  as  an  indicator  for  the  future  of  the  riches  we  seem  about 
to  forsake  so  willfully.  The  recent  remarks  on  May  29th  by  the  new 

12  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

President  of  Venezuela,  Carlos  Andres  Perez,  concerning  that  coun- 
try's proposed  national  policy  on  conservation  of  natural  resources 
are  splendid,  however.  If  Latin  America,  with  some  of  the  poorest 
soils  in  the  world,  could  heed  President  Perez'  speech  then  biologists 
could  breathe  easier. 

Finally  in  the  realm  of  science,  a  great  step  forward  this  past  year 
has  been  the  beginning  of  the  National  Zoo's  breeding  project  and 
reserve  at  Front  Royal,  Virginia.  Here  is  a  conservation  project  in  a 
superb  setting,  which  we  hope  will  become  a  model  of  its  kind,  with 
room  for  cooperation  with  zoological  societies  all  over  the  country. 

In  history  our  staff  has  collected  the  Institution's  first  Pulitzer 
prize  in  the  person  of  Professor  Daniel  Boorstin  and  his  third  volume 
on  The  Americans:  The  Democratic  Experience.  All  of  us  can  take 
pride  in  the  outstanding  historicoliterate  achievements  of  this  fa- 
mous historian,  who  has  resumed  work  as  a  Senior  Historian  after 
four  busy  years  as  Director  of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and 
Technology.  In  this  latter  capacity  he  has  been  succeeded  by  another 
eminent  historian.  Professor  Brooke  Hindle,  sometime  Dean,  Arts 
and  Sciences,  University  College,  at  New  York  University,  and  head 
of  that  university's  Department  of  History  for  many  years.  Mr. 
Hindle  is  particularly  an  historian  of  science,  and  his  coming  is  a 
matter  of  great  joy  to  all  of  us. 

In  the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  this  year  we  have  also 
celebrated  the  creation  of  the  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  Institute  for 
Historical  Research — a  center  for  studies  in  the  origins  of  war  and 
peace,  headed  by  Professor  Forrest  C.  Pogue,  one  of  the  preeminent 
military  historians  of  our  time.  This  is  a  splendid  augury  for  the  Na- 
tional Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board  and  may  well  be  its 
most  salient  contribution  to  the  preservation  of  military  history. 

In  the  past  year  the  Freer  Gallery  has  celebrated  its  semicentennial 
with  three  splendid  exhibitions  accompanied  by  internationally  at- 
tended symposia,  as  well  as  the  publication  of  lucid  and  beautifully 
illustrated  catalogues,  and  with  the  awarding  of  three  Freer  medals. 
No  one  could  fail  to  be  heartened  by  the  renewed  interest  in  Chinese, 
Japanese,  and  Islamic  art  which  these  exhibitions  underscored.  Over 
200  scholars  and  students  attended  the  colloquia,  which  were  in- 
tensely interesting  and  of  high  scholarly  caliber.  A  symptom  of  the 
universal  importance  placed  on  art  in  Japan  was  a  special  visit  during 
his  stay  in  Washington  by  Prime  Minister  K.  Tanaka. 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  1 13 


The  National  Portrait  Gallery  continued  its  striking  series  of  his- 
torical exhibits  with  a  splendid  exhibition  and  accompanying  histori- 
cal resource  document,  a  catalogue  on  the  Black  Presence  in  the 
American  Revolution.  Once  again  the  Portrait  Gallery  has  charted  a 
new  and  authoritative  course  in  untraveled  seas.  I  believe  it  is  ob- 
vious by  now  to  most  historians  that  this  technique  of  exhibition  and 
wholly  definitive  catalogues  is  a  new  and  unsuspected  teaching  tool 
to  remind  us,  as  I  have  said  earlier,  that  within  us  all  resides  the 
history  of  man. 

The  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  has  continued  its  imaginative 
program  of  exhibits,  including  a  revealing  one  on  the  history  of  the 
plastic  arts  in  recent  time  in  the  Pacific  Northwest.  I  personally  was 
much  moved  by  the  evidence  from  the  paintings  of  the  expression 
via  palette  tonalities  of  the  difference  between  living  in  Oregon  and 
in  Washington.  Even  in  abstracts  or  in  interiors  the  painters  were 
reflecting  a  subtle  neo-tradition  not  only  of  style  but  of  color,  evi- 
dence of  the  mood  and  atmosphere,  the  light  and  color  of  the  two 
States.  What  reflections  cannot  be  drawn  on  the  origins  of  ethnicity, 
of  phenotypic  differences,  of  cultural  subspeciation  in  such 

A  delightful  footnote  to  the  history  of  American  art  was  the  ex- 
hibition of  the  work  of  "Lilly  Martin  Spencer:  The  Joys  of  Senti- 
ment," the  catalogue  of  which  contains  a  brilliant  introduction  by 
Director  Joshua  Taylor.  The  ncfa's  collection  of  American  portrait 
miniatures,  one  of  the  best  in  this  country,  was  placed  on  permanent 
exhibition  through  the  generosity  of  the  Trustees  of  the  Merrill 
Trust.  A  special  gallery  designated  the  "Doris  M.  Magowan  Gallery 
of  Portrait  Miniatures"  will  exhibit  these  portrait  miniatures  for  the 
first  time.x 

The  substantial  completion  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculp- 
ture Garden  in  this  past  year  has  signaled  the  arrival  of  the  mam- 
moth collections  of  art  in  Washington  and  their  incipient  debut  in 
their  new  public  setting,  an  event  long  awaited.  We  anticipate  for- 
mally opening  the  museum  on  October  1, 1974.  This  museum  should 
help  to  illuminate  Joseph  Henry's  theme  that  the  Mall  is  indeed  a 
people's  park,  a  place  of  delight  for  citizens.  The  gloomy  myths 
about  the  sacred  sward  and  the  hallowed  ground  were  no  more  a 
part  of  the  original  concept  of  the  Republic  than  any  other  Victorian 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  15 

conceits.  The  Mall  is  for  all  of  the  citizens  of  the  United  States  and 
by  no  means  a  cemetery. 

In  this  past  year  an  additional  West  Coast  branch  of  the  Archives 
of  American  Art  has  been  opened  by  our  energetic  director,  WilHam 
Woolfenden,  and  the  Presidency  has  been  assumed  by  Dr.  Irving 
Burton  after  three  years  of  devoted  work  by  Howard  Lipman,  who 
now  becomes  President  of  the  Board  of  the  Whitney  Museum  of 
American  Art  in  New  York.  We  are  deeply  grateful  to  all  these  able 
workers  in  the  collation  of  the  history  of  American  art. 

The  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Decorative  Arts  and  Design  in 
New  York  continues  with  its  reconstruction  plans  for  the  Carnegie 
Mansion,  for  which  over  $1  million  has  already  been  raised.  Under 
the  energetic  chairmanship  of  Lewis  A.  Lapham,  who  has  succeeded 
Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr.,  as  Chairman  of  the  National  Associates 
Board,  a  subcommittee  has  been  formed  to  enlist  the  support  of  New 
York  members,  residents,  and  their  wives  to  complete  the  reconstruc- 
tion of  the  site  for  our  National  Museum  of  Design. 

Nearer  at  home  our  management  enterprises  and  our  reexamina- 
tion of  our  structure  proceed  apace.  In  any  sensible  organization 
there  must  come  periodic  assessments  of  where  one  is  and  where  one 
is  going.  In  the  process  of  keeping  track  of  our  "fragmented  parts 
which  make  a  whole,"  as  Joshua  Taylor  has  described  us,  we  periodi- 
cally check  the  pace  of  our  development.  Are  we  running  ourselves 
ragged  with  too  many  activities?  Can  we  achieve  the  discipline  to 
confine  ourselves  to  our  stated  goals  before  natural  accumulations 
run  away  with  us?  For  in  the  sense  of  our  museums  and  collections, 
the  Smithsonian  is  a  growth  industry.  Perhaps  museums  are  one  of 
the  only  legitimate  growth  industries  left?  I  think  we  can  manage  to 
stay  the  course  by  perceiving  common  themes  that  unite  us  intellec- 
tually, and  not  simply  approach  efficient  controls  as  an  administra- 
tive function.  For  in  our  hope  to  "increase  and  diffuse  knowledge 
among  men"  lies  an  ideal  as  well  as  a  responsible  charge.  We  monitor 
the  processes  continually,  firm  in  our  determination  to  illuminate 
that  ideal. 

In  the  realm  of  "diffusion,"  this  past  year  has  seen  the  Smithson- 
ian undertake  a  new  series  of  television  programs  under  the  direction 
of  David  Wolper,  with  sponsorship  by  the  du  Pont  Company.  The 
first  program  on  matters  of  Smithsonian  interest  is  expected  to  be  re- 

16  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

leased  in  November,  1974.  In  all  of  these  enterprises  with  new  at- 
tempts to  increase  and  diffuse  knowledge  an  enormous  amount  of 
credit  is  due  to  the  staff  of  this  Institution,  which  in  its  many  ramifi- 
cations continues  its  devotion  and  effective  assistance  to  our  cause  at 
all  levels. 

As  part  of  the  Smithsonian  Product  Development  program,  re- 
ports indicate  that  in  addition  to  previously  approved  craft  items, 
there  will  be  authentic  reproductions  of  pewter,  silver,  and  textiles, 
all  based  on  existing  Smithsonian  documentation. 

During  the  past  year  I  have  lost  two  of  my  friends.  For  the  ten 
years  of  my  tenure  I  have  had  the  perfect  conviction  of  longevity,  se- 
cure in  the  belief  that  my  three  predecessors  would  be  continually 
available  as  counsellors  and  reminders  of  the  continuity  of  our  hopes 
for  the  Institution.  As  I  have  noted  in  Smithsonian  (November,  1973, 
and  February,  1974),  Dr.  Wetmore  and  I  have  lost  our  two  col- 
leagues. Dr.  Leonard  Carmichael,  my  predecessor  as  Secretary,  on 
September  16, 1973,  and  Dr.  Charles  G.  Abbot,  his  immediate  prede- 
cessor as  Secretary,  on  December  17, 1973.  Together  we  had  seemed 
a  continuous  chain,  reaching  back  in  time  to  when  the  Republic  itself 
was  less  than  a  century  old.  They  had  helped  and  encouraged  me  to 
celebrate  our  own  Smithson  bicentennial  in  1965,  the  200th  Anniver- 
sary of  our  Founder's  birth,  a  noble  occasion  reminding  us  all  of  the 
academic  and  intellectual  links  of  institutions  like  our  own  around 
the  world.  We  mourn  their  passing  and  the  loss  of  contact  with  the 
past  which  always  helps  to  prepare  us  for  the  premonitions  of  the 


Statement  by  the  Secretary  1 17 

Charles  Greeley  Abbot,  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  1928-1944. 
Leonard  Carmichael,  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  1953-1964. 

Board  of  Regents 

The  board  of  regents  held  three  meetings  in  fiscal  year  1974.  The 
autumn  meeting,  convened  on  September  21,  1973,  was  designated 
The  Leonard  Carmichael  Memorial  Meeting  in  honor  of  Dr.  Car- 
michael,  the  seventh  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  As  an 
appropriate  tribute  to  his  memory,  the  Regents  unanimously  de- 
clared that  the  auditorium  of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and 
Technology,  constructed  during  his  tenure,  hereafter  be  known  as 
the  Leonard  Carmichael  Auditorium.  A  ceremony  dedicating  the  Au- 
ditorium was  held  on  January  21,  1974,  presided  over  by  the  Chan- 
cellor, accompanied  by  music  and  with  tributes  from  Dr.  John  Har- 
per, Rector  of  St.  John's  Church,  Dr.  Melvin  Payne,  President  of  the 
National  Geographic  Society,  and  the  Secretary. 

The  new  Chairman  of  the  National  Board  of  the  Smithsonian  As- 
sociates, Mr.  Lewis  A.  Lapham  succeeding  Mr.  Thomas  J.  Watson, 
Jr.,  was  assured  of  enthusiastic  support  by  the  Regents,  who  en- 
dorsed the  concept  that  the  Institutional  Development  Committee  of 
the  National  Board  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates  undertake  the 
Cooper-Hewitt  capital  fund  raising  as  its  first  effort. 

Dr.  Fred  L.  Whipple,  Director  of  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical 
Observatory  from  1955  to  1973,  retired  in  July,  1973,  and  is  to  con- 
tinue his  work  as  Senior  Research  Scientist.  The  Regents  voted  to 
award  him  the  Henry  Medal  in  recognition  of  his  important  contri- 
butions to  the  Institution. 

Mr.  Gordon  N.  Ray,  Chairman  of  the  Smithsonian  Council,  who 
was  present,  briefly  reviewed  the  activities  of  the  Council  since  its 
inception,  citing  its  membership,  its  considerations,  and  conclusions. 
The  Board  of  Regents  thanked  Mr.  Ray  for  his  efforts  and  conveyed 
appreciation  to  the  Council  members  for  their  interest  and  work  in 
behalf  of  the  Institution. 

The  appointment  of  James  H.  Billington  as  Director  of  the  Wood- 
row  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars  was  announced. 

The  death  of  Mrs.  Marjorie  Merriweather  Post,  a  great  benefactor 
of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  occurred  on  September  12,  1973.  A 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  19 

Smithsonian  Committee  was  organized  to  work  with  the  representa- 
tives of  Mrs.  Post's  estate  and  foundation  to  facilitate  an  orderly 
transfer  of  the  property  and  collections  bequeathed  to  the  Smith- 

Subsequently  the  Board  of  Regents,  their  wives,  members  of  the 
National  Board  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates,  and  the  Chairman 
of  the  Smithsonian  Council  gathered  for  the  presentation  of  the 
James  Smithson  Benefactor  Medallion  to  Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr., 
for  his  important  contributions  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution. 

The  January  25, 1974,  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Regents  was  desig- 
nated The  Charles  Greeley  Abbot  Memorial  Meeting  in  tribute  to 
the  Smithsonian  Institution's  fifth  Secretary,  whose  death  occurred 
in  December  at  the  age  of  101.  Appropriately,  the  Radiation  Biology 
Laboratory  will  bear  Dr.  Abbot's  name  henceforward,  since  this  as- 
pect of  the  Institution's  research  owes  its  genesis,  in  1929,  to  Dr. 

The  meeting  took  place  at  the  Fort  Pierce  Bureau  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  located  at  Fort  Pierce,  Florida,  including  the 
Harbor  Branch  Laboratory,  as  well  as  the  research  barge  and  the  RV 
Johnson.  Secretary  Ripley  explained  the  history  of  the  Fort  Pierce 
Bureau,  its  programs,  and  its  plans  for  the  future.  A  tour  of  the  facili- 
ties included  brief  talks  by  staff  members,  a  tour  of  the  model  shop, 
inspection  of  the  submersible,  and  a  demonstration  of  the  launch  and 
recovery  of  the  submarine. 

It  was  with  great  reluctance  that  the  Executive  Committee  ac- 
cepted the  decision  of  Crawford  Creenewalt  not  to  stand  for  reap- 
pointment after  serving  for  eighteen  years  as  an  outstanding  and 
distinguished  Regent. 

The  Regents  accepted  the  Acee  Blue  Eagle  collection  of  paintings 
and  artifacts  in  order  to  foster  interest  in  and  understanding  of 
American  Indian  art  and  culture.  It  will  be  housed  in  the  Anthropo- 
logical Archives  of  the  Department  of  Anthropology  of  the  National 
Museum  of  Man. 

The  Smithsonian  was  granted  a  permit  by  the  General  Services 
Administration  for  use  of  the  former  Beef  Cattle  Experiment  Station 
at  Front  Royal,  Virginia;  the  National  Zoological  Park  plans  initially 
to  utilize  this  reserve  for  a  breeding  project. 

The  spring  meeting  of  the  Board  was  held  in  the  Regents'  Room  of 
the  Smithsonian  Building  on  May  14,  1974.  A  Nominating  Commit- 

20  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

tee  appointed  by  the  Chancellor  submitted  its  recomnnendation  for  a 
new  Citizen  Regent  and  for  reappointment  of  two  other  Citizen  Re- 
gents whose  terms  were  to  expire.  Joint  resolutions  were  recom- 
mended to  be  introduced  in  the  Congress  for  these  appointments. 

The  Board  authorized  acceptance  of  a  Zeiss  planetarium  instru- 
ment, a  Bicentennial  gift  from  the  Federal  Republic  of  Germany. 
This  will  be  installed  in  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  to  simu- 
late the  wonders  of  space  and  is  expected  to  be  operating  when  the 
Museum  opens  in  July,  1976.  The  instrument  is  to  be  named  in 
honor  of  the  late  Albert  Einstein. 

The  Regents  received  the  report  of  the  second  Smithsonian  Priori- 
ties Conference  convened  at  the  Belmont  Conference  Center  on  Feb- 
ruary 19-21, 1974,  which  pointed  out  in  detail  the  progress  of  Smith- 
sonian programs  in  the  past  year,  and  recommended  additional  steps 
to  be  taken  in  administration  and  management  within  the  Institu- 
tion. Coupled  with  this  were  copies  of  a  new  survey  of  buildings  and 
facilities  owned  or  occupied  by  the  Institution. 


Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  21 

Visitors  to  the  Smithsonian  Museum  Shops. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1974 


Continued  sound  progress  was  shown  in  Smithsonian  finances  in 
fiscal  year  1974.  Thanks  to  increased  federal  support  and  further  im- 
provement in  results  of  the  Institution's  own  educational  and  reve- 
nue-generating efforts,  we  were  able  to  cope  satisfactorily  with  the 
large  inflation-bred  rise  in  costs  of  salaries,  supplies,  and  services, 
and,  at  the  same  time,  to  strengthen  our  current  operating  funds 

Added  federal  appropriations  enabled  us  to  increase  needed 
museum  protection  and  other  support  services  and  to  step  up  prepa- 
rations for  our  important  1976  Bicentennial  commitments.  These  in- 
cluded steady  progress  on  construction  and  future  exhibits  for  the 
new  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  and  a  beginning  on  a  major 
long-term  reconstruction  of  National  Zoological  Park  facilities.  An 
additional  $l-million  gift  from  the  donor  of  the  collections  permitted 
completion  of  the  construction  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculp- 
ture Garden.  Other  gifts  and  grants  for  specific  purposes  funded  a 
wide  variety  of  research  and  exhibit  activities. 

There  remains  an  urgent  need  for  major  outside  contributions  in 
support  of  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Decorative  Arts  and  De- 
sign and  a  large  number  of  other  specific  projects.  Also,  the  Institu- 
tion's endowment  funds  —  always  far  from  adequate  for  an  Institu- 
tion of  this  size  —  experienced  during  the  year  a  worrisome  drop  in 
value.  In  other  respects,  however,  Smithsonian  finances  can  be  said 
to  have  improved  substantially  in  fiscal  year  1974.  Full  detail  of  these 
results  is  provided  below. 


Overall  Sources  and  Application  of  Financial  Support 

The  total  financial  support  available  to  the  Institution  from  all 
sources  is  shown  in  Table  1.  These  figures  do  not  include  the  finances 
of  the  National  Gallery  of  Art,  the  John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the 
Performing  Arts,  and  the  Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for 
Scholars,  which  are  all  related  legislatively  to  the  Smithsonian  but 
whose  financial  and  administrative  affairs  are  for  the  most  part  sepa- 
rately managed  under  independent  Boards  of  Trustees. 

Total  funds  for  operating  purposes  rose  to  $82,681,000  in  fiscal! 
year  1974,  an  increase  of  $10,607,000  over  the  preceding  year.  Fed- 
eral appropriations  of  $65,063,000  accounted  for  7?>.7  percent  of  the 
total,  research  grants  and  contracts  12.1  percent,  and  nonfederal  in- 
come 9.2  percent;  this  ratio  of  support  was  roughly  the  same  in  fiscal 
year  1973.  In  addition.  Congress  provided  $21,860,000  in  construc- 
tion funds  for  continuing  work  on  the  National  Air  and  Space  Mu- 
seum, for  repairs  to  other  Smithsonian  buildings,  and  for  the  Na- 
tional Zoological  Park,  principally  for  "Lion  Hill,"  a  major  beginning 
on  the  long-term  renovation  plan  of  Zoo  facilities. 

In  Table  2,  these  revenues  from  all  sources  (excluding  construction 
funds  and  the  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program)  and  their  applica- 
tion to  individual  Smithsonian  bureaus  and  activities  are  shown  in 
considerable  detail,  demonstrating  the  complexity  of  funding  result- 
ing from  the  variety  of  resources  and  the  large  number  of  diversified 
services  provided. 


Federal  appropriations  for  operating  purposes  totaled  $65,063,000  i 
including  $1,695,000  for  the  Smithsonian  Science  Information  Ex- 
change, a  separately  incorporated  organization,  and  $4,500,000  for ; 
the  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program  (in  the  blocked  currency  of  ■ 
certain  foreign  countries).  The  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program! 
administers  grants  to  United  States  universities  and  similar  organi-  ■; 
zations  for  research  studies  in  Egypt,  India,  Pakistan,  Poland,  Tu- 
nisia,  and  Yugoslavia  (see  Table  3).  This  program  included  a  special 
$1,000,000  amount  (to  be  renewed  for  three  additional  years)  to  al- 
low United  States  participation  in  unesco's  international  campaign . 
to  preserve  archeological  monuments  on  the  Island  of  Philae  in 


24  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Table  1.  Overall  Sources  of  Financial  Support 

[In  $l,000's] 

Sources  FY  1971        FY  1972        FY  1973         FY  1974 


Federal  appropriation: 

Salaries  and  expenses $36,895         $44,701         $51,633  $58,868 

Smithsonian  Science  Information 

Exchange    *  1,600  1,600  1,695 

Special  Foreign  Currency 

Program   2,500  3,500  3,500  4,500 

Subtotal    $39,395  $49,801  $56,733  $65,063 

Research  grants  and  contracts 9,312*  8,088  8,996  9,996 

Nonfederal  funds : 

Gifts  (excluding  gifts  to  endowments) 

i       Restricted  purpose 1,880  1,598  2,901  1,970 

Unrestricted  purpose 304**  26**  33**  275** 

Income  from  endowment  and 

current  funds  investment 

Restricted  purpose 1,372  1,573  1,736***  1,750 

Unrestricted  purpose 330  334  436  747 

Revenue  producing  activities  (net)  (534)  (141)  170  1,770 

Miscellaneous    406  482  1,069  1,110 

Total  nonfederal  funds 3,758  3,872  6,345***         7,622 

Total  Operating  Support $52,465  $61,761  $72,074  $82,681 


ederal  Construction  Funds: 

National  Zoological  Park $      200  $      200  $      675  $  3,790 

National  Air  &  Space  Museum  ...  -0-  1,900  13,000  17,000 

Hirshhorn  Museum 5,200  3,697  -0-  -0- 

Restoration&  Renovation  of  Bldgs.  1,725  550  5,014  1,070 

Total  Federal  Construction  Funds       $  7,125         $  6,347         $18,689  $21,860 

rivate  Plant  &  Land  Acquisition  Funds: 

Copper-Hevvitt  Museum $  —  $      700  $      106  $      262 

Hirshhorn  Museum —                  —                  —  1,000 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center 25                386                149  70 

Total  Private  Plant  and  Land 

Acquisition  Funds $         25  $  1,086  $      255  $  1,332 

*  Smithsonian  Science  Information  Exchange,  Inc.,  funded  by  National  Science  Foundation  contract 
in  fiscal  year  1971  ($1,400,000)  and  thereafter  by  direct  federal  appropriation. 

•  Excluding  gifts  to  Asso»:iates  (included  under  Revenue  Producing  Activities). 

»  Includes  $225,000  of  fiscal   year  1973   income   transferred   from   Endowment   Fund   No.   3   for   this 
purpose  in  fiscal  year  1972. 

Financial  Report  I  25 

Table  2. — Source  and  Application  of  Operating  Funds  for 
Year  Ended  June  30, 1974 

(Excludes  Special  Foreign  Currency  Funds,  Plant  Funds,  and  Enodwments) 

[In  $l,000's] 

Nonfederal  funds 





Fed-         fed- 
eral        eral       Gen- 
funds      funds       eral 


Spe-  Grants 
cial  and 
pur-  Gen-         con- 
pose  eral         tracts 


1  July  1973    $  0$  5,120  $2,292    $  0  $201    $2,546  $        81 


Federal   Appropriations    .  .  .  $60,563 

Investment  Income    $  2,497  $  744  $          -  $     3  $1,750  $ 

Grants  and  Contracts   9,968  -  _         _            _       9^958 

Gifts    2,505  151  260  124      1,970 

Sales  and  Revenue    12,615  -  12,473  142 

Other    970  284  2  138         546 

Total  Provided $60,563   $28,555  $1,179    $12,735  $407   $4,266  $  9,968 

Total   Available    $60,563   $33,675  $3,471    $12,735  $608  $6,812  $10,049 



Environmental  Science    $  1,316   $  1,158  $      14    $  -  $     5  $    107  $  1,032 

Natl.  Museum  of  Nat. 

Hist 8,040        1,055  41  -        43         161  810 

Natl.  Zoological  Park 4,565  46  19  -         -  21  6 

Fort  Pierce  Bureau    -       1,032  24  -         -     1,008 

Science  Info.  Exchange   ....  1,695  -  -  _         _  _  _ 

Smithsonian  Astroph. 

Observatory     3,207        5,844  18  -         7         210       5,609 

Radiation  Biology  Lab 1,294  95  -  -         -  9  86 

Smithsonian  Tropical 

Research   Inst 1,002  70  1  -       47  4  18 

Interdisciplinary  Communi- 
cations Program -  894  22  -         1  30  841 

Natl.  Air  and  Space 

Museum     2,633  108  3  -       59  24  22 

Other  Science   1,132        1,041        118  -         1        114  808 

Total  24,884      11,343         260  -     163      1,688        9,232 

History  and  Art: 

Natl.    Portrait   Gallery    1,122  62  22  -       25  1  14 

Natl.  Collection  of 

Fine    Arts     1,653  ■  79  8  -       34  35  2 

Freer  Gallery  of  Art 274       1,134  -  -         -     1,134 

Natl.  Museum  of  History 

and  Technology   4,334  398  46  -       11         222  119 

Table  2.  Source  and  Application  of  Operating  Funds  for 

Year  Ended  June  30, 1974 — continued 

[In  $i,ooo's] 

Nonfederal  funds 




Fed-         fed- 
eral        eral 
funds       funds 

Reve-   Spe-  Grants 

nue      cial  and 

Gen-       pro-     pur-  Gen-      con- 

eral      ducing  pose  eral       tracts 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum   .  .  .  174  266  4  -  -  237           25 
Archives  of  American 

Art     238  203  -  -  -  203 

Bicentennial  of  the 

American  Revolution    .  .  .  1,746  -  -  _  _  _             _ 

Hillwood    -  210  -  -  -  210 

Hirshhorn  Museum 1,326  82  82  _  _  _ 

Other  History  and  Art 1,263  63  5  -  -  19           39 

Total     12,130  2,497  167  -  70  2,061          199 

Public  Service: 

Revenue  Producing  Activities 

Smithsonian  Press    800  200  -  200  _  _             _ 

Performing  Arts 422  1,083  -  493  -  107          483 

Other    -  10,342  -      10,272  -  9  61 

Anacostia  Museum   317  21  18  -  -  3             - 

Reading  Is  Fundamental, 

Inc -  532  -  -  -  533 

Other  Public  Service 1,157  83  72  -  -  5             6 

Total     2,696  12,262  90      10,965  -  657          550 

Museum  Programs: 

Libraries     1,165  2  -  —  -  2              — 

Exhibits    1,063  26  -  -  13  2            11 

Natl.  Museum  Act 

Programs    684  —  -  _  _  _             _ 

Other  Museum  Programs  .  .  1,409  87  45  -  6  36             - 

Total     4,321  115  45  -  19  40            11 

Buildings  Management  and 

Protection  Services    11,839  9  9  _  _  _             _ 

Administration    4,693  3,386  443  461  13  331      2,138 

Overhead  Recovered -  (3,345)     (402)  (461)  (13)  (331)  (2,138) 

Transfers  for  Designated 

Purposes     -  1,026  (208)  1,770  (104)  (436)             4 

Total   Funds   Applied  $60,563  $27,293  $    404    $12,735  $148  $4,010    $9,996 


30  June  1974 0  $  6,382  $3,067  $  0  $460  $2,802  $   53 

Table  3.  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program, 

Fiscal  Year  1974  Obligations 

[In  $i,ooo's] 

atic &        Astro- 
Environ-  physics  &  Grant 

mental        Earth       Museum   Adminis- 
Country  Archeology       Biology     Sciences    Programs     tration         Totalh. 

India    $    125,470  $    112,650  $31,369  $  8,679  $48,081  $    326,24 

Pakistan    92,661  223,383  -  950  -  316,99 

Poland     311,750  68,726  38,645  8,576  670  428,36 

Tunisia    96,661  544,107  16,250  40,343  5,668  703,02 1^ 

Egypt     1,619,172  115,046  401  34,370  -  1,768,98 

Yugoslavia    85,908  400,905  _  _  _  486,81 

Total    $2,331,622     $1,464,817     $86,665     $92,918     $54,419     $4,030,44 

Excluding  these  special-purpose  appropriations  for  the  Science  In- 
formation Exchange  and  the  Foreign  Currency  Program,  federal  op- 
erating funds  amounted  to  $58,868,000.  This  is  $7,235,000  more 
than  fiscal  year  1973,  but  $4,180,000  (58  percent)  of  this  substantial 
increase  is  attributable  solely  to  meeting  the  costs  of  federal  pay 
raises  of  various  categories  beyond  the  Institution's  control.  The  bal- 
ance of  the  increase,  $3,055,000,  went  primarily  to  three  high- 
priority  program  objectives.  These  were  (1)  preparation  of  exhibits 
and  related  work  of  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  scheduled 
to  open  in  its  new  building  on  the  Mall  on  July  4, 1976;  (2)  develop- 
ment of  special  Washington,  D.  C,  and  national  Bicentennial  activi- 
ties; and  (3)  phased  strengthening  of  supporting  services  such  as 
museum  object  conservation;  reference  and  research  libraries;  auto- 
matic data  processing  applications  to  research,  collections,  and 
administrative  activities;  and  buildings  and  facilities  care  and  protec- 
tion. Allocation  of  the  appropriations  for  operating  purposes  (ex- 
cluding the  Foreign  Currency  Program)  by  broad  activity  areas  over 
the  past  several  years  is  shown  in  Table  4. 

It  may  be  of  interest  to  note  that  in  performance  terms  about  $12.6 
million  of  the  fiscal  year  1974  appropriation  was  spent  on  basic  re- 
search in  art,  history,  and  science;  $4.2  million  on  the  acquisition 
and  management  of  collections  (only  a  few  hundred  thousand  dollars 
of  this  were  available  for  the  purchase  of  objects) ;  $7.1  million  for 


28  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


Table  4.  Application  of  Federal  Appropriations 
Fiscal  Year  1971  through  Fiscal  Year  1974 

(Excluding  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program) 
[In  $l,000's] 

Area  FY  1971       FY  1972         FY  1973         FY  1974 

Science    $13,495  $18,365*        $20,329*        $24,884* 

History  and  Art 5,878 

Public  Service   1,442 

Museum  Programs 3,744 

Administration    3,051 

Building  Maintenance  and 

Protection 9,285  10,442  11,982  11,839 

Total $36,895  $46,301  $53,233  $60,563 













Includes  $1,600,000  (FY  1972  and  FY  1973)  and  $1,695,000  (FY  1974)  for  the  Smithsonian  Sci- 
ence Information  Exchange,  Inc.,  which  had  been  funded  prior  to  1972  by  grants  from  the 
National  Science  Foundation. 

I  the  design,  production,  installation,  and  upkeep  of  exhibits;  and  $2.7 
:  million  for  various  aspects  of  public  and  scholarly  education  and  ori- 
ientation.  These  program  output  areas  total  about  $26.6  million.  Sup- 
iport  areas  total  about  $34  million,  of  which  $13.0  million  was  for 
t  the  care  of  buildings,  $7.8  million  was  for  protection  and  security, 
.and  the  balance  was  for  other  important  administrative  and  support 


(Construction  funding  in  fiscal  year  1974  amounted  to  $4,860,000, 
rplus  $17,000,000  to  meet  progress  payments  under  the  contract  au- 
:thority  provided  in  the  fiscal  year  1973  Appropriation  Act  for  the 
construction  of  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum.  The  new  ap- 
rpropriatiori  provided  primarily  for  the  construction  of  the  exciting 
mew  lion  and  tiger  exhibit  at  the  National  Zoological  Park  and  fur- 
ther planning  efforts  aimed  at  implementing  the  approved  master 
plan  for  the  complete  renovation  of  the  Zoo.  This  funding  also  pro- 
>  vided  relatively  minor  amounts  for  repairs  and  improvements  to 
other  Smithsonian  facilities  such  as  safety  and  access  improvements 
to  the  Mount  Hopkins  Observatory  road  in  Arizona. 

Financial  Report  I  29 


Grants  and  contracts  from  federal  agencies  once  again  contributed  in 
a  major  way  to  the  Institution's  research  programs,  predominantly 
in  scientific  disciplines.  $9,996,000  of  these  funds  was  expended  in 
fiscal  year  1974,  up  from  $8,996,000  in  fiscal  year  1973.  The  major 
recipient,  accounting  for  over  half  of  the  total  expenditures,  con- 
tinued to  be  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  in  Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts,  with  grants  from  the  National  Aeronautics 
and  Space  Administration  for  such  projects  as  the  monitoring  of 
Comet  Kahoutek,  meteor  studies,  and  design  of  hydrogen  maser 
systems.  Other  projects  ranged  from  ecological  studies  in  South 
America  and  Asia  to  research  on  American  folklore.  Table  5  shows 
the  major  granting  agencies  to  the  Smithsonian  over  a  four-year 
period,  representing  several  hundred  different  grants  and  contracts 
each  year. 


Originally  established  entirely  with  funds  from  Mr.  Smithson's  be- 
quest, the  Institution  has,  over  a  long  period  of  years,  derived  an  in- 
creasing proportion  of  its  support  from  federal  appropriations  as  it 
was  entrusted  with  more  national  collections  and  expanded  its  re- 
search and  public  exhibitions. 

It  is  now  an  important  goal  of  Smithsonian  administration  to  bol- 
ster the  Institution's  private  resources  in  line  with  or  exceeding  the 
growth  of  its  federal  support,  in  order  to  restore  a  better  balance  be- 
tween the  two,  thereby  helping  to  preserve  its  uniquely  flexible  and 
independent  character  among  national  establishments.  Despite  the 
many  serious  economic  uncertainties  of  this  past  12-month  period, 
fiscal  year  1974  results  were  in  line  with  this  goal.  Receipts  (includ- 
ing those  for  operating  purposes,  land  acquisition,  and  building  con- 
struction) from  gifts,  investment  income,  revenue-producing  activi- 
ties, fees,  and  other  revenues  all  increased  to  record  levels,  with  the 
total  equaling  $8,954,000  (not  including  $105,000  gifts  to  endow- 
ment funds).  Of  this  total  $5,598,000  was  designated  for  specific 
restricted  purposes;  this  latter  amount  was  fractionally  higher  than 
in  fiscal  year  1973,  while  income  for  unrestricted  purposes  rose  from  , 
$1,013,000  to  $3,356,000  (see  Table  6).  J 

30  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Table  5.  Grants  and  Contracts 
[In  $l,000's] 

Federal  Agencies  FY  1971  FY  1972 

Atomic  Energy  Commission $      91  $      73 

Department  of  Commerce 166  392 

Department  of  Defense 843  916 

Department  of  Health,  Education 

and  Welfare   409  411 

Department  of  Interior   258  247 

Department  of  Labor 3  11 

Department  of  State 176  195 

National  Aeronautics  and  Space 

Administration     4,930  4,605 

National  Endowments  for  the 

Arts  and  Humanities   -  35 

National  Science  Foundation   ....  2,028*  560 

Other   408  643 

Total     $9,312  $8,088 

FY  1973      ]^  1974 

$   76 

$   72 



















*  Includes  funding  for  Sniithsonian  Science  Information  Exchange,  Inc.  of  $1,400,000. 

Table  6.  Total  Private  Funds  Income  Fiscal  Year  1974 

[In  $l,000's] 


Revenue  sources 

General  & 

revenue       Special 
producing    purpose* 



For  Operating  Purposes: 

Investments    $    744 

Gifts    151** 

Revenue  Producing  Activities    .  .  1,770 

Concessions  and  miscellaneous.  .  284 

Total  Operating  Funds   .  .      $2,949 

For  Plant: 

Gifts  — 

Hirshhci'n  Museum   $        — 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center — 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum   — 

Total  Gifts $ 

Miscellaneous  — 
Cooper-Hewitt  Museum   $        — 

Total  Plant    $ 

Grand   Total    $2,949 

$     3 










$  - 







$  - 
$  - 




*  Classified  as  Restricted  Funds  in  previous  years;   represents  unrestricted  income  designated 
by  management  to  be  used  only  for  specific  purposes. 

**  Excluding  $260,000  gifts   to   Associates   (included   under  Revenue  Producing  Activities)   and 
$105,000  gifts  to  Endowment  Funds. 


The  substantial  increase  in  unrestricted  general  purpose  private 
funds  in  fiscal  year  1974  was  extremely  welcome  and  enabled  the 
Institution  for  the  first  time  to  reserve  private  monies  for  plant  im- 
provements not  believed  to  be  obtainable  from  federal  appropria- 
tions but  which  will  enhance  our  ability  to  serve  the  public  and 
which  may,  at  the  same  time,  lead  to  increased  private  support  in  the 
years  ahead.  The  build-up  of  the  general  unrestricted  fund  balance 
to  a  more  adequate  level  of  $3,067,000  also  means  that  portions  of 
any  similar  gains  in  future  years  may  also  be  used  for  this  purpose 
or  to  strengthen  our  present  low  endowment  reserves. 

As  may  be  seen  in  Table  7,  the  increase  in  income  before  transfers 
to  other  funds,  equaling  $2,336,000  in  fiscal  year  1974  compared  to 
$688,000  in  fiscal  year  1973,  arose  in  part  from  a  jump  in  investment 
income  but,  more  importantly,  from  successful  results  of  our  educa- 
tional and  revenue-producing  activities.  There  was,  at  the  same  time, 
a  somewhat  offsetting  rise  in  administrative  costs,  partly  from  salary 
and  other  administrative  cost  increases  (including  an  initial  charge 
of  $198,000  to  establish  a  reserve  for  employees'  accrued  annual 
leave),  but  also  reflecting  greater  assistance  to  a  number  of  bureaus 
for  special  needs  and  urgent  research  projects. 

The  increase  in  investment  income  this  year  resulted  primarily 
from  the  build-up  in  working  capital  and  advance  Smithsonian  mag- 
azine subscription  monies  which  made  more  funds  available  for  in- 
vestment in  high  quality  short-term  issues  at  prevailing  high  interest 
rates.  As  may  be  noted  on  the  Balance  Sheet,  page  48,  current  fund 
investments  equaled  $8,298,000  as  of  June  30,  1974,  compared  to 
$6,223,000  a  year  earlier;  of  the  former  amount,  $6,600,000  was 
invested  in  very  high  grade,  short-term  securities  and  bank  certifi- 
cates of  deposit. 

The  Smithsonian  magazine  was  responsible  for  the  largest  share 
of  the  net  gain  from  revenue-producing  activities.  As  shown  in  Table 
8,  its  income  for  the  year  rose  to  $1,327,000,  from  $330,000  in  the 
previous  year.  At  June  30,  1974,  there  were  622,000  National  Asso- 
ciate members  and  subscribers  to  the  magazine,  making  it  one  of  the 
fastest  growing  publications  in  the  Nation.  The  Associates  program 
also  contributed  heavily  to  this  year's  gains,  with  net  income  of 
$263,000,  versus  a  slight  loss  in  fiscal  year  1973.  The  Resident  Asso- 

32  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Table  7.  Unrestricted  Private  Funds 
General  and  Revenue  Producing  Activities 

(Excluding  Special  Purpose  Funds  and  Gifts  to  Endowment) 

[In  $l,000's] 

Item                                    FY  1971  FY  1972  FY  1973  FY  1974 


General  Income: 

Investments    $    334  $    334  $    436  $    744 

Gifts     304  26  33  151 

Concessions  and  miscellaneous.  .                215  197  374  284 

Total  General  Income 853  557  843  1,179 

Revenue  Producing  Activities: 

Smithsonian   Magazine    (209)  2  330  1,327 

Other   10  74  (43)  263 

Shops     (80)  19  47  226 

Press     (159)  (111)  (109)  (89) 

Performing  Arts    (78)  (50)  (65)  104 

Product  Development —  -  69  37 

Other  Activities (18)  (75)  (59)  (98) 

Total  Activities    (534)  (141)  170  1,770 

Total  Income    319  416  1,013  2,949 


Administrative  Expense 2,681  2,956  3,097  3,957 

Less  Administrative  Recovery   .  .  .              2,254  2,639  2,772  3,345 

Net  Administrative  Expense   ...                 427  317  325  612 

Net  Gain  (Loss)  before  Transfers                (108)  99  688  2,337 

Less  Transfers: 

To  Plant    -  -  -  1,134 

To   Endowment    21  21  21  121 

Other   (Net)    21  17  124  307 

Net  Gain  (Loss)  after  Transfers               (150)  61  543  775 

Ending  Balance    $1,720  $1,781  $2,292*  $3,067 

N; ■ 

*  Adjusted  to  reflect  reclassification  to  Plant  Funds  of  $32,000  net  investment  in  capitalized  equipment. 

ciates  program  continues  to  furnish  great  benefits  to  the  Washing- 
ton, D.C.,  community  with  its  offering  of  classes,  study  trips,  lec- 
tures, and  exhibit  openings;  the  Foreign  Study  Tours  program  has 
likewise  gained  enthusiastic  acceptance. 

Financial  Report  I  33 

Table  8.  Revenue  Producing  Activities  for  Fiscal  Year  1974 

[In  $l,000's] 


sonian Per-      Product 
Museum                 Maga-                forming  develop- 
Item                   Total       Shops      Press*      zine  Other      Arts        ment    Other** 

Sales  and 

Revenues 12,473         2,141         111         7,127         1,778         597        107        612 

Less  Cost  of 

Sales     6,918         1,211  83         4,426  886         145  -        167 


Income  5,555  930  28        2,701  892        452        107        445 

Gifts     260  -  -  -  260 

Other  Income  ...  2  --  -  -  —  -  2 


Income  .  .  .       5,817  930  28         2,701         1,152        452        107         447 

Expenses    3,586  604         105         1,174  820        314  64         505 


Costs    461  100  12  200  69  34  6  40 

Income  (Loss) 


Transfers     1,770  226  (89)       1,327  263         104  37         (98) 

Less  Transfers  28  -  (5)  -  -  -  33***      - 

Net  Income 

(Loss) 1,742     226  .   (84)   1,327     263    104      4    (98) 

*  The  privately  funded  activities  of  the  Press  as  opposed  to  the  federally  supported  publication  of 
research  papers. 
**  Includes  Traveling  Exhibitions,  Belmont  Conference  Center,  Photo  Sales,  "Commons"  Restaurant, 

Center  for  Short-Lived  Phenomena,  Special  Publications,  and  Television  Programs. 
***  This  includes   allocations  to   the  Press   and  other   Smithsonian  bureaus  participating   in  this  pro- 

The  profitability  of  the  Museum  Shops  also  increased  dramati- 
cally, from  $47,000  in  fiscal  1973  to  $226,000  in  fiscal  1974,  due  in 
large  measure  to  improved  management  practices  and  increased  em- 
phasis on  higher  quality  merchandise  relevant  to  the  collections  ex- 
hibited in  the  various  Smithsonian  museums.  As  with  the  Product 
Development  Program,  which  transferred  $33,000  of  royalities  to  in- 
dividual bureaus,  income  from  the  Museum  Shops  will  in  the  future 
be  shared  with  the  museums  for  their  use  in  public  education  pro- 
grams and  purchases  for  the  cpllections. 

The  Performing  Arts  Division  produced  an  extremely  successful 
record  album,  the  History  of  Jazz,  which  enabled  them  to  show  a 
gain  of  $104,000  in  this  fiscal  year,  as  opposed  to  a  deficit  of  $65,000 

34  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

in  fiscal  year  1973.  Another  "bestseller"  was  the  guidebook.  Seeing 
the  Smithsonian,  developed  by  the  Smithsonian  Press  and  Product 
Development  Offices  in  cooperation  with  the  cbs  Publishing  Com- 
pany; its  sales  added  substantially  to  the  profitability  of  the  Museum 

As  any  surplus  funds  accrue  from  project  receipts  of  the  shops  or 
the  Associates  program  an  appropriate  effort  is  made  to  return  this 
in  kind  to  the  public  in  the  form  of  improved  public  facilities,  im- 
proved public  reference  books  or  publications,  and  improved  public 
exhibits.  As  an  example,  the  unusually  large  net  gain  in  unrestricted 
private  funds  in  fiscal  year  1974  coincided  with  urgent  requirements 
for  construction  funds,  necessitating  transfers  of  $1,134,000  to  the 
Institution's  plant  funds,  with  other  transfers  to  Special  Purpose 
funds.  Restricted  Funds,  and  Endowment  Funds  bringing  total  trans- 
fers to  $1,561,000  (see  Table  7).  Of  the  transfers  to  plant  funds, 
$365,000  was  set  aside  to  redesign  and  reconstruct  the  museum  shop 
in  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  Another  $500,- 
000  was  reserved  for  a  part  of  the  costs  of  the  proposed  construction 
of  additional  public  service  facilities  in  the  West  Court  of  the  Na- 
tional Museum  of  Natural  History.  Finally,  $150,000  was  transferred 
to  cover  a  part  of  the  cost  of  a  visitor's  study  center  at  the  Chesa- 
peake Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies,  and  $119,000  was 
transferred  for  computer  and  equipment  purchases.  Other  transfers 
from  unrestricted  funds  include  allocations  toward  operations  of  the 
Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  ($178,000),  special  research  grants  to 
Smithsonian  scientists  ($49,000),  and  transfers  to  Endowment 
($121,000)  which  includes  a  bequest  of  $100,000  from  the  estate  of 
Paula  Lambert. 

A  new  category  of  unrestricted  private  funds  ("Special  Purpose") 
is  set  out  separately  this  year,  namely,  those  which  are  legally  un- 
restricted but  which  have  been  designated  by  management  to  be  re- 
served for  specific  uses  (see  Table  6).  These  accounts,  previously 
treated  as  a  part  of  Restricted  Funds,  include,  for  example,  receipts 
from  parking  at  the  Zoo  (reserved  to  aid  future  construction  of  addi- 
tional parking  facilities  for  visitors),  and  revenues  from  various 
minor  enterprises  in  individual  museums  (e.g.,  charges  for  tour- 
guide  audiophone  equipment,  etc.)  and  related  expenditures  of  these 
monies,  chiefly  for  improvement  of  exhibits.  As  of  June  30,  1974, 
balances  of  these  funds  totaled  $460,000,  an  increase  of  $259,000  in 
the  year. 

Financial  Report  I  35 

Table  9.  Restricted  Operating  Private  funds, 

*  Fiscal  Year 


[In  $l,000's] 



fers in 



'  halanct 
end  of 
)     year 






Archives  of  American  Art.  . 

...    $        1 

$       19 


$    206 

$    203 

$     9 

$  12 

$    205 

American  Banking  Exhibit 









American  Maritime  Hall   . 









Cooper-Hewitt  Museum: 









Funds  for  Collection 
and  other  Special 
Purpose  Funds    







-ort  Pierce  Bureau    









-reer  Gallery    

















leading  is   FUNdamental    . 

.  .               — 











Total  Restricted  Funds     . 

.  .     $1,750 



*  Excluding  Grants  and  Contracts 

shown  in  TabI 

e  5  and  also  Restric 

:ted  Plant  Funds  inc 

uded  in 

Table  6. 




The  Restricted  Private  Funds  of  the  Institution,  which  support  a 
wide  variety  of  activities  even  beyond  the  major  ones  highUghted  in 
Table  9,  received  $4,266,000  for  operating  purposes  in  fiscal  year 
1974.  The  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  and  the  Fort  Pierce  Bureau  depend 
primarily  on  income  from  their  endowment  funds,  while  the  Cooper- 
Hewitt  Museum  of  Decorative  Arts  and  Design  and  the  Archives  of 
American  Art,  although  receiving  some  federal  support,  must  look 
to  gifts,  grants,  memberships,  and  various  money-raising  efforts  for 
their  principal  operating  funds.  In  addition,  it  was  necessary  to 
transfer  $178,000  of  private  unrestricted  funds  to  Cooper-Hewitt  in 
fiscal  year  1974  to  eliminate  operating  deficits  accumulated  over  this 
and  previous  years. 

In  September  1973,  at  the  death  of  Mrs.  Marjorie  Merriweather 
Post,  the  responsibility  for  her  "Hillwood"  estate  and  the  extraordi- 
nary collections  it  contains  passed  to  the  Smithsonian.  A  trust  fund 

36  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

was  provided  by  her  will  for  the  maintenance  and  operation  of  Hill- 
wood,  but  the  estate  had  not  yet  been  settled  at  year-end;  part-year 
income  and  expenditures  for  this  new  project  are  reflected  in  the  Re- 
stricted Private  Funds  table. 

The  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  is  conducting  a 
fund-raising  campaign,  with  strong  support  from  industry,  to  enable 
creation  of  a  new  exhibit  "Hall  of  American  Maritime  Enterprise" 
devoted  to  national  marine  history.  As  of  June  30,  1974,  $166,000 
had  been  raised  with  additional  pledges  received  of  over  $100,000. 

A  gift  of  $1  million  was  received  from  Joseph  H.  Hirshhorn  in 
fiscal  year  1974  to  be  used  to  complete  construction  of  the  Hirshhorn 
Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  due  to  open  to  the  public  in  October 
1974.  This  gift  is  reflected  in  the  restricted  gifts  total  in  Table  6  in 
the  category  of  Plant  Funds  along  with  other  gifts  and  miscellaneous 
revenues  for  the  new  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  building  ($70,000)  and 
renovation  of  the  Carnegie  Mansion  for  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum 


The  Smithsonian  endowment  includes  three  separate  investment 
funds:  the  Freer  Fund,  whose  income  is  used  solely  by  the  Freer  Gal- 
lery of  Art;  Endowment  Fund  No.  3,  which  supports  oceanographic 
research  at  the  Fort  Pierce  Bureau  in  Florida;  and  the  Consolidated 
Fund,  which  is  an  investment  pool  of  all  other  Smithsonian  restricted 
and  unrestricted  endowment  funds,  although  distinct  administration 
and  accounting  is  maintained  on  each  individual  fund.  Changes  in 
market  values  of  these  funds  since  1970,  reflecting  additions  from 
donations  and  reinvestment  of  income,  limited  withdrawals,  and 
changes  in  securities  valuations  are  shown  in  Table  10. 

Table  10.  Market  Values  of  Endowment  funds 
\                                 [In  $l,000's] 

Fund  6/30/70        6/30/71  6/30/72  6/30/73 

Freer    $14,987          $18,805  $21,973  $18,279 

Endowment   No.  3    .  .           5,433            12,331  14,641  13,196 

Consolidated    8,998            11,470  13,287  12,393 

Total    $29,418          $42,606  $49,901  $43,868 




Financial  Report  /  37 

As  detailed  in  previous  Smithsonian  Annual  Reports,  the  invest- 
ment of  these  three  endowments  is  managed  by  three  professional 
advisory  firms,  under  the  close  supervision  of  the  Investment  Policy 
Committee  and  the  Treasurer,  and  subject  to  policy  guidelines  set  by 
the  Smithsonian's  Board  of  Regents.  Under  the  Total  Return  policy, 
adopted  for  all  funds  by  the  Board  of  Regents  in  1972,  the  income 
to  be  paid  each  fund  in  the  subsequent  fiscal  year  is  determined  each 
March  31  by  computing  4V2  percent  of  the  running  five-year  average 
of  market  values.  By  selecting  a  fixed  rate  of  return,  regardless  of 
what  the  actual  yield  may  be,  the  investment  advisors  are  free  to 
choose  the  most  attractive  securities  without  being  limited  by  the 
need  to  achieve  a  specified  dividend  and  interest  income  level  and 
at  the  same  time  Smithsonian  budgeting  procedures  are  simplified. 

Table  11.  Changes  in  Endowment  Funds  for  Fiscal  Year  1974 

[In  $l,000's] 

Market  Gifts       Interest     Income  Decline      Market 

value  and  and  paid        Sub-      in  market      value 

Fund  6/30/73      transfers  dividends*      out         total  value       6/30/74 

Freer  Fund    . . . 

Fund  No.  3 .  . 


Total**     . . 



$       -         $    670        $    876      $18,073        $3,823     $14,250 



520   12,821    1,693   11,128 









$   (3) 






*  Income  earned  less  managers'  fees. 

**  Not  including  Endowment  Funds  of  $1,000,000  held  in  U.S.   Treasury,  carrying  6  percent   interest, 
nor  minor  amount  of  miscellaneous  securities  treated  separately. 

As  shown  in  Table  11,  the  market  values  of  the  endowment  funds 
suffered  badly  in  fiscal  year  1974,  sharing  fully  in  the  general  stock 
market  decline.  This  fall  in  market  values  will  have  the  effect  in  fiscal 
year  1975  of  reducing  the  Total  Return  income  to  the  Freer  and  Con- 
solidated Funds  to  somewhat  below  the  level  of  fiscal  year  1974,  al- 
though still  higher  than  prior  years. 

38  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


Gifts,  bequests,  and  reinvestment  of  income  in  certain  restricted 
funds  added  $297,000  to  the  Consolidated  Fund,  and  a  transfer  of 
$300,000  was  made  from  Endowment  Fund  No.  3  to  permit  comple- 
tion of  the  RV  Johnson  submarine  tender  as  well  as  to  cover  costs 
relating  to  the  entrapment  of  the  submersible  Johnson-Sea-Link  in 
June  1973.  Income  totaling  $1,948,000,  net  of  managers'  fees,  was 
paid  out  under  the  Total  Return  policy  described  above;  this  was 
$355,000  in  excess  of  dividend  and  interest  yield  on  these  Endow- 
ment Funds  in  the  year.  Market  valuations  and  income  of  the  indi- 
vidual restricted  funds  participating  in  the  Consolidated  pool  are 
shown  in  Table  12,  and  detail  on  the  funds  by  types  of  securities  held 
is  given  in  Table  13.  A  listing  of  the  individual  investments  held  in 
the  various  endowment  funds  at  June  30,  1974,  may  be  obtained 
upon  request  to  the  Treasurer  of  the  Institution. 

Accounting  and  Auditing 

The  Private  Trust  Funds  of  the  Institution,  as  well  as  the  accounts  of 
Smithsonian  Science  Information  Exchange,  Inc.,  the  Smithsonian 
Research  Foundation,  and  Reading-Is-Fundamental,  Inc.,  are  audited 
annually  by  independent  public  accountants.  Their  report  for  fiscal 
year  1974  on  the  Smithsonian  is  contained  in  the  following  pages, 
including  a  comparative  balance  sheet  and  a  statement  of  changes  in 
the  various  fund  balances.  Extensive  changes  in  accounting  treat- 
ment of  a  number  of  items  in  accordance  with  new  guidelines  estab- 
lished by  the  American  Institute  of  Certified  Public  Accountants 
have  been  referred  to  at  length  in  the  Notes  to  these  statements  and 
are  reflected  in  the  tables  in  this  report  dealing  with  Unrestricted  and 
Restricted  Private  Funds. 

The  Defense  Contract  Audit  Agency  annually  performs  an  audit 
on  grant  and  contract  monies  received  from  federal  agencies.  In  addi- 
tion, the  federally  appropriated  funds  of  the  Institution  are  subject 
to  audit  by  the  General  Accounting  Office.  The  internal  audit  staff 
continues  to  conduct  audits  throughout  the  wide  range  of  Smith- 
sonian activities  and  contributes  greatly  to  smooth  administrative 
and  financial  management. 

Financial  Report  I  39 

Table  12.  Consolidated  Fund,  June  30,  1974 



Funds  participating  in  pool 

Book  value 


Market  1974  pended 

value      Net  income    balance 



Abbott,  William  L 211,924 

Archives  of  American  Art   21,986 

Armstrong,  Edwin  James   4,133 

Arthur,  James    62,497 

Bacon,  Virginia  Purdy 184,850 

Baird,  Spencer  Fullerton   57,364 

Barney,  Alice  Pike   44,821 

Barstow,  Frederic  D 2,032 

Batchelor,  Emma  E 67,414 

Beauregard,  Catherine 

Memorial  Fund   77,837 

Becker,  George  F 317,610 

Brown,  Roland  W 51,303 

Canfield,  Frederick  A 59,323 

Casey,  Thomas  Lincoln   25,489 

Chamberlain,  Frances  Lea 44,007 

Cooper,  C.  Arthur,  Curator's  Fund  .  .  2,840 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum    158,973 

Desautels,  Paul  E 1,463 

Div.  of  Mammal  Curator  Fund 3,366 

Div.  of  Reptiles  Curator  Fund 1,006 

Drake,  Carl  J 283,815 

Dykes,  Charles    87,541 

Eickemeyer,  Florence  Brevoort 16,988 

Guggenheim,  David  and  Florence   .  .  .  238,898 
Hanson,  Martin  Gustav  and 

Caroline   Runice    18,077 

Henderson,  Edward  P.  Meteorite  Fund  623 

Hillyer,  Virgil    13,365 

Hitchcock,  Albert  S 2,464 

Hrdlicka,  Ales  and  Marie 95,780 

Hughes,  Bruce   29,910 

Johnson,  E.  R.  Fenimore   16,361 

Kellogg,  Remington,  Memorial   48,275 

Lindsey,  Jessie  H 587 

Loeb,  Morris    177,619 

Long,  Annette  E.  and  Edith  C 848 

Lyons,  Marcus  Ward .        8,778 

Maxwell,  Mary  E 30,650 

Myer,  Catherine  Walden 41,084 

$   3,809,559   $219,510   $ 



















































































































40  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Table  12.  Consolidated  Fund,  June  30, 1974 — continued 



Funds  participating  in  pool 

Book  value 

Market  1974  pended 

value      Net  income    balance 

Nelson,  Edward  William $       37,315  $      38,911  $   1,987  $ 

Noyes,  Frank  B 1,976  1,831  112  1,237 

Pell,  Cornelia  Livingston 15,091  13,414  818  5,849 

Petrocelli,  Joseph,  Memorial 11,582  13,033  665  8,540 

Ramsey,  Admiral  and  Mrs. 

DeWitt  Clinton   527,193  387,110  23,857  15,467 

Rathbun,  Richard,  Memorial   21,648  19,220  1,172  11,701 

Reid,  Addison  T 36,166  31,982  1,951  2,852 

Roebling  Collection    188,656  210,194  10,730  1,059 

Roebling  Solar  Research   50,163  41,324  2,521  962 

Rollins,  Miriam  and  William 298,674  296,708  14,862 

Ruef,  Bertha  M 63,809  45,991  2,101  2,809 

Smithsonian  Agency  Account 186,886  138,087  7,417 

Sprague,  Joseph  White    2,179,658  1,785,177  89,418  1,746 

Springer,  Frank 28,025  31,366  1,601  20,767 

Stevenson,  John  A 9,525  8,522  435  - 

Strong,  Julia  D 20,348  18,061  1,101  4,559 

T.F.H.  Publications,  Inc 13,539  9,554  523  9,816 

Walcott,  Charles  D 191,293  185,590  9,296  11,323 

Walcott,  Charles  D.  and  Mary  Vaux  719,110  804,766  41,084  20,114 

Walcott  Botanical  Publications   90,618  97,623  4,984  15 

Zerbee,  Francis  Brinckle   1,483  1,649  84  1,718 

Total  Restricted  Funds $  7,204,659  $  6,361,980  $332,666  $295,370 

Total  Consolidated  Funds $11,821,050  $10,171,539  $552,176  $295,370 


Financial  Report  I  41 

Table  13.  Endowment  and  Similar  Funds  Summary  of  Investments 

Book  value  Market  value 

Accounts  6/30/74  6/30/74 


Freer  Fund: 

Cash     $      544,442  $      544,442 

Bonds     2,755,871  2,559,139 

Convertible  Bonds    1,657,791  1,360,919 

Stocks    11,264,712  9,785,271 

Total    $16,222,816  $14,249,771 

Consolidated  Funds: 

Cash     $         91,898  $         91,898 

Bonds     2,981,194  2,785,227 

Convertible  Bonds    0  0 

Stocks    8,747,958  7,294,414 

Total    $11,821,050  $10,171,539 

Endowment  Fund  No.  3: 

Cash     $      108,931  $      108,931 

Bonds     2,996,566  2,916,807 

Convertible  Bonds    202,878  159,155 

Stocks    9,423,532  7,944,033 

Total    $12,731,907  $11,128,926 


Cash     $              731  $              731 

Bonds     9,769  9,100 

Common  Stocks    3,322  8,373 

Total    $         13,822  $         18,204 

Total  Investment  Accounts    $40,789,595  $35,568,440 

Other  Accounts: 

Notes   Receivable    $        49,966  $        49,966 

Loan  to  U.S.  Treasury  in  Perpetuity 1,000,000  1,000,000 

Total  Other  Accounts   $  1,049,966  $  1,049,966 

Total  Endowment  and  Similar  Fund  Balances  ....  $41,839,561  $36,618,406 

42  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Donors  to  the  Smithsonian 

The  Smithsonian  Institution  gratefully  acknowledges  gifts  and  be- 
quests received  during  fiscal  year  1974  from  the  following: 

$100,000  or  more: 

American  Bankers  Association 
The  Atlantic  Foundation 
Hillwood  Trust 

Mr.  Joseph  H.  Hirshhorn 
Estate  of  Paula  C.  Lambert 
The  Majorie  Merriweather  Post 
Foundation  of  D.C. 

$10,000  or  more: 

Alcoa  Foundation 

American  Philosophical  Society 


The  Arcadia  Foundation 

Estate  of  William  A.  Archer 

Batelle  Memorial  Institute 

Dr.  William  H.  Crocker 

John  Deere  Foundation 

The  Henry  L.  and  Grace  Doherty 

Charitable  Foundation,  Inc. 
Doubleday  &  Company,  Inc. 
Exxon  Corporation 
Max  C.  Fleischmann  Foundation 
The  Ford  Foundation 
Ford  Motor  Company 
Mary  L.  Griggs  and  Mary  G.  Burke 

The  Daniel  and  Florence  Guggenheim 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Herbert  E.  Hawkes 
Charles  Hayden  Foundation 
William  Randolph  Hearst  Foundation 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  J.  Heinz  II 
Mrs.  Ethel  R.  Holmes 
Houston  Endowment,  Inc. 

International  Business  Machines 

Interdisciplinary  Communication 

Associates,  Inc. 
J.  M.  Kaplan  Fund,  Inc. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Daniel  E.  Koshland 
Mr.  Edwin  A.  Link 
Andrew  W.  Mellon  Foundation 
Eugene  and  Agnes  E.  Meyer 

The  Mobil  Foundation,  Inc. 
The  Ambrose  Monell  Foundation 
National  Geographic  Society 
New  York  State  Council  on  the  Arts 
Edward  John  Noble  Foundation 
Phillip  Morris  Incorporated 
Janet  Neff  Charitable  Trust 
Estate  of  Marjorie  Merriweather  Post 
Rockefeller  Brothers  Fund 
Estate  of  Gertrude  Sampson 
Mississippi  State  Historical  Museum 
Miss  Alice  Tully 

The  Thomas  J.  Watson  Foundation 
United  Seamen's  Service 
Weatherhead  Foundation 
World  Wildlife  Fund 

$1,000  or  more: 

Mr.  Max  Abramovitz 
American  Express  Foundation 
American  Council  of  Learned 

American  Federation  of  Information 

Processing  Societies,  Inc. 
The  American  Foundation 

American  Institute  of  Marine 

American  Metal  Climax  Foundation 
Arthur  Anderson  and  Company 
Astillero  Nacional 
Bankers  Trust  Company 

Financial  Report  I  43 

$1,000  or  more — continued: 

Barra  Foundation 

Mr.  Hilary  Barratt-Brown 

Mrs.  Evelyn  F.  Bartlett 

The  Bedminster  Fund,  Inc. 

Beneficial  Fund,  Inc. 

Mrs.  Neville  J.  Booker 

Ms.  Beulah  Boyd 

Mr.  John  Nicholas  Brown 

Mr.  David  K.  E.  Bruce 

The  Burroughs  Wellcome  Fund 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Douglass  Campbell 

Caterpillar  Tractor  Company 

Celanese  Corporation  of  America 

Charron  Foundation 

General  Claire  Lee  Chennault 

Mrs.  Frances  K.  Clark 
The  Coca  Cola  Company 
Committee  for  Islamic  Culture 
Continental  Oil  Company 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Raymond  E.  Cox 
Mrs.  Alice  Crowley  Trust 
Cultural  Council  Foundation 
Ms.  Priscilla  Cunningham 
Ms.  Aileen  Curry-Cloonan 
Dana  Corporation  Foundation 
Mrs.  John  Dimick 

Cleveland  H.  Dodge  Foundation,  Inc. 
Earhart  Foundation 
The  Edipa  Foundation,  Inc. 
El  Paso  Natural  Gas  Company 
Dr.  William  L.  Elkins 
Elsa  Wild  Animal  Appeal 
Mr.  Alfred  U.  Elser,  Jr. 
Entomological  Society  of  America 
The  Eppley  Foundation  for  Research 
Mrs.  Ruth  M.  Epstein 
Fieldcrest  Mills,  Inc. 
First  National  Bank  of  Miami 
General  Electric  Company 
General  Telephone  &  Electronics 

Mrs.  Rebecca  D.  Gibson 
Mr.  Alfred  C.  Glassell,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joshua  A.  Gollin 
Mrs.  Katherine  Graham 
Great  Lakes  Aircraft  Co. 
Mr.  Felix  Guggenheim 

Mr.  M.  D.  Guinness 

Mrs.  David  L.  Guyer 

Hallmark  Educational  Foundation 

Mr.  Wallace  K.  Harrison 

Hiram  Walker  &  Sons,  Inc. 

Hoover  Foundation 

Institute  of  International 

International  Association  of  Plant 

International  Rectifier  Corporation 
International  Telephone  and 

Telegraph  Corporation 
The  Island  Foundation 
Janss  Foundation 
The  Johnson  Foundation,  Inc. 
J.  D.  R.  3rd  Fund,  Inc. 
Mr.  James  Ellwood  Jones,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Merri  Jones 
Mrs.  Ruth  Cole  Kainen 
Atwater  Kent  Foundation,  Inc. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Judd  Kessler 
Keystone  Shipping  Co. 
Kidder  Peabody  Foundation 
Mr.  Irving  B.  Kingsford 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Kinnaird 
Kominers,  Fort,  Schlefer  &  Boyer 
Mr.  Edward  F.  Kook 
Mr.  David  Lloyd  Kreeger 
S.  S.  Kresge  Company 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Rodney  M.  Layton 
Lilly  Endowment,  Inc. 
Mr.  Charles  A.  Lindbergh 
Mr.  Harold  F.  Linder 
The  Link  Foundation 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  Lorentz 
The  Lykes  Foundation,  Inc. 
Maritime  Overseas  Corporation 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  A.  Marsteller 
Townsend  B.  Martin  Charitable 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Mayer 
McDonald's  Corporation 
Mr.  Forrest  L.  Merrill 
Mobil  Foundation,  Inc. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harry  C.  Nail,  Jr. 
National  Bank  of  Detroit 
National  Council  on  Productivity 

44  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

$1,000  or  more — continued: 

National  Research  Council 
National  Steel  and  Shipbuilding 

Northrop  Corporation 
Northwest  Industries  Foundation,  Inc. 
Olin  Corporation  Charitable  Trust 
Ourisman  Foundation,  Inc. 
Palisades  Foundation,  Inc. 
Mr.  Perry  R.  Pease 
J.  C.  Penney  Company,  Inc. 
The  Pioneer  Foundation 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Feodor  U.  Pitcairn 
Polaroid  Foundation,  Inc. 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  John  A.  Pope 
Propeller  Club  of  U.S.,  Port  of 

New  York 
R.  J.  Reynolds  Industries,  Inc. 
Miss  Esther  M.  Ridder 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  C.  Rinzler 
Dr.  5.  Dillon  Ripley 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  G.  Roe 
Schubert  Foundation 
Miss  Elsie  Shaver 
Shipbuilders  Council  of  America 
Sidney  Printing  and  Publishing  Co. 

Stacks  Coin  Company 

Miss  Elizabeth  Stein 

Mrs.  Alice  T.  Strong 

Sumner  Gerard  Foundation 

Todd  Shipyards  Corporation 

T.R.W.  Foundation,  Inc. 

Trust  of  Georgia  Foundation 


University  of  Michigan 

Mr.  Arthur  K.  Watson 

Mr.  Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr. 

Ellen  Bayard  Weedon  Foundation 

Mr.  Christopher  A.  Weeks 

Mr.  Kermit  A.  Weeks 

Miss  Leslie  Anne  Weeks 

Wells  Fargo  Bank 

Wenner-Gren  Foundation 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Albert  Whiting 

Elsie  de  Wolfe  Foundation,  Inc. 

Women's  Committee  of  the 

Smithsonian  Institution 
Woodheath  Foundation,  Inc. 
Charles  W.  Wright  Foundation  of 

Badger  Meter,  Inc. 
Wunsch  American  Foundation 

$500  or  more: 

American  Airlines,  Inc. 


AVCO  Corporation 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  C.  Baldwin 

Mr.  Harry  Hood  Bassett 

Mr.  Arthur  W.  Bedell 

Brotherton-DiGiorgio  Corporation 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  Emery  Buffum 

Mrs.  W.  Randolph  Burgess 

Mr.  Carter  Cafritz 

Charities  Aid  Fund 

China  Airlines 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  T.  Choy 

Mr.  R.  Coaley 

Mr.  Sheldon  R.  Coons 

Mr.  John  M.  Crawford,  Jr. 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Willis  N.  Dickens 

Mrs.  Helen  W.  Edey 

Educational  Audio  Visual,  Inc. 

Emery  Air  Freight 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  H.  Fisher 

Mr.  Robert  B.  Flint 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  W.  Fuller  III 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Carl  E.  Gericke 

The  B.  F.  Goodrich  Company 

Guide  Foundation 

Edith  G.  Halpert  Foundation 

Mrs.  Francis  Head 

Institute  of  Psychiatry  and 

Foreign  Affairs 
The  IX  Foundation 
S.  C.  Johnson  and  Son,  Inc. 
Mr.  E.  P.  Jones 
Josten  Fund,  Inc. 
Mr.  James  G.  Kenan 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Fleming  Law 
James  A.  MacDonald  Foundation 
The  Magnavox  Foundation 
Mrs.  Margaret  McClellan 
Ellen  McCluskey  Associates 

Financial  Report  I  45 

$500  or  more — continued: 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  McGreevey 

Mr.  Henry  P.  Mcllhenny 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  K.  M.  McLaren 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Leo  A.  McNalley 

Mr.  Robert  L.  McNeil,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  W.  Meiers 

Mrs.  Constance  L.  Mellen 

Mr.  Paul  Mellon 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Matthew  Michiewicz 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  H.  Miller 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bernard  Nath 

The  Nature  Conservancy 

Nautilus  Foundation,  Inc. 

Mr.  Otto  Natzler 

Mr.  Edward  Neinken 

Mr.  Mortimer  Neinken 

PACCAR  Foundation 

Mr.  Carl  H.  Pforzheimer,  Jr. 
Mr.  John  Shedd  Reed 
Dr.  Ira  Rubinoff 
Santa  Fe  Industries,  Inc. 
The  Norine  and  Ottilie 

Schillig  Foundation,  Inc. 
Mr.  Sidney  N.  Shure 
Shuttleworth  Carton  Co. 
Mr.  Robert  H.  Smith 
E.  R.  Squibb  and  Sons,  Inc. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Irwin  R.  Stone 
Levi  Strauss  Foundation 
Strayer  College 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  L.  Tishman 
Mr.  Chi-Chuan  Wang 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  I.  Westcott 
Winn-Dixie  Stores,  Inc. 

We  also  gratefully  acknowledge  other  contributions  in  the  amount 
of  $229,197.80  received  from  more  than  5,000  contributors  in  fiscal 
year  1974. 

46  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 




WASHINGTON,  D.  C.  20036 

The  Board  of  Regents 
Smithsonian  Institution: 

We  have  examined  the  balance  sheet  of  the  Private  Funds  of  Smith- 
sonian Institution  as  of  June  30,  1974  and  the  related  statement  of 
changes  in  fund  balances  for  the  year  then  ended.  Such  statements 
do  not  include  the  accounts  of  the  National  Gallery  of  Art,  the  John 
F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts,  nor  other  departments, 
bureaus  and  operations  administered  by  the  Institution  under  Fed- 
eral appropriations  as  detailed  in  note  3  to  the  financial  statements. 
Our  examination  was  made  in  accordance  with  generally  accepted 
auditing  standards,  and  accordingly  included  such  tests  of  the  ac- 
counting records  and  such  other  auditing  procedures  as  we  consid- 
ered necessary  in  the  circumstances. 

In  our  opinion,  the  aforementioned  financial  statements  present 
fairly  the  financial  position  of  the  Private  Funds  of  Smithsonian 
Institution  at  June  30,  1974  and  the  changes  in  its  fund  balances  for 
the  year  then  ended,  in  conformity  with  generally  accepted  account- 
ing principles  which,  except  for  the  changes  referred  to  in  note  la 
to  the  financial  statements,  with  which  we  concur,  have  been  applied 
on  a  basis  consistent  with  that  of  the  preceding  year. 


September  5, 1974 

Financial  Report  I  47 


Balance  Sheet 

June  30,  1974 

(with  comparative  figures  for  1973) 

Assets  1974                 1973 



In  U.  S.  Treasury    $      139,352            293,324 

In  banks  and  on  hand    651,485            413,499 

Total  cash    790,837             706,823 

Investments  (note  2)   8,298,318         6,223,305 

Receivables : 

Accounts,  less  allowance  for  doubtful  accounts 

of  $200,000  ($194,486  in  1973)    1,247,671             935,486 

Advances  —  travel  and  other    203,705            172,568 

Reimbursement  —  grants  and  contracts    2,261,103         1,061,872 

Due  from  agency  funds   136,151                        - 

Total   receivables    3,848,630          2,169,926 

Inventories      780,054             602,254 

Prepaid  expenses    420,272            456,659 

Deferred  expenses    1,208,561            769,670 

Total  current  funds   $15,346,672       10,928,637 


Cash  and  receivables  for  securities  sold 506,035  359,353 

Notes    receivable    49,966  51,486 

Due  from  current  funds   239,967  - 

Investments   (note  2)    40,043,593  41,266,827 

Loan  to  U.  S.  Treasury  in  perpetuity  at  6%   1,000,000  1,000,000 

Total  endowment  and  similar  funds   $41,839,561  42,677,666 


Due  from  current  funds   1,934,519  938,480 

Real  estate  (note  5)    4,847,870  3,471,825 

Equipment,  less  accumulated  depreciation  of 

$409,830  ($303,385  in  1973)  (note  4) 237,025  328,107 

Total  plant  funds   $  7,019,414  4,738,412 


Investments    10,000  - 

Due  from  current  funds   213,100  130,814 

Total  agency  funds    $      223,100  130,814 

See  accompanying  notes  to  financial  statements. 


Balance  Sheet 

June  30,  1974 
(with  comparative  figures  for  1973) 

Liabilities  and  Fund  Balances  1974                 1973 


Accounts  payable  and  accrued  liabilities   $  2,596,331         1,701,665 

Due  to  plant  funds    1,934,519            938,480 

Due  to  agency  funds   213,100            130,814 

Due  to  endowment  and  similar  funds 239,967                        - 

Deferred  income: 

Magazine    subscriptions    3,645,757          2,746,892 

Other     334,955             290,560 

Total  liabilities    8,964,629          5,808,411 

Fund  balances: 

General  purpose    3,066,594          2,292,017 

Special    purpose    460,544             201,491 

Total    unrestricted  3,527,138          2,493,508 

Restricted            2,854,905          2,626,718 

Total  fund  balances 6,382,043         5,120,226 

Total  current  funds    $15,346,672       10,928,637 

Fund  balances: 

Endowment     34,999,970       35,844,768 

Quasi-endowment : 

Restricted    2,286,057          2,304,158 

Unrestricted      4,553,534          4,528,740 

Total   quasi-endowment    6,839,591         6,832,898 

Total  endowment  and  similar  funds    $41,839,561       42,677,666 


Note   payable   (note   4)    191,843             295,761 

Mortgage  notes  payable  (note  5)    349,617             432,534 

Accrued  liabilities    36,832                       - 

Fund  balances: 
Acquisition  fund: 

Unrestricted     933,661 

Restricted      964,026             938,480 

1,897,687  938,480 

Investment  in  plant 4,543,435          3,071,637 

Total  plant  funds   $  7,019,414          4,738,412 


Due  to  current  funds 136,151                         — 

Deposits  held  in  custody  for  others 86,949            130,814 

Total  agency  funds   $      223,100            130,814 

Statement  of  Changes  in  Fund  Balances 

Year  ended  June  30, 1974 

Total  Total 

current         unrestricted 
funds  funds 


Auxiliary  enterprises  revenue $12,615,044       12,615,044  j 

Federal  grants  and  contracts    9,967,552                       —f 

Investment  income  (net  of  $108,752  management 

and  custodian  fees)      2,158,982            729,476 

Gains  (losses)  on  sale  of  securities  (16,243)           (16,243 

Gifts,  bequests,  and  foundation  grants    2,503,499            533,824 

Additions  to  equity  in  real  estate  and 

capitalized  equipment  (including  $110,000  of 

land  acquired  in  prior  year)   — 

Rentals,  fees,  and  commissions   618,773            618,773 

Other  —  net 753,409            207,308 

Total  revenue  and  other  additions  28,601,016       14,688,182 


Research  and  educational  expenditures   12,662,553            695,060 

Administrative  expenditures   3,386,476            916,804 

Auxiliary  enterprises  expenditures    10,619,160       10,619,160 

Expended  for  real  estate  and  equipment   — 

Retirement  of  indebtedness — 

Interest  on  indebtedness   — 

Depreciation   — 

Total  expenditures  and  other  deductions 26,668,189       12,231,024 


Mandatory  —  principal  and  interest  on  note   (103,917)         (103,917) 

Portion  of  investment  gain  appropriated   355,376              34,321 

For  plant  acquisition (1,015,000)      (1,015,000) 

Income  added  to  endowment  principal   (71,106)                      - 

Appropriated  as  quasi-endowment    (100,446)         (100,446) 

For  designated  purposes    (35,917)         (238,486) 

Endowment    released    300,000                       — 

Net  increase  in  activities   —                       —  "' 


Total  transfers  among  funds  —  additions  (deductions)    .  .  .  (671,010)      (1,423,528); 

Net  increase  (decrease)  for  the  year 1,261,817         1,033,630 

Fund  balances  at  June  30,  1973   5,120,226         2,493,508 

Fund  balances  at  June  30,  1974   $  6,382,043         3,527,138 

See  accompanying  notes  to  financial  statements. 

50  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Current  funds 


general  Activities     purposes     Restricted 


and  similar 


Plant  funds 

Acquisition      in  plant 

12,473,118       141,926 


259,881       123,357 




-       106,994 
2,224  31,287 


,546,231    12,735,223   406,728   13,912,834 


-   1,583,504 
144,859     (5,261) 

1,332,361   1,578,243 

-   123,824   11,967,493 
461,298    12,532    2,469,672 
10,503,508   115,652 












































•  — 











































;  242,556 
;  774,577 

















Financial  Report  I  51 

Notes  to  Financial  Statements 

June  30, 1974 

1.  Summary  of  Significant  Accounting  Policies 

a.  Accrual  Basis  —  The  financial  statements  of  Smithsonian  Institution  have 
been  prepared  on  the  accrual  basis,  except  for  depreciation  accounting  as 
explained  in  note  Ig  below,  and  are  in  conformity  with  generally  accepted 
accounting  principles  included  in  the  recently  issued  American  Institute  of 
Certified  Public  Accountants  Audit  Guide  "Audits  of  Colleges  and  Univer- 
sities". In  accordance  with  the  requirements  of  the  Guide,  annual  leave 
and  interest  income  on  endowment  and  similar  fund  investments  have 
been  accrued  at  June  30,  1974  and,  in  addition,  certain  changes  in  financial 
statement  classification  have  been  adopted.  The  effect  of  such  changes  in 
classifications  on  beginning  fund  balances  is  as  follows: 

Endowment  and 
similar  funds 

Current  funds  q^^^,-.  p;^„f        ^ge«cj/ 

Unrestricted  Restricted    Endowment  endowment      funds  funds 

Balance  at 
June  30,  1973 
as  previously 
reported  $2,323,958       3,897,908      36,913,730      5,763,936     3,039,291 

Reclassify  fund 
restricted  for 
and  acquisi- 
tion of  real 
estate  -        (938,480)  -  -        938,480 

Reclassify  funds 
that  are  inter- 
nally restricted 
by  the  Insti- 
tution 201,896        (201,896)  -  _  _  _ 

Net  assets 
transferred  to 
plant  fund  (32,346)  _  _  _  32,346 

Reclassify  mis- 
funds  to 
agency  status  -        (130,814)  _  _  _     i30,814 


endowments  -  -      (1,068,962)     1,068,962  -  - 

Balance  at 
June  30,  1973 
as  restated         $2,493,508       2,626,718      35,844,768      6,832,898     4,010,117     130,814 

Current  funds  used  to  finance  the  acquisition  of  plant  assets  and  for  pro- 
visions for  debt  amortization  and  interest  are  accounted  for  as  transfers 
to  the  plant  fund. 

Fund  Accounting  —  In  order  to  ensure  observance  of  limitations  and  re- 
strictions placed  on  the  use  of  the  resources  available  to  the  Institution, 
the  accounts  of  the  Institution  are  maintained  in  accordance  with  the  prin- 

52  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

ciples  of  "fund  accounting".  This  is  the  procedure  by  which  resources  for 
various  purposes  are  classified  for  accounting  and  reporting  purposes  into 
funds  that  are  in  accordance  with  activities  or  objectives  specified.  Separate 
accounts  are  maintained  for  each  fund;  however,  in  the  accompanying 
financial  statements,  funds  that  have  similar  characteristics  have  been  com- 
bined into  fund  groups.  Accordingly,  all  financial  transactions  have  been 
recorded  and  reported  by  fund  group. 

Within  each  fund  group,  fund  balances  restricted  by  outside  sources  are  so 
indicated  and  are  distinguished  from  unrestricted  funds  allocated  to  spe- 
cific purposes  by  action  of  the  governing  board.  Externally  restricted  funds 
may  only  be  utilized  in  accordance  with  the  purposes  established  by  the 
source  of  such  funds  and  are  in  contrast  with  unrestricted  funds  over  which 
the  governing  board  retains  full  control  to  use  in  achieving  any  of  its 
institutional  purposes. 

Endowment  funds  are  subject  to  the  restrictions  of  gift  instruments  requir- 
ing in  perpetuity  that  the  principal  be  invested  and  the  income  only  be 
utilized.  Also  classified  as  endowment  funds  are  gifts  which  will  allow  the 
expenditure  of  principal  but  only  under  certain  specified  conditions. 

Unrestricted  quasi-endowment  funds  have  been  established  by  the  govern- 
ing board  for  the  same  purposes  as  endowment  funds,  any  portion  of  such 
funds  may  be  expended.  Restricted  quasi-endowment  funds  represent  giftt 
for  restricted  purposes  where  there  is  no  stipulation  that  the  principal  be 
maintained  in  perpetuity  or  for  a  period  of  time,  but  the  governing  board 
has  elected  to  invest  the  principal  and  expend  only  the  income  for  the  pur- 
pose stipulated  by  the  donor. 

All  gains  and  losses  arising  from  the  sale,  collection,  or  other  disposition 
of  investments  and  other  noncash  assets  are  accounted  for  in  the  fund 
which  owned  such  assets.  Ordinary  income  derived  from  investments,  re- 
ceivables, and  the  like,  is  accounted  for  in  the  fund  owning  such  assets, 
except  for  income  derived  from  investments  of  endowment  and  similar 
funds,  which  income  is  accounted  for  in  the  fund  to  which  it  is  restricted 
or,  if  unrestricted,  as  revenues  in  unrestricted  current  funds. 

All  other  unrestricted  revenue  is  accounted  for  in  the  unrestricted  current 
fund.  Restricted  gifts,  grants,  endowment  income,  and  other  restricted  re- 
sources are  accounted  for  in  the  appropriate  restricted  funds. 

c.  Investments  are  recorded  at  cost  or  fair  market  value  at  date  of  acquisition 
when  acquired  by  gift. 

d.  Inventories  are  carried  at  lower  of  average  cost  or  net  realizable  value. 

e.  Income  and  expenses  in  respect  to  the  Institution's  magazine  and  associates' 
activities  are  deferred  and  taken  into  income  and  expense  over  the  appli- 
cable periods  and  are  reported  in  the  activities  section  of  the  current 
unrestricted  funds. 

f.  Endowment  and  Similar  Fund  Investments  —  The  Institution  utilizes  the 
"total  return"  approach  to  investment  management  of  endowment  funds 
and  quasi-endowment  funds.  Under  this  approach,  the  total  investment 
return  is  considered  to  include  realized  and  unrealized  gains  and  losses  in 
addition  to  interest  and  dividends.  In  applying  this  approach,  it  is  the  Insti- 
tution's policy  to  provide  4V2%  of  the  five  year  average  of  the  market  value 
of  each  fund  (adjusted  for  gifts  and  transfers  during  this  period)  as  being 
available  for  current  expenditures;  however,  where  the  market  value  of 
the  assets  of  any  fund  is  less  than  110%  of  the  historic  dollar  value  (value 
of  gifts  at  date  of  donation)  the  amount  provided  is  limited  to  only  interest 
and  dividends  received. 

Financial  Report  I  53 

g.  Plant  Fund  Assets  —  Plant  fund  assets  are  recorded  as  follows: 

Museum  shop  and  computer  equipment  purchased  with  Private  Funds  is 
capitalized  in  the  plant  fund  at  cost,  and  is  depreciated  on  a  straight-line 
basis  over  an  estimated  useful  life  of  five  years. 

Real  estate  (land  and  buildings)  are  recorded  in  the  plant  fund  at  cost, 
to  the  extent  that  restricted  or  unrestricted  funds  were  expended  therefor, 
or  appraised  value  at  date  of  gift,  except  for  gifts  of  certain  islands  in 
Chesapeake  Bay,  Carnegie  Mansion,  and  Hillwood  Estate  which  have 
been  recorded  at  nominal  values.  Depreciation  on  buildings  is  not  re- 

All  the  other  land  and  buildings  (principally  acquired  with  Federal  funds), 
fixtures,  equipment,  works  of  art,  living  or  other  specimens  are  not  re- 
flected in  the  accompanying  financial  statements. 

Funds,  previously  recorded  in  the  current  funds  group,  whose  purpose  is 
for  construction  and  acquisition  of  plant  assets,  have  been  reclassified  to 
plant  funds. 

h.  Agency  Funds  —  The  agency  funds   group  consists  of  funds   held   by   the 
Institution  as  custodian  or  fiscal  agent  for  others. 

i.   Pension  Costs  —  All  pension  costs  are  funded  as  accrued. 

2.  Investments 

Quoted  market  values  and  carrying  values  of  investments  (all  marketable 
securities)  of  the  funds  indicated  were  as  follows: 

Endowment  and  similar 

Total  investments 

June  3C 

),  3974 

June  3D 

1,  2973 





$  8,298,318 












Total  investment  performance  is  summarized  below: 

Net  gains  (losses) 


Unrealized  gains  (losses) : 

June  30,  1974    $(327,230) 

June  30,  1973   (145,079) 

Increase  in  unrealized 

gains  (losses)  for  year        (182,151) 
Realized  net  losses  for  year  .  .  .  (16,243) 

Total  net  losses  for  year     $(198,394) 

Endowment  and 
similar  funds 








Assets  of  the  endowment  and  similar  funds  having  a  carrying  value  of 
$11,845,384  are  pooled  on  "a  market  value  basis  (consolidated  fund)  with 
each  individual  fund  subscribing  to  or  disposing  of  units  on  the  basis  of 

54  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

the  value  per  unit  at  market  value  at  the  beginning  of  the  calendar  quarter 
within  which  the  transaction  takes  place.  Of  the  total  units  each  having  a 
market  value  of  $84.60  ($105.22  in  1973),  67,856  units  were  owned  by  en- 
dowment, and  52,665  units  by  quasi-endowment  at  June  30,  1974. 

3.  Related  Activities 

Federal  appropriations,  which  are  not  reflected  in  the  accompanying  finan- 
'  cial  statements,  provide  major  support  for  the  operations  and  administration 
of  the  educational  and  research  programs  of  the  Institution's  many  mu- 
seums, art  galleries  and  other  bureaus,  as  well  as  for  the  maintenance  and 
construction  of  related  buildings  and  facilities.  In  addition,  land,  buildings 
and  other  assets  acquired  with  Federal  funds  are  not  reflected  in  the  accom- 
panying financial  statements. 

The  following  Federal  appropriations  were  received  by  the  Institution  for 
the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1974 : 

Operating   funds    $60,562,900 

Special  foreign  currency  program   4,500,000 

Construction  funds   21,860,000 


4.  Note  Payable 

The  note  payable  in  the  principal  amount  of  $191,843  ($295,761  in  1973) 
which  is  non-interest  bearing,  is  secured  by  computer  equipment  and  is 
payable  in  monthly  installments  of  $7,993  to  June  30,  1976. 

5.  Mortgage  Notes  Payable 

The  mortgage  notes  payable  are  secured  by  first  deeds  of  trust  on  property 
acquired  in  connection  with  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center.  The  details  of  the 
mortgage  notes  payable  are  as  follows: 

June  30, 

1974  1973 

Mortgage  note,  payable  in  semi-annual  installments 
of  $13,300,  plus  interest  at  the  prevailing  prime 
rate  at  the  due  date  of  the  installment  payment 
but  not  less  than  8%,  due  July  1,  1980 $172,900     199,500 

6%  mortgage  note  payable,  due  in  monthly  install- 
ments of  $451  including  interest,  due  November  1, 
1989     36,717        33,034 

6%  mortgage  note,  payable  in  semi-annual  install- 
ments of  $10,000,  plus  interest,  due  November  7, 
1979     110,000     140,000 

7%   mortgage  note,  payable  in  annual  installments 

of  $30,000,  plus  interest,  due  November  1,  1974 30,000       60,000 

$349,617     432,534 

6.  Pension  Plan 

The  Institution  has  a  contributory  pension  plan  providing  for  the  purchase 
of  retirement  annuity  contracts  for  all  employees  meeting  certain  age  and 
length  of  service  requirements.  Under  terms  of  the  plan,  the  Institution 
contributes  the  amount  necessary  to  bring  the  total  contribution  to  12%  of 
the  participants'  compensation  subject  to  social  security  taxes  and  to  17% 
of  the  participants'  compensation  in  excess  of  that  amount.  The  total  pen- 
sion expense  for  the  year  was  $729,068  ($688,782  in  1973). 

Financial  Report  I  55 

The  Queen  of  Thailand  and  His  Excellency  The  Ambassador  of  Thailand  are  greeted  by 

Dr.  Edward  S.  Ayensu  (right).  Chairman  of  the  Department  of  Botany  and  then  Acting 

Director  of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  and  Mr.  Meredith  Johnson  (left). 

Special  Events  Officer,  upon  their  visit  to  the  Museum. 


Smithsonian  Year  •  1974 


The  past  year  in  Science  was  characterized  by  a  steady  progress 
toward  the  goals  outhned  at  the  first  institutional  priorities  confer- 
ence at  Belmont  in  1973.  In  addition,  efforts  were  directed  to  re- 
appraising and  redefining  certain  management  structures  in  order  to 
find  new  and  better  methods  to  build  on  to  traditional  strengths. 
This  effort  is  in  line  with  the  discussions  resulting  from  the  Institu- 
tion's second  priorities  conference  last  February. 

The  Museum  of  Natural  History  focused  attention  this  past  year 
on  its  educational  role,  exploring  new  avenues  to  enrich  the  visitors' 
experience.  The  formation  of  an  in-house  exhibits  committee  was  a 
first  step  in  the  Museum's  desire  to  seek  new  directions  in  exhibitry. 
The  opening  of  the  Touch  Exhibit  focused  the  public's  attention  on 
alternate  methods  to  the  traditional  museum  experience. 

The  National  Zoological  Park  obtained  a  permit  to  the  former 
Army  Remount  Station  at  Front  Royal,  Virginia,  for  use  as  a  breed- 
ing farm,  especially  for  endangered  species.  The  new  facility,  it  is 
hoped,  will  allow  for  increased  propagation  of  rare  animals,  away 
from  the  limited  space  of  Rock  Creek  Park. 

Early  in  the  fiscal  year,  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observa- 
tory joined  with  the  Harvard  College  Observatory  to  form  the  Cen- 
ter for  Astrophysics.  The  new  arrangement  has  led  to  more  flexibility 
in  personnel  and  programs,  increasing  joint  resources  for  maximum 

The  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies  continued 
to  progress  toward  a  goal  of  increased  educational  opportunities  for 
neighboring  schools  and  disadvantaged  urban  youth.  A  new  build- 
ing, which  will  house  the  educational  and  visitor  orientation  activi- 
ties, was  planned  and  bids  were  received  for  the  work.  The  new 



building  will  release  office  and  lab  space  now  jointly  used  for  re- 
search and  educational  activities.  Another  program  undertaken  was 
the  Information  Transfer  Program  which  translates  scientific  results 
into  forms  that  can  be  useful  to  planners  and  government  officials. 
Money  for  this  program  was  made  available  from  the  Edward  John 
Noble  Foundation. 

The  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute  (stri)  underwent 
a  change  of  directorship  this  past  year  with  the  return  of  Dr.  Martin 
Moynihan  to  his  research  as  Senior  Scientist  at  stri.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Dr.  Ira  Rubinoff,  who  previously  served  as  Assistant 
Director  at  the  facility.  The  research  undertaken  at  stri  continued 
to  be  primarily  concerned  with  basic  scientific  questions  of  the  evo- 
lutionary and  ecological  adaptations  of  tropical  organisms.  An  in- 
creased education  program  was  undertaken  with  grants  received 
from  the  Henry  L.  and  Grace  Doherty  and  Edward  John  Noble 

The  National  Air  and  Space  Museum's  new  building  continued  on 
schedule  and  within  the  budget  began  to  rise  and  take  form  on  the 
Mall  this  past  year  with  much  of  the  staff's  time  being  spent  on  the 
preparation  of  exhibits  that  will  be  displayed  in  the  new  quarters. 
The  formation  of  the  Center  for  Earth  and  Planetary  Studies  in  the 
Museum  provides  the  basis  for  a  scientific  research  arm  in  lunar 

The  Office  of  International  and  Environmental  Programs  was  es- 
tablished this  past  year  combining  the  Offices  of  International 
Activities  and  Environmental  Sciences.  The  new  Office  is  designed 
to  further  increase  opportunities  for  the  Smithsonian  to  conduct  re- 
search abroad  in  its  traditional  strengths  in  collection-based  natural 
history  to  the  comparatively  new  area  of  environmental  studies. 
Wymberley  Coerr,  a  career  foreign  service  officer  who  served  as 
Ambassador  to  Ecuador  and  Uruguay,  was  appointed  to  head  the 

In  the  past  year,  Smithsonian  support  of  conservation  in  the  Gala- 
pagos Islands  has  increased  substantially  in  response  to  a  significant 
rise  in  the  number  of  contributions  earmarked  for  Galapagos  work. 
Aided  by  the  Research  Station's  new  director,  Craig  MacFarland, 
administration  and  equipment  have  been  markedly  strengthened, 
and  research  expanded  to  include  a  marine  biological  survey,  to  help 
determine  the  limits  of  the  National  Park.  In  addition,  two  Smith- 

58  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

sonian  research  teams  have  recently  visited  the  islands,  one  to  con- 
tinue studies  of  volcanic  activity  of  Isla  Fernandina  and  the  other  to 
begin  a  study  of  finches  and  orb-weaving  arachnids.  Educational 
programs  in  the  islands  were  augmented  by  the  Smithsonian  helping 
to  fund  a  volunteer  from  the  Catholic  Institute  for  International  Re- 
lations, who  is  teaching  biology,  natural  history,  and  conservation 
as  well  as  aiding  in  the  marine  survey.  Additionally,  a  Sl-Peace 
Corps  volunteer  is  working  on  the  design  of  exhibits  to  the  new 
Van-Straelen  musuem/lecture  hall,  which  will  provide  natural  his- 
tory instruction  for  both  tourists  and  Galapaguefios. 

The  Smithsonian  once  again  played  a  significant  role  in  national 
and  international  affairs.  Smithsonian  scientists  and  administrators 
provided  representatives  and  advisory  services  to  the  Council  on 
Environmental  Quality,  the  Department  of  the  Interior,  the  Institute 
of  Ecology,  the  First  International  Congress  of  Systematic  and  Evo- 
lutionary Biology,  the  Asia  Society,  the  Bahamas  National  Trust,  and 
the  World  Wildlife  Fund.  The  staff  has  traveled  to  diverse  places  in 
the  United  States  and  abroad  including  the  Bahamas,  the  United 
Kingdom,  Switzerland,  India,  and  Nepal.  Smithsonian  scientists  con- 
tinued their  fruitful  collaboration  with  foreign  institutions  on  every 
continent  and  provided  technical  assistance  on  environmental 

Details  of  these  concerns  and  scientific  accomplishments  in  other 
areas  of  research  by  the  individual  bureaus,  in  fiscal  year  1974, 

Center  for  the  Study  of  Man 

Over  the  past  year  the  Center  for  the  Study  of  Man  has  expanded 
and  sharpened  its  research  activities  in  the  human  sciences.  From 
August  26  to  September  2, 1973,  three  conferences  organized  by  the 
Center  were  held  in  Oshkosh,  Wisconsin.  Two  more  conferences 
were  held  during  the  same  period  at  Chicago,  Illinois.  Immediately 
following  these  meetings  each  of  the  conferences  reported  its  find- 
ings to  the  assembled  attendees  at  the  IXth  International  Congress 
of  Anthropological  and  Ethnological  Sciences  meeting  in  Chicago, 
Illinois,  from  September  3  to  10.  The  5  sessions  organized  by  the 

Science  I  59 

Center  for  the  Study  of  Man  were:  (1)  cross-cultural  uses  of  can- 
nibus;  (2)  cross-cultural  uses  of  alcohol;  (3)  examination  of  a  gen- 
eral theory  of  cultural  transmission;  (4)  cultural  consequences  of 
population  change;  and  (5)  economic  development  in  seven  selected 
American  Indian  groups.  Each  of  these  research  projects  was  an  out- 
come of  the  Center's  program  to  relate  anthropology  and  the  human 
sciences  to  modern  worldwide  problems.  All  reports  are  now  in  one 
or  another  stage  of  preparation  for  publication. 

Specifically,  the  cannibus  report  is  in  press,  and  it  constitutes  the 
first  well-documented  report  of  cannibus  usage  on  a  worldwide 
basis.  The  coverage  is  not  complete,  but  it  constitutes  a  beginning 
and  lays  the  groundwork  for  an  accelerated  growth  of  knowledge 
in  the  immediate  future.  The  papers  in  the  alcohol  volume,  also  in  j 
press,  testify  to  the  increasing  worldwide  sophistication  of  human  j 
scientists  about  alcohol  usage  and  its  perception  in  cultures  around 
the  world.  The  general  theory  of  cultural  transmission  considers 
education  as  a  special  case.  Because  Western-style  formal  education 
is  so  pervasive,  it  is  especially  important  to  learn  more  about  other 
perspectives  on  cultural  transmission.  The  results  of  the  conference 
on  population  are  in  press,  but  the  project  is  not  yet  complete.  A 
number  of  participants  from  developing  countries  met  in  Bucharest, 
Rumania,  in  August  to  go  over  papers  that  have  come  out  of  the  j 
Oshkosh  and  Chicago  meetings.  The  American  Indian  economic  de- 
velopment study  is  in  press  and  should  appear  within  a  year. 

Manuscripts  for  the  forthcoming  encyclopedic  Handbook  of 
North  American  Indians  continue  to  arrive  daily.  The  editorial  office, 
with  the  assistance  of  volume  editors  in  various  parts  of  the  country, 
is  editing  these  works  for  publication  in  1976. 

The  Research  Institute  on  Immigration  and  Ethnic  Studies,  under 
the  direction  of  Dr.  Roy  Bryce-Laporte,  has  been  supervising  re- 
search in  Costa  Rica  and  Panama.  In  particular,  it  has  focused  on  the 
West  Indian  adaptation  and  experience  in  both  of  these  countries. 
It  has  also  been  reviewing  policy  implications  of  migration  and 
some  contemporary  perspectives  on  alienation. 

In  June  1974,  a  National  Anthropological  Film  Center  was  estab- 
lished within  the  Center  for  the  Study  of  Man.  It  is  charged  with  the 
preservation  and  study  of"  visual  information  on  vanishing  and 
changing  ways  of  life. 

60  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 

The  three  programs  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environ- 
mental Studies  —  scientific  research,  information  transfer,  and  en- 
vironmental education  —  were  marked  by  expansion  and  innovation 
during  1974. 

At  the  2500-acre  Center  near  Annapolis,  a  long-term  study  of  the 
Rhode  River  watershed  continues  with  nsf-rann  (National  Science 
Foundation-Research  AppUed  to  National  Needs)  as  the  major 
source  of  funding.  The  current  grant  extends  through  September 
1974  and  was  made  through  the  Chesapeake  Research  Consortium, 
composed  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  the  Johns  Hopkins  Uni- 
versity, the  University  of  Maryland,  and  the  Virginia  Institute  of 
Marine  Science. 

Thirteen  NSF-funded  projects  are  underway  at  the  Center.  They 
are  part  of  the  Consortium's  effort  to  determine  the  environmental 
impact  of  alternate  levels  of  sewage  effluent  loading  in  specified  parts 
of  the  Bay. 

The  Center's  contribution  is  to  provide  understanding  of  the  bio- 
logical functioning  of  an  ecosystem  and  from  this  to  devise  methods 
for  determining  the  impact  of  sewage  effluent.  Projects  include  in- 
vestigations of  the  amount  of  groundwater  and  runoff  in  the  Rhode 
River  watershed,  the  circulation  patterns  of  the  estuary,  and  the 
water  exchange  with  the  Bay.  Water  samples  collected  at  stations  in 
the  estuary  are  analyzed  for  chemical  content. 

Stream  gauging  wiers  were  constructed  during  the  year  to  record 
the  volume  of  water  flowing  from  five  subwatersheds  and  to  take 
volume-integrated  water  samples.  Scientists  at  the  Center  analyze 
these  samples  for  total  phosphorus,  total  nitrogen,  organic  carbon, 
and  suspended  sediment. 

With  the  aid  of  computer  printouts  of  aerial  photographs,  scien- 
tists are  developing  a  key  for  identifying  salt-marsh  vegetation. 
Funding  is  provided  through  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space 
Administration  as  part  of  a  remote  sensing  project  underway  at  the 
Center  since  1970.  This  year  the  Center  began  preparing  land-use 
maps  of  the  Rhode  River  watershed  based  on  these  photographs.  The 
maps  will  be  a  valuable  tool  for  a  number  of  investigators  and  for 
agencies  concerned  with  the  environment. 

Science  I  61 

Since  the  beginning  of  the  fiscal  year,  college  students,  under  the 
supervision  of  the  Assistant  Director,  have  conducted  a  survey  of 
the  recreational  use  of  the  Rhode  River. 

Two  staff  members  are  studying  the  mammals  of  Poplar,  Coaches, 
and  Jefferson  Islands.  Owned  by  the  Smithsonian  and  administered 
by  the  Center,  these  islands  off  Talbot  County  on  Maryland's  East- 
ern Shore  are  eroding  at  different  rates  and  offer  an  unusual  oppor- 
tunity to  study  the  effect  on  mammal  populations  of  rapidly  dimin- 
ishing habitats  in  a  closed  system. 

Among  the  Center's  continuing  studies  is  "Population  Dynamics 
in  Breeding  Birds,"  begun  in  1968  and  projected  for  a  20-year  period. 
Objectives  include  the  determination  of  species  succession  resulting 
from  successful  changes  in  vegetation. 


Funded  with  a  grant  from  the  Edward  John  Noble  Foundation,  the 
Information  Transfer  Program  has  as  its  goal  the  translation  of  sci- 
entific results  into  forms  which  can  be  used  by  planners,  government 
officials,  and  resource  managers  who  make  decisions  that  affect  the 
Bay.  In  addition,  the  program  makes  environmental  information 
available  to  organizations  and  individuals. 

Projects  undertaken  this  year  include  a  survey  of  environmental 
organizations  in  the  Chesapeake  Bay  area.  An  environmental  infor- 
mation specialist  sought  to  determine  the  issues  that  most  concern 
these  organizations  and  the  extent  of  their  contacts  with  State  offi- 
cials and  legislators.  She  also  evaluated  the  effectiveness  of  the  orga- 
nizations and  interviewed  scientists  to  find  out  what  lines  of  com- 
munication exist  between  them  and  the  general  public. 

The  Center  co-sponsored  with  the  Anne  Arundel  County  Chapter 
of  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Foundation  preliminary  meetings  which  re- 
sulted in  the  formation  of  the  South  County  Citizens  League, 
composed  of  representatives  of  citizens  associations.  The  purpose  is 
to  unite  organizations  and  individuals  in  the  intelligent  examination 
of  probable  future  issues  in  order  to  influence  public  policies  and 

An  all-day  workshop  on  environmental  problems  was  arranged 
for  the  Maryland  League  of  Women  Voters  and  attended  by  repre- 
sentatives of  a  number  of  organizations  and  agencies. 

62  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

The  Rhode  Worker,  added  to  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center's  fleet  during  the 
year,  is  used  for  projects  related  to  the  NSF-funded  Rhode  River  Research 
Program.  One  of  these  projects  is  "Nutrient  Studies  on  the  Rhode  River 
Ecosystem,"  in  which  samples  from  13  stations  in  a  freshwater  creek  and  the 
estuary  are  tested  for  16  qualities,  either  at  the  collection  site  or  in  the 
laboratory  below. 


A  description  of  the  Center's  tours  and  programs  was  distributed  in 
the  area,  faciUtating  scheduHng  and  resuhing  in  an  increased  num- 
ber of  requests  for  this  service. 

The  Center  chartered  a  bus  through  a  nonprofit  hne  sponsored  by 
the  Community  Action  Agency  and  arranged  to  bring  a  different 
group  of  sixth  graders  from  five  local  schools  to  the  Center  each 
week  for  "The  Living  Community,"  a  project  that  stresses  the  inter- 
relationship of  living  things.  Before  each  visit,  a  staff  member  made 
a  preparatory  presentation  in  the  classroom. 

The  Rhode  River  Environmental  Education  Project,  one  of  the 
Center's  most  ambitious  educational  efforts,  got  underway  in  the  I 
fall  of  1973  after  a  successful  pilot  program.  With  the  cooperation 
of  the  YMCA  of  Metropolitan  Washington,  a  different  group  of  tenth 
graders  from  16  District  of  Columbia  schools  resided  for  four  days 
at  a  YMCA  camp  adjoining  the  Center.  The  students  used  the  Center 
for  field  work,  and  college  students  served  as  counsellors.  The  cur- 
riculum, designed  by  the  Assistant  Director  and  an  Education  Spe- 
cialist, focused  on  man's  relationship  to  his  environment. 

The  Summer  Ecology  Program,  an  intensive  course  for  school 
children  from  the  elementary  grades  through  high  school,  was  initi- 
ated in  the  summer  of  1973  and  will  continue  in  1974.  College  stu- 
dents who  plan  to  teach  the  natural  sciences  instruct  the  children. 
The  program  provides  the  instructors  with  teaching  experience  and 
the  children  with  an  enriching  supplement  to  their  school  work. 

The  Center  arranged  an  all-day  workshop  for  science  teachers 
from  all  over  the  country  who  were  enrolled  in  a  summer  institute 
sponsored  by  the  National  Science  Foundation.  Similar  workshops 
are  planned  for  the  summer  of  1974. 

Continuing  education  activities  include  opportunities  for  college 
students  to  work  with  staff  scientists  on  specific  projects  and  pro- 
viding speakers  for  schools,  colleges,  and  organizations. 


The  Center's  full-time  staff  numbered  approximately  40  at  the  close 
of  the  fiscal  year.  Among  the  additions  were  Dr.  Barbara  Rice, 
Research  Speciahst  with  the'  Remote  Sensing  Project;  Dr.  Maria 
Faust,  Biologist;  Dr.  Tung  Lin  Wu,  Chemist;  Dr.  John  Falk,  Educa- 

64  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

tion  Coordinator;  Marjorie  Beane,  Environmental  Information  Spe- 
cialist; and  Lynne  Mormann,  Education  Specialist. 

Some  40  additional  researchers  are  actively  engaged  in  projects 
at  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center,  including  principal  investigators  for 
the  Rhode  River  Research  Program  from  the  Johns  Hopkins  Uni- 
versity and  the  University  of  Maryland. 

Ground  was  broken  in  the  spring  for  a  combined  Visitor  Center 
and  Education  Building  scheduled  for  completion  in  the  fall.  This 
will  be  the  first  new  structure  to  be  built  at  the  Center  since  its 
establishment  in  1965. 

The  Center  procured  seven  house  trailers  to  alleviate  a  shortage 
of  space  for  offices,  laboratories,  and  dormitory  facilities. 

A  28-foot  fiberglass  cabin  cruiser,  the  Rhode  Worker  was  added 
to  the  Center's  fleet.  Purchased  with  funds  from  the  nsf-rann  grant, 
this  boat  is  used  for  projects  included  in  the  Rhode  River  Research 
Program.  Five  other  boats,  including  the  46-foot  Java,  are  docked  at 
the  Center's  pier. 

Fort  Pierce  Bureau 

The  primary  research  emphasis  by  the  Fort  Pierce  Bureau  this  year 
is  the  Indian  River  Study,  a  consortium  effort  initiated  in  Septem- 
ber of  1973,  with  a  grant  from  the  Atlantic  Foundation.  The  Smith- 
sonian's 130-foot-floating-laboratory  barge  is  the  focal  point  for  the 
Study,  the  chief  aims  of  which  are  to  obtain  baseline  information  on 
the  diversity  of  organisms  and  quality  of  their  environment,  sources 
of  pollution  and  their  effects  on  organisms,  and  a  predictive  capa- 
bility of  both  short-  and  long-term  effects  on  man-induced  changes. 
To  date,  over  500  sampling  stations  have  been  occupied  on  22  off- 
shore cruises  by  the  RV  Cosnold,  10  cruises  have  been  made  in  the 
Indian  River  lagoon  on  a  specially  modified  houseboat  research  ves- 
sel to  make  in  situ  environmental  measurements,  and  fish  and  ben- 
thic  samples  have  been  repetitively  collected  at  36  stations  and  4 
transects  within  the  Indian  River. 

Life-history  studies  of  marine  animals  have  continued  through 
the  second  year  with  stress  on  reproductive  biology,  developmental 
patterns,  and  larval  development  of  unsegmented  marine  worms  of 

Science  I  65 

the  phylum  Sipuncula.  More  than  20  larval  sipunculans  of  unknown 
species  have  been  collected  from  the  Gulf  Stream  off  Fort  Pierce, 
Florida;  these  have  been  raised  in  the  laboratory  and  studies  made  of 
their  morphology  by  use  of  scanning  electron  microscopy  and  histo- 
logical procedures.  Developmental  patterns  emerging  from  this  work 
promise  to  have  important  implications  for  and  understanding  of  the 
interphyletic  and  intraphyletic  relationships  of  these  organisms. 

The  former  Coast  Guard  cutter,  Hopley  Yeaton,  was  christened 
officially  the  RV  Johnson  on  Saturday,  January  26,  1974,  by  Mrs, 
J.  Seward  Johnson  during  an  open-house  celebration  at  Link  Port, 
Florida.  An  estimated  1500  visitors  attended  the  ceremony  to  view 
the  Bureau's  125-foot  vessel,  a  tender  to  the  research  submarine 
Johnson-Sea-Link,  which  can  be  launched  and  recovered  rapidly  by 
a  hydraulic  crane  located  at  the  aft  end  of  the  ship.  The  "mother 
ship"-submersible-lockout  diver  system  will  be  used  on  missions 
this  coming  year  to  explore,  photograph,  and  sample  the  continental 
shelf  adjacent  to  the  Indian  River. 

Since  the  unfortunate  entrapment  of  the  Johnson-Sea-Link  off  the 
Florida  Keys  in  June  1973,  considerable  effort  has  been  devoted  at 
Link  Port  to  developing  rescue  systems  for  small  research  sub- 
marines and  to  modifying  several  safety  and  life-support  systems  on 
the  Johnson-Sea-Link.  A  surface  rescue  craft,  under  construction, 
will  support  a  cable-controlled  unmanned  submersible  equipped 
with  television  and  manipulator  that  can  free  an  entrapped  object 
from  a  depth  in  excess  of  1000  feet.  A  second  submarine,  Johnson- 
Sea-Link  II,  should  be  finished  by  the  end  of  1974  —  a  sister  sub- 
mersible with  lockout  capability  can  be  viewed  as  an  excellent  rescue 
mechanism.  Already  implemented  on  the  Johnson-Sea-Link  are  an 
improved  high-capacity  and  high-volume  carbon-dioxide  scrubber, 
remote  read-out  gauges  in  the  pilot's  sphere  for  carbon  dioxide  and 
oxygen  sensing  and  monitoring  instruments  employed  in  the  diving 
compartment,  and  redesigned  attachment  points  for  handling  lines, 
which  employ  the  break-away  concept  and  eliminate  hooks. 

During  the  past  several  months,  two  successful  cruises  have  been 
completed  to  the  Bahamas  to  train  the  respective  crews  of  the  sup- 
port ship  RV  Johnson  and  submarine  Johnson-Sea-Link  as  a  total 
system,  to  launch  and  recover  the  submersible  from  anchor  or 
underway  and  in  a  sea  state  of  Beaufort  Force  5,  to  complete  training 
of  two  qualified  submarine  pilots,  and  to  perform  shallow  submarine 

66  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

S.  Dillon  Ripley  giving  dedication  address  at  the  commissioning  of  the  Smith- 
sonian's RV  Johnson  at  Fort  Pierce,  Florida,  on  January  26,  1974.  Below:  Smith- 
sonian's RV  Johnson  in  the  Indian  River  as  she  departs  with  the  Johnson-Sea- 
Link  submersible  for  a  training  mission  in  the  Bahamas,  March  18,  1974. 







■  Bi 




and  lockout  operations  under  day  and  night  conditions.  This  con- 
scientious training  program,  incorporating  all  aspects  of  submersible 
operations,  diving  and  support-equipment  handling  under  the  able 
management  of  an  Operations  Director,  is  the  most  effective  pro- 
cedure of  reducing  the  accepted  level  of  risk  involved  in  submarine 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum 

The  progress  made  in  building  construction,  exhibits,  staffing,  and 
research  in  1974  leaves  little  doubt  that  the  National  Air  and  Space 
Museum  is  fast  becoming  one  of  the  most  important  and  exciting 
bureaus  of  the  Institution. 

The  construction  of  the  new  museum  building,  which  is  on  sched- 
ule, is  almost  50  percent  complete.  The  contracts  for  structural  steel 
and  metal  decks  have  been  closed  out.  The  marble  contract  is  65 
percent  complete.  Glass  curtain  walls  and  skylights  are  being 
installed.  By  the  end  of  summer,  the  building  will  be  completely 
enclosed,  which  will  permit  interior  work  without  regard  to  the 
elements.  As  originally  forecast,  the  staff  will  move  into  the  building 
in  the  summer  of  1975  and  the  building  will  open  in  July  1976. 

The  building  will  contain  25  major  exhibition  halls  and  2  presen- 
tation centers;  the  development  of  exhibits  for  these  halls  has  been 
the  major  thrust  of  the  museum  during  1974  and  will  continue  to 
be  through  1976.  The  goal  for  the  opening  of  the  building  is  to  have 
"core"  quality  exhibits  in  approximately  50  percent  of  the  available 
space  with  well-displayed  objects  in  the  remainder  of  the  halls. 

During  1974  the  following  major  exhibits  were  completed: 

"Air  Traffic  Control"  —  an  exhibit  which  explains  the  complex 
equipment  and  competent  personnel  who  perform  behind  the  scenes 
in  our  air  traffic  network. 

"Exhibition  Flight"  —  this  exhibit  tells  the  story  with  artifacts, 
film,  and  photos  of  how  exhibition  flight  caught  the  imagination  of 
the  American  public  and  popularized  flying. 

"Life  in  the  Universe"  —  this  exhibit  examines  the  birth  and  death 
of  stars  and  galaxies;  the  nature  of  life  and  its  chemical  building 
blocks;  the  tools  being  used  to  find  life;  how  this  life  may  have 
evolved,  what  forms  it  may  have  taken,  and  how  we  might  commu- 
nicate with  it. 

68  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Construction  moves  apace  on  the  new  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  scheduled 

to  open  July  4,  1976. 

In  addition  to  the  major  exhibits,  the  following  special  exhibits 
were  mounted  in  1974 : 

"Copernicus"  —  prototype  telescope  of  nasa's  Orbiting  Astro- 
nomical Observatory  during  the  500th  anniversary  of  Copernicus, 
the  father  of  modern  astronomy. 

"Skylab"  —  America's  first  experimental  space  station. 

"Aerobatics"  —  featuring  the  U.S.  World  Championship  Aero- 
batics team  and  one  of  their  aircraft,  the  Pitts  Special. 

"Santos-Dumont"  —  observing  the  centenary  of  the  birth  of  this 
pioneer  aircraft  designer,  aeronaut,  aviator,  and  astronomer. 

"Wright  Brothers  Wind  Tunnel"  —  exhibiting  on  the  70th  anni- 
versary of  powered  heavier-than-air  flight  a  replica  of  the  wind 
tunnel  with  daily  demonstrations  of  its  use  as  a  precursor  to  the  first 
powered  flight. 

"Space  and  Artists"  —  continuing  displays  of  paintings  of  space 
and  aviation  art. 

"First  World  Flight"  —  traces  the  first  round-the-world  flight 
through  photographs  and  drawings  superimposed  over  a  map  of  the 
route  taken  by  the  pilots  in  1924.  During  the  6-month  circumnavi- 
gation of  the  world,  the  crews  endured  hardships  of  extreme  cold 
and  heat,  accidents,  and  mechanical  failures.  The  flagplane,  Chicago, 
was  completely  restored  by  the  nasm  and  is  the  centerpiece  of  the 
exhibit,  in  the  rotunda  of  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building. 

Fiscal  year  1974  brought  the  beginning  of  a  formal  program  of 
research  to  the  museum.  A  Department  of  Science  and  Technology 
was  created  and  staffed  with  two  senior  personnel.  The  implementa- 
tion of  the  NASM  Science  and  Technology  research  program  has  begun 
with  an  analysis  of  the  history  and  validity  of  design  criteria  in  use 
in  the  air  and  space  industry.  A  Center  for  Earth  and  Planetary 
Studies  was  established  under  the  leadership  of  one  of  the  foremost 
lunar  geologists  in  the  world.  At  the  same  time,  nasa's  comprehen- 
sive lunar  scientific  photograph  collection  and  records  were  trans- 
ferred to  the  museum.  The  Center  has  already  published  several 
scientific  articles.  In  cooperation  with  nasa,  a  lunar  mapping  pro- 
gram is  ongoing.  Moreover,  the  Center  Director  occupies  one  of 
seven  seats  on  the  International  Astronautical  Union  (iau)  Task 
Group  on  Lunar  Nomenclature. 

Exhibits-related  research  is-a  major  nasm  activity  with  the  various 
curatorial  departments  performing  artifact  documentary  research. 

70  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


The  story  of  how  exhibition  flight  captured  the  imagination  of  the  American 
public  and  popularized  flying  is  told  in  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum's 
exhibit,  "Exhibition  Flight,"  that  opened  in  March  1974.  Below:  Another  exhibit, 
"Air  Traffic  Control,"  that  opened  in  November  1973,  explains  the  complex 
equipment  and  competent  personnel  who  perform  behind  the  scenes  in  air  traffic 


prerestoration  curatorial  research,  and  historical  research.  The  nasm 
Exhibits  Division  is  developing  several  research  programs  concerned 
with  the  reliability  of  exhibits  components,  new  exhibits  techniques, 
novel  film  transport  systems,  etc. 

The  large  size  of  today's  flying  machines,  coupled  with  an  ever 
accelerating  pace  of  aerospace  technology,  results  in  tremendous 
pressure  on  curators  to  increase  the  size  of  their  collections.  At  the 
same  time,  however,  the  available  storage  space  is  not  increasing  at 
the  same  pace.  Therefore,  in  January  1974,  an  Acquisition  Policy 
Statement  was  issued  for  use  by  the  curatorial  staff  of  the  nasm. 
Briefly,  the  policy  indicates  that  each  major  addition  to  the  collection 
should  be  balanced,  wherever  possible,  by  an  equivalent  deletion  or 
loan.  It  also  places  the  responsibility  for  the  final  approval  of  the 
acquisitions  of  major  new  artifacts  with  the  Director  of  the  museum. 
Prior  to  1974,  the  curatorial  staff  approved  acquisitions  and  the 
Director  approved  loans.  This  policy  has  now  been  reversed. 

At  the  time  the  acquisition  policy  was  enacted,  the  museum  began 
an  all-out  effort  to  review  and,  where  possible,  dispose  of  surplus 
artifacts,  particularly  engines,  archival  material,  aircraft  models, 
aircraft,  and  space  material.  To  date: 

1.  Fifty  engines  have  been  transferred  or  loaned. 

2.  Approximately  12,000  cubic  feet  of  miscellaneous  material, 
including  books,  periodicals,  photographs,  records,  and  other  docu- 
ments have  been  declared  surplus  or  duplicate  material  and  trans- 
ferred to  other  institutions.  This  included  over  3,500  periodicals. 

3.  A  complete  inventory  of  the  model  aircraft  collection  (num- 
bering over  1,000  models)  is  under  way.  The  information  will  be 
computerized  so  that  the  collection  can  be  studied  from  various 
criteria  such  as  scale,  aircraft  type,  condition,  etc. 

4.  Twenty-eight  astronautic  artifacts  have  been  deaccessioned 
and  disposed  of. 

During  fiscal  1974,  the  Presentations  and  Education  Division  was 
organized  with  responsibility  for  developing  and  implementing  three 
programs:  the  education  program  of  the  museum,  Spacearium  pro- 
grams, and  programs  for  the  nasm  Theater. 

The  education  program  includes  lectures,  tours,  and  other  activi- 
ties to  assist  individuals  and  groups  in  using  the  museum,  its  re- 
sources, and  publications  for  effective  learning  about  air  and  space 
and  related  subject  matter.  In  fiscal  1974,  168  tours  were  conducted 
by  13  docents  and  volunteers  for  over  5000  students. 

72  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

During  fiscal  1974,  a  small  planetarium  began  an  ongoing  opera- 
tion in  the  Air  and  Space  Building  as  an  experimental  laboratory  to 
prepare  for  the  larger  Spacearium.  Programs  were  given  to  general 
visitors  and  to  a  few  visiting  school  classes,  and  special  classes  were 
conducted  in  this  facility  for  the  Smithsonian  Associates. 

Two  pilot  programs  were  initiated  in  fiscal  1974  at  the  Silver 
Hill  facility.  The  first  was  an  adult  night  class  for  those  who  might 
build  and  fly  their  own  airplanes,  and  emphasized  safe  and  rational 
design,  engineering,  and  maintenance.  The  second  program  was 
designed  to  teach  inner-city  children  the  basic  skills  required  to  build 
and  maintain  aircraft,  including  welding,  sheet  metal  and  fabric 
work,  engine  overhaul,  etc.  Both  programs  were  well  received  and 
will  be  expanded  in  the  future. 

For  the  second  year  the  museum,  in  conjunction  with  the  Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical  Observatory,  hosted  an  astronomy  lecture 
series.  While  the  first  series  in  1972  attempted  to  assess  man's  cur- 
rent knowledge  of  the  solar  system  as  seen  from  the  planet  Earth, 
the  second  series,  "Beyond  the  Planets,"  surveyed  our  Galaxy  and 
the  Universe  from  the  vantage  point  of  the  Sun.  The  series,  consist- 
ing of  eight  lectures  by  some  of  America's  outstanding  astronomers, 
was  received  with  enthusiasm  by  standing-room-only  crowds. 

As  a  special  event,  the  museum  sponsored  a  poetry  reading  and 
discussion  by  Apollo  15  Astronaut  Alfred  Worden.  Astronaut 
Worden  was  warmly  received  as  he  read  selections  from  his  book 
of  poems.  Hello  Earth,  Greetings  From  Endeavor,  and  discussed  his 
feelings  and  emotions  that  prompted  him  to  compose  each  of  the 
poems.  The  readings  were  illustrated  by  color  panoramas  made 
during  Apollo  15's  epic  journey  to  the  Moon. 

Members  of  nasm's  Advisory  Board  are: 

S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Chairman  (ex  officio) 
Brigadier  General  James  L.  Collins,  USA 
Major  General  Edward  5.  Fris,  U5MC 
Vice  Admiral  William  D.  Houser,  USN 
Rear  Admiral  Robert  H.  Scarborough,  USCG 
Major  General  M.  R.  Reilly,  USAF 
Brigadier  General  Gustav  Lundquist,  FAA 
WiUis  H.  Shapley,  NASA 


Mrs.  Olive  Ann  Beach 

Lieutenant  General  William  E.  Hall,  USAF,  Retired 

Edwood  R.  Quesada 

Science  I  73 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

There  was  a  bustle  of  activity  on  the  Museum's  first  floor  in  early 
1974  as  carpenters,  scientists,  designers,  and  other  Museum  crafts- 
men worked  to  complete  "Ice  Age  Mammals  and  the  Emergence  of 
Man,"  the  first  of  a  series  of  new  exhibits  that  will  enrich  consider- 
ably the  Museum's  educational  impact.  Long-range  plans  call  for  the 
overhaul  and  rejuvenation  of  one  permanent  exhibit  hall  every  year 
through  1979.  All  of  these  new  halls  will  be  thematically  structured 
to  convey  clearly  to  the  public  concepts  of  evolution  that  are  funda- 
mental to  an  understanding  of  the  natural  world. 

To  accomplish  this  change  the  Museum  has  departed  from  its 
traditional  practice  of  building  an  exhibit  hall  around  a  single  depart- 
mental discipline.  The  Ice  Age  Hall  formerly  housed  a  paleontological 
exhibit  devoted  to  Pleistocene  mammals.  Its  replacement  is  multi- 
disciplinary,  blending  objects  from  the  paleontology,  mineral  science, 
and  anthropology  collections,  into  a  thematic  context  that  describes 
the  great  physical  and  biological  events  of  the  Ice  Age,  including  the 
development  of  the  continental  glaciers,  the  evolution  of  large 
mammals,  the  extinction  of  many  of  them,  and  the  arrival  of  man. 

The  new  multidisciplinary  thematic  exhibits  that  are  in  the  process 
of  design  and  production  are  the  result  of  an  entirely  new  approach 
to  exhibits  at  the  Museum.  An  advisory  committee  of  Museum  scien- 
tists, headed  by  Dr.  Leo  J.  Hickey,  has  been  set  up  as  a  liaison 
between  the  Museum's  professional  staff  and  its  exhibits  office, 
directed  by  Harry  T.  Hart.  A  close  working  relationship  has  been 
established  that  is  responsible  for  the  excellence  of  the  new  Ice  Age 
Hall  and  the  promise  of  the  Museum's  Bicentennial  exhibit,  "Our 
Changing  Land." 

"Our  Changing  Land,"  now  under  development,  will  chronicle 
environmental  change  in  the  Washington,  D.C.,  area  since  the  arrival 
of  man,  stressing  what  has  happened  since  the  founding  of  the 
Nation,  and  explaining  the  main  ecological  processes  related  to  the 
change  and  what  options  there  may  be  for  the  future.  The  ground 
floor  of  the  north  wing  is  being  prepared  for  this  exhibit. 

In  addition  to  renewal  of  permanent  halls  and  the  development  of 
the  Bicentennial  exhibit,  a  variety  of  other  exhibit  events  made  1974 
at  the  Museum  an  extraordinarily  active  and  vigorous  year. 

74  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Dr.  Porter  Kier  (left).  Director  of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History, 
presents  an  award  to  David  J.  Hasinger  for  making  significant  additions  to  the 
scientific  collections  of  the  Museum.  Mr.  Hasinger  is  Director  of  Paul  and 
Beckman,  Inc.,  Philadelphia  electronics  manufacturer. 

Curious  children  and  adults  were  crowding  into  the  Museum's 
recently  opened  Discovery  Room  where  they  were  urged  to  keep 
their  hands  on  and  not  off  the  exhibits.  Elephant  tusks,  coral,  petri- 
fied wood,  wooly  mammoth  teeth,  and  hundreds  of  other  natural 
history  specimens,  ordinarily  out  of  reach  behind  glass  or  railings 
in  museums,  could  be  grasped,  turned  over  in  the  hand  at  one's 
leisure,  and  studied  with  a  magnifying  glass.  If  requested,  one  of  the 
room's  docents  would  make  available  books  and  film  loops  to  help 
take  a  person  farther  down  the  path  of  discovery.  The  room  added 
a  permanent  new  dimension  to  the  Museum's  offerings. 

In  another  area  of  the  Museum,  visitors  were  experiencing  the 
wonder  of  setting  foot  in  the  interior  of  a  tropical  rain  forest,  one  of 
nature's  most  complex  environments.  Modeled  of  papier-mache  and 

Science  I  75 

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The  monkey  climbing  the  vines  and  the  trees  and  dense  foHage  of  the  rain  forest 
are  part  of  an  ecological  exhibit,  "It  All  Depends,"  which  shows  that  all  environ- 
mental elements  are  interdependent  for  survival.  Opposite:  A  Neanderthal  burial 
scene  from  the  exhibit,  "Ice  Age  Mammals  and  the  Emergence  of  Man." 

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One  of  the  drawings  by  children  in  the  "Save  the  Whales"  exhibition  at  the 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

plastic,  after  sketches  and  photographs  taken  in  the  Panama  and 
South  American  jungles,  the  exhibit's  trees,  foliage,  and  vines  were 
enclosed  in  a  mirrored  ceiling-high  silo.  Walking  into  this  dimly  lit 
enclosure,  visitors  had  the  illusion  that  they  were  in  the  center  of  a 
vast  tropical  forest  —  with  trees  rising  80-100  feet  above  their  heads. 
This  simulated  forest  was  the  heart  of  a  larger  ecological  exhibit, 
'"It  All  Depends,"  which  made  the  point  that  all  elements  in  the 
environment  are  dependent  upon  each  other  for  survival. 

Looking  alertly  out  from  an  "arctic  ice  floe"  in  the  west  end  of  the 
Life  in  the  Sea  Hall  was  an  imposing  new  Museum  presence,  a 
mounted  specimen  of  that  largest  of  the  fin-footed  aquatic  animals  — 
the  sea  walrus.  Beneath  its  icy  perch  a  visitor  could  see  an  informative 
film  about  it  and  other  pinnipeds,  a  family  of  mammals  that  besides 
the  walrus  includes  the  seal  and  the  sea  lion.  In  a  narration  inspired 
by  the  Lewis  Carroll  verse,  "The  Walrus  and  the  Carpenter,"  actor 
Cyril  Ritchard  could  be  heard  addressing  a  pinniped,  "I  would  like 
to  talk  to  you,  about  how  you  live,  where  you  live  and  the  things 
you  like  to  do." 

The  Museum  once  again  made  clear  its  opposition  to  the  un- 
limited killing  of  members  of  that  other  great  family  of  sea  mammals. 

78  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Child  examining  fossils  in  the   newly  opened   Discovery   Room,  where    the 
curious  may  keep  their  hands  on  and  not  off  the  exhibits. 

the  cetaceans,  to  which  belong  the  porpoises,  dolphins,  and  whales. 
In  May  and  June  it  was  host  to  an  exhibition  organized  by  Project 
Jonah's  International  Children's  Campaign  to  Save  the  Whales. 
Drawings  by  elementary  school  children  from  the  District  of  Co- 
lumbia and  its  suburbs  protesting  the  killing  of  whales  were  hung 
side-by-side  with  works  by  young  artists  from  other  cities  in  Amer- 
ica and  foreign  countries. 

Two  other  colorful  and  notable  exhibits  in  the  Museum's  foyer 
area  were  the  offshoot  of  the  field  research  trips  of  two  of  the 
Museum's  scientists.  One  was  a  display  of  large,  dye-transfer  color 
prints  of  tropical  blossoms  photographed  in  Africa  and  South  Amer- 
ica by  Dr.  Edward  S.  Ayensu,  Chairman  of  the  Museum's  Depart- 
ment of  Botany  (supplemented  with  pictures  by  the  Museum's 
scientific  photographer,  Kjell  B.  Sandved),  the  other  placed  on  view 
ethnological  materials  from  the  eastern  Himalayan  country  of  Bhu- 
tan, collected  by  Dr.  Eugene  I.  Knez,  the  Museum's  Curator  of 
Asian  Anthropology.  This  exhibit  was  planned  to  coincide  with  the 
June  coronation  of  Bhutan's  19-year-old  king,  and  included  the 
display  of  photographs,  paintings,  textiles,  costumes,  copper,  gold 
and  silver  vessels,  religious  objects,  basketry,  and  pottery.  Among 

Science  I  79 

the  lenders  to  the  exhibit  was  Smithsonian  Secretary  S.  Dillon 
Ripley,  who  has  made  several  expeditions  to  Bhutan. 

Two  Museum  physical  anthropologists,  Drs.  J.  Lawrence  Angel 
and  Douglas  H.  Ubelaker,  in  separate  paleodemographic  studies  in 
the  Old  and  New  Worlds,  are  amassing  evidence  of  how  environ- 
mental conditions  influenced  the  health,  longevity,  and  evolution 
of  prehistoric  man. 

Working  closely  with  archeologists  who  have  unearthed  grave 
sites,  the  two  scientists  make  measurements  of  ancient  skeletal 
material.  From  this  they  can  assemble  a  body  of  statistics  about  an 
ancient  community  that  includes  the  size  of  its  population,  the  age 
composition,  birth  rate,  sex  ratio,  number  of  children  born,  family 
size,  and  critical  effects  of  diseases  such  as  arthritis  and  malaria  — 
all  of  which  are  determined  by  diet,  climate,  living  habits,  and 

Dr.  Angel's  work  over  the  last  decade  has  been  concentrated  on 
Eastern  Mediterranean  burial  sites  such  as  Catal  Hiiyiik,  Turkey, 
where  a  population  of  early  neolithic  hunting  farmers  and  traders, 
living  in  a  compact  pueblo-like  community,  had  conquered  the  peril 
of  a  high  child  mortality  rate  —  probably  caused  by  malaria  —  by 
evolving  a  culture  that  venerated  and  protected  women.  This  had 
lengthened  the  lives  and  childbearing  years  of  the  women.  The 
population  of  the  community  had  increased  as  a  result,  and  it  had 
become  possible  for  the  women  to  make  a  rich  contribution  to  the 
community's  art,  crafts,  and  religious  activities,  while  the  men  were 
hunting  and  trading. 

The  People  of  Lerna:  An  Analysis  of  a  Prehistoric  Aegean  Popu- 
lation, published  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  is  Dr.  Angel's 
study  of  a  site  situated  on  the  Bay  of  Argos,  Greece,  where  archeolo- 
gists found  235  Bronze  Age  graves,  covering  a  span  of  25  generations 
(2000-1600  B.C.). 

The  demographic  profile  Dr.  Angel  constructed  showed  that  adults 
in  Lerna  (which  he  estimated  had  about  800  persons  living  in  it 
during  the  Middle  Bronze  Age)  had  an  average  life  expectancy  of 
34  years  —  37  for  men,  31  for  women.  The  average  woman  bore 
about  five  children  —  2.2  of  which  grew  to  adulthood  (15  years  of 
age).  On  the  basis  of  that  birth  rate  the  population  was  increasing, 
doubling  every  7  to  10  generations.  This  was  a  remarkably  successful 
adaptation  to  the  handicapping  diseases  afflicting  the  community. 

80  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Mask  from  the  exhibition  "Bhutan:  The  Land  of  Dragons." 

Malaria,  in  particular,  had  a  crippling  impact,  just  as  it  had  had 
at  Catal  Hiiyiik.  The  changeover  from  a  hunting  to  a  farming  culture, 
which  had  begun  in  the  Mediterranean  between  9000  to  6500  B.C. 
with  the  disappearance  of  the  big  game  herds,  had  drawn  early 
farming  populations  to  sites  like  Lerna  where  the  soil  was  soft  and 
the  forests  not  established.  But  these  well-watered  marshy  areas  that 
favored  farming  also  favored  the  Anopheles  mosquito  and  the  result 
was  that  malaria,  especially  the  type  known  as  falciparum  malaria, 
was   rampant.   The   physical   debilitation   caused   by   this   disease 

Science  I  81 

plagued  and  weakened  Lerna  for  most  of  its  prehistoric  period  (the 
average  stature  of  the  Lerna  men  was  only  5'  5V2''  and  women, 
5'  V4  ") .  It  was  not  until  later  when  Greek  communities  learned  how 
to  drain  their  marshes  to  gain  better  control  of  irrigation  and  water 
supply  that  the  numbers  of  malaria-carrying  mosquitos  were  re- 
duced, a  development  reflected  in  the  stature  and  longevity  of  the 

Dr.  Angel's  colleague,  Douglas  Ubelaker,  has  been  analyzing 
skeletal  material  from  a  large  pre-Columbian  cemetery  in  the 
Hacienda  Ayalan,  Guayas  Province,  on  the  south  coast  of  Ecuador, 
dating  to  a.d.  1300,  where  50  large  ceramic  urns,  each  containing 
up  to  20  skeletons,  were  uncovered. 

With  the  approval  of  the  Ecuadorian  Government  all  of  this 
material  was  shipped  back  to  the  Museum,  where  now,  highly 
accurate  microscopic  methods  of  determining  age  by  osteon  counts 
were  conducted.  The  results  were  startling.  The  population  had  an 
average  adult  age  at  death  of  about  67  years,  with  many  individuals 
living  into  the  eighth  and  ninth  decade,  a  much  higher  figure  than 
one  would  expect  for  a  prehistoric  population. 

It  can  be  explained  by  the  fact  the  site  provided  excellent  nutrition. 
The  people  took  crops  from  the  land  and  exploited  fresh-  and  salt- 
water food  resources.  Many  of  the  diseases  that  historically  lower 
life  expectancy  (syphilis,  malaria,  measles,  mumps,  smallpox)  either 
were  nonexistent  or  were  not  severe  problems  until  the  Spanish 
arrived.  Furthermore,  there  is  some  evidence  of  remarkable  con- 
temporary longevity  along  that  part  of  the  coast  that  may  have 
extended  back  into  prehistory. 

Stands  of  Japanese  Ma-dake  timber  bamboo  (Phyllostachys 
bambusoides)  are  flowering  throughout  America,  a  cyclical  phenom- 
enon that  takes  place  only  at  intervals  of  120  years  and  is  as  rare  to 
botanists  as  Halley's  comet  is  to  astronomers.  Drs.  Thomas  R. 
Soderstrom  and  C.  E.  Calderon,  Museum  scientists,  have  been 
monitoring  this  dramatic  botanical  event.  Last  year  they  asked  for 
help  from  readers  of  Smithsonian  magazine  and  the  Smithsonian's 
Environmental  Alert  Network,  which  alerted  high  school  science 
classes  all  over  the  country.  Hundreds  of  persons,  young  and  old, 
responded  by  mailing  in  dried  specimens  of  flowering  branches  of 
the  bamboo  plant  and  along  with  it  information  about  precisely 
where  it  was  collected  and  photographs  and  short  histories  of  the 

82  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Dr.    Thomas    R.    Soderstrom,    Curator    of    Grasses,    Department    of    Botany, 
examining  specimens  of  flowering  bamboo. 

Stands  from  which  it  came.  With  these  data,  Drs.  Soderstrom  and 
Calderon  were  able  to  draw  up  a  map  that  pinpoints  Ma-dake  stands 
in  at  least  22  states,  showing  its  heaviest  concentrations  on  the  West 
Coast,  from  Washington  to  California,  and  in  the  southeastern  Gulf 

Science  I  83 

The  flowering  of  Ma-dake  is  always  followed  by  the  death  of  the 
plant's  culms  (stems),  and  this  was  verified  by  the  volunteer  observ- 
ers. In  cases  where  the  flowering  and  death  cycle  had  taken  place  in 
the  late  1960s,  they  noticed  that  the  old  rhizomes  (underground 
stem  masses)  were  regenerating  themselves  and  producing  many 
new  but  weak,  contorted  shoots.  Drs.  Soderstrom  and  Calderon 
point  out  that  it  may  take  6  or  more  years  before  large,  normal 
shoots  are  again  grown,  and  perhaps  15  years  before  the  bamboo 
clump  is  in  the  same  condition  prior  to  flowering.  In  Japan  Ma-dake 
is  used  as  a  raw  material  for  the  construction  of  homes,  furniture, 
farm  implements,  baskets,  and  even  food,  and  it  is  easy  to  under- 
stand why  the  cyclical  flowering  there  is  considered  nothing  less 
than  a  disaster. 

All  of  the  Ma-dake  stands  do  not  flower  simultaneously  because 
there  are  a  number  of  time-oriented,  hereditary  lines,  consisting  of 
segregated  progeny,  distributed  throughout  the  world.  Each  of  these 
hereditary  lines  is  on  a  120-year  cycle.  These  cycles  began  to  come 
to  completion  in  the  late  1950s,  but  most  of  them  in  America  have 
done  so  in  the  late  1960s.  Drs.  Soderstrom  and  Calderon  predict 
that  the  present  flowering  will  end  shortly,  but  will  begin  again  in 
the  2070s,  continue  through  the  2080s,  and  terminate  in  the  2090s. 

The  covered  jars  in  Dr.  Donald  R.  Davis's  laboratory  are  full  of 
blotched  and  discolored  leaves  on  which  one  can  see  curious  lines. 
Some  of  the  lines  are  crooked,  some  are  coiled  in  a  serpentine  man- 
ner, and  others  strike  out  in  every  direction  from  a  central  patch, 
creating  a  star-shaped  pattern.  The  leaves  were  collected  by  Dr. 
Davis  from  the  Great  Dismal  Swamp  in  Virginia,  but  they  could 
just  as  well  be  from  almost  any  garden,  park,  or  forest  in  America, 
The  marks  on  the  leaves  are  the  work  of  leaf  miners,  insect  larvae 
of  minute  size  that  can  infest  every  leaf  of  a  plant  or  tree  and  do 
enough  aggregate  damage  to  kill  their  host.  In  Canada,  the  miners 
have  been  so  destructive  to  spruce  and  fir  trees  in  the  Western 
Provinces  in  the  last  few  years  that  the  Government  has  initiated 
a  biological  study  of  these  insects  in  hopes  of  finding  a  means  of 

Last  year.  Dr.  Davis,  Curator  at  the  Museum's  Department  of 
Entomology,  began  work  on  a  biosystematic  study  directed 
specifically  at  four  important  families  of  leaf-mining  Microlepidop- 
tera  (Eriocraniidae,  Nepticulidae,  Heliozelidae,  and  Gracillariidea). 

84  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Dr.    Donald    R.    Davis,    Curator    of    Lepidoptera,    Department    of    Entomology, 
examining  leaves  with  tell-tale  markings  left  by  leaf  miners. 

Mining  behavior  of  almost  every  description,  ranging  from  the  most 
highly  specialized  to  some  of  the  most  primitive  forms,  is  practiced 
within  these  four  groups. 

One  of  the  things  Dr.  Davis  wants  to  do  through  his  study  of 
these  families  is  to  trace  the  evolutionary  history  of  mining.  Re- 
cently, Dr.  Leo  J.  Hickey,  a  Museum  paleobotanist,  found  a  Nepticu- 
lid  leaf  mine  on  a  lower  Cretaceous  Angiosperm  leaf,  a  discovery 
that  extends  this  basic  ecological  association  between  plants  and 
insects  back  nearly  110  million  years.  Dr.  Davis  is  now  examining 
the  Smithsonian-U.S.  Geological  Survey  collection  of  Cretaceous 
and  early  Tertiary  Angiosperms  for  further  evidence  of  early  Lepi- 
doptera  leaf-mining  injury. 

The  mined  leaves  that  Dr.  Davis  collects  on  trips  to  habitats  like 
the  Great  Dismal  Swamp  and  the  Great  Smoky  Mountains  are 
brought  back  to  his  Museum  laboratory  so  that  the  miner  larvae 
can  be  reared,  identified,  and  closely  observed.  Dr.  Davis  plans 
studies  of  all  phases  of  their  life  cycle,  including  oviposition,  larval 
development,  mine  morphology,  pupation,  and  adult  behavior.  He  is 
also  interested  in  correlating  the  systematics  and  behavior  of  the 
moths  with  that  of  their  plant  hosts.  Why  does  a  particular  species 
of  miner  often  only  feed  on  a  particular  species  of  plant? 

But  before  such  intriguing  biological  questions  can  be  seriously 
studied,  basic  taxonomic  revisions  must  be  prepared.  Much  of  the 
classification  of  the  four  families  was  done  in  the  nineteenth  century, 
an  age  when  moth  investigators  described  the  color  and  venation 
of  wings  —  but  little  else.  The  skeleton,  which  is  now  recognized 
as  the  best  part  of  the  insect  on  which  to  base  a  taxonomic  diagnosis, 
was  often  ignored.  Dr.  Davis  has  had  to  start  out  by  eliminating 
the  confusion  this  has  created.  He  is  now  assembling  comprehensive 
illustrated  texts  to  facilitate  rapid,  accurate  identification  for  the 
approximately  365  presently  recognized  North  American  species  and 
the  more  than  100  new  species  that  have  come  to  light  in  his  studies. 

What  will  happen  if  the  sea-level  canal  the  U.S.  Government  has 
proposed  constructing  sometime  in  the  future  across  the  Isthmus  of 
Panama  mixes  the  animal  and  plant  groups  of  the  Atlantic  and 
Pacific  sides?  Scientists  say  that  serious  ecological  disruptions  could 
follow.  Dr.  Meredith  L.  Jones,  Curator  of  Worms  in  the  Museum's 
Department  of  Invertebrate  Zoology,  saw  several  years  ago  that  the 
lack  of  fundamental  knowledge  about  the  communities  of  marine 

86  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

animals  that  live  in  the  shallow  waters  on  both  sides  of  the  isthmus 
would  make  it  extremely  difficult  to  assess  the  nature  of  these  dis- 
ruptions after  they  occur.  Well-documented  collections  were  needed 
to  provide  a  benchmark  for  future  investigations.  To  assemble  these. 
Dr.  Jones  organized  the  Museum's  Panama  Biota  Program. 

The  original  qualitative  collecting  method  involved  hand-picking 
the  organisms  from  the  surface  of  a  sieve  that  had  been  used  to 
process  an  undetermined  amount  of  sediment.  Dr.  Jones  and  his 
colleagues  devised  a  quantitative  method  that  they  are  now  using 
to  get  true  samples  of  the  density  and  diversity  of  invertebrate 
organisms  living  in  Panama's  coastal  waters.  Collections  are  made 
while  the  tide  is  still  high.  Standing  in  water  that  is  anywhere  from 
ankle  to  waist  deep,  the  scientists  drive  a  cubical  stainless  steel 
jacket,  that  has  an  area  of  1/20  of  a  square  meter,  8  inches  down 
into  the  mud.  Then  they  slide  a  shovel  under  the  jacket,  draw  it  out 
of  the  bottom,  sieve  the  sample,  and  bottle  all  of  the  residue.  In 
typical  samples  taken  the  new  way,  the  yields  comprised  an  average 
of  about  1800  specimens  per  square  meter  on  a  clean  sand  beach  on 
the  Atlantic  coast,  about  6400  specimens  per  square  meter  on  a 
muddy  sand  beach  on  the  Pacific,  and  about  46,000  specimens  per 
square  meter  in  an  Atlantic  turtle-grass  bed. 

Five  samples  are  usually  taken  at  each  collection  station  in  order 
to  insure  that  contrasting  microenvironments  within  a  habitat  are 
represented.  An  effort  has  also  been  made  to  take  samples  at  each 
station  at  every  season  of  the  year. 

At  the  Museum,  a  technician-student  has  been  making  quantita- 
tive counts  of  invertebrate  life  forms  in  each  sample,  classifying  the 
animals  by  families.  There  is  such  an  abundance  of  life  in  each 
sample  that  processing  it  takes  the  technician  six  full  days  of  work. 
When  Dr.  Jones  examines  the  worms  in  a  sample  to  identify  them 
at  a  species  level,  six  more  days  of  work  are  involved.  He  estimates 
that  it  will  take  him  three  to  four  years  to  get  through  all  of  the 
samples  that  have  been  collected. 

If  a  sea-level  canal  should  be  constructed.  Dr.  Jones  is  satisfied 
that  now  scientists  will  be  able  to  go  back  to  the  same  site,  make  new 
collections,  and  then  make  comparisons  that  will  show  them  what  is 
happening,  and  enable  them  to  predict  what  will  happen  next  and 
if  it  will  be  beneficial  or  harmful.  If  the  sea-level  canal  is  never 
constructed.  Dr.  Jones  believes  the  Program  is  still  well  worthwhile. 

Science  I  87 

It  is  accumulating  collections  of  unique  value  in  an  area  of  tremen- 
dous biological  interest. 

The  present  Panama  Canal  with  freshwater  lakes  situated  mid- 
way along  its  length  has  proved  a  highly  effective  barrier  to  the 
passage  of  marine  life  from  one  side  of  Central  America  to  the  other. 
So  a  scientist's  curiosity  is  aroused  when  a  marine  fish  native  to  the 
Pacific  shows  up  in  the  Caribbean.  Dr.  Victor  G.  Springer,  Curator 
of  Fishes  in  the  Museum's  Department  of  Vertebrate  Zoology,  re- 
cently looked  into  the  matter  of  a  tropical  Indo-West  Pacific  blenniid 
fish  population  living  off  Trinidad  and  the  Atlantic  entrance  to  the 
Canal.  Was  it  a  relic  population  that  was  once  distributed  through- 
out the  world's  tropic  waters  or  had  it  been  artificially  introduced, 
conceivably  through  the  Canal? 

The  facts  argued  against  its  being  a  relic  population.  Members  of 
the  blenniid  family  speciate  rapidly  and  no  blenniid  species  is  found 
in  both  the  eastern  Pacific  and  western  Atlantic  Oceans,  which  were 
last  connected  2  to  4  million  years  ago.  If  the  fish  had  once  been 
widely  distributed  in  the  tropics,  its  Indo-West  Pacific  and  Caribbean 
populations  would  have  evolved  into  different  species  since  the  rise 
of  the  isthmus.  Dr.  Springer  concluded  that  it  must  have  been  arti- 
ficially introduced  into  the  western  Atlantic,  probably  by  the  dis- 
charge of  ballast  or  bilge  waters  of  ships.  The  fish  is  small  and 
found  in  abundance  around  docks  where  it  can  easily  be  sucked 
into  a  ship's  ballast  tanks.  Other  small  marine  fish  have  been  picked 
up  in  this  way,  taken  thousands  of  miles,  released  when  the  ship 
discharged  its  bilge  waters,  and  established  breeding  populations. 
But  this  is  the  only  instance  of  a  fish  being  introduced  in  this  way 
into  the  Caribbean. 

Did  the  ships  that  brought  the  fish  to  the  Caribbean  enter  through 
the  Canal?  Dr.  Springer  thinks  not.  Ships  coming  across  the  Pacific 
discharge  their  bilge-ballast  water  before  they  enter  the  Canal;  that 
being  the  case,  the  fish  should  be  established  on  the  Pacific  side  of 
the  Canal.  But  it  has  never  been  found  there  or  anywhere  else  in  the 
eastern  Pacific,  but  it  does  occur  at  the  Atlantic  entrance  to  the 
Canal.  Trinidad  is  where  the  fish  has  its  principal  Caribbean  popula- 
tion and  where  it  was  first  collected  in  the  Atlantic  in  1930.  Dr. 
Springer  believes  that  instead  of  coming  across  the  Pacific,  the  fish 
arrived  in  Trinidad  from  the  Indo-West  Pacific  via  the  Atlantic 
before  the  Canal  was  first  opened  in  1914. 

88  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 




Dr.  Meredith  L.  Jones,  Curator  of  Worms  in  the  Department  of  Invertebrate 
Zoology,  examining  specimens  in  a  sieve. 

Omobranchus  punctatus,  subject  of  study  by  Dr.  Victor  G.  Springer,  Curator  of 
Fishes  in  the  Department  of  Vertebrate  Zoology. 

The  trail  led  Dr.  Springer  to  the  East  Indian  coolie  trade  that  flour- 
ished between  Calcutta  and  Madras,  on  the  east  coast  of  India,  and 
the  West  Indies  islands  in  the  years  from  1838  to  1914  and  1917.  In 
that  period,  thousands  of  coolies  arrived  on  ships  that  traveled  from 
India  to  the  Caribbean  around  southern  Africa.  It  is  Dr.  Springer's 
view  that  the  coolie  trade  vessels  were  the  vehicles  that  introduced 
Omobranchus  punctatus  into  the  western  Atlantic. 

Garnet  can  be  yellow,  orange,  red,  lilac  or  purple,  depending  on 
its  chemical  composition  and  upon  the  temperature  and  pressure 
conditions  under  which  it  formed  in  the  earth.  It  has  long  been 
known  by  scientists  that  this  colorful  mineral  occurs  in  varying 
quantities  in  kimberlite  pipes,  the  bodies  of  igneous  rock  that  are  the 
primary  source  of  diamonds.  But  the  fact  that  there  was  a  high  or 
low  concentration  of  garnet  in  a  pipe  did  not  seem  to  indicate  one 
way  or  the  other  if  there  was  an  abundance  or  dearth  of  diamonds 
present.  Last  year,  however.  Dr.  George  S.  Switzer,  Curator  of  Min- 
eralogy in  the  Museum's  Department  of  Mineral  Science,  discovered 
that  certain  lilac-colored  garnets  have  special  compositional  charac- 
teristics that  make  it  possible  to  say  that  if  they  are  present  in  a 
pipe,  it  is  a  diagnostic  indication  that  diamonds  are  likely  to  be  found 
there  in  economic  quantities. 

These  garnets  are  formed  —  as  diamonds  are  —  in  the  earth's 
upper  mantle  at  a  depth  of  100-150  miles.  When  molten  kimberlite 
forces  its  way  to  the  surface  at  velocities  estimated  to  be  on  the  order 
of  300-400  feet  per  second,  it  sometimes  brings  both  of  these  min- 
erals up  with  it  from  the  earth's  interior.  The  garnet  is  found  in  the 
pipes  in  rocks  called  xenoliths  (eclogites  and  periodites)  and  some- 
times in  diamonds  as  minute  inclusions.  Because  of  its  occurrence  in 
diamonds,  all  of  the  garnet  was  thought  by  some  scientists  to  have 
crystallized  (reached  equilibrium)  at  the  same  time,  place,  and  tem- 
perature as  the  diamonds.  Another  school  of  thought,  however, 
held  that  the  garnets  in  kimberlite  xenoliths  crystallized  at  lower 
temperatures  than  garnet  inside  the  diamond. 

These  two  opposing  views  were  tested  by  Dr.  Switzer  in  a  detailed 
study  of  the  garnet  in  the  Finsch  kimberlite  pipe,  one  of  the  richest 
diamond  mines  in  South  Africa.  Finsch  is  also  rich  in  garnet.  It 
makes  up  90  percent  of  the  mineral  concentrate  recovered  there  dur- 
ing the  diamond  extraction  process. 

Dr.  Switzer  brought  back  to  the  Museum  a  handful  of  garnet 

90  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


Dr.  George  S.  Switzer,  Curator  of  Mineralogy,  Department  of  Mineral  Science, 

using  the  electron  microprobe. 

grains  of  all  colors  that  had  been  recovered  at  Finsch  in  the  extraction 
process.  He  sorted  300  of  these  on  the  basis  of  color  into  eight  cate- 
gories and  analyzed  them  on  the  Department's  electron  microprobe, 
which  can  identify  and  quantify  the  elements  within  each  grain. 

The  results  showed  that  some  of  the  grains  of  lilac-colored  gar- 
nets —  magnesum  rich  and  calcium  poor  —  had  a  chromium  con- 
tent that  placed  them  within  the  compositional  field  of  the  garnets 
previously  only  reported  as  inclusions  in  diamonds.  Dr.  Switzer,  who 
is  now  testing  garnets  from  other  kimberlite  pipes,  believes  that  the 
presence  of  lilac-colored  diamond  of  this  special  composition  is  diag- 
nostic of  the  presence  of  diamond  in  a  pipe,  but  it  is  not  known  yet 
if  there  is  any  quantitative  relationship. 

Science  I  91 

Dr.  Daniel  J.  Stanley  is  holding  a  sediment  core  from  the  Mediterranean. 

Dr.  Daniel  J.  Stanley,  Geological  Oceanographer  and  Curator  in 
the  Museum's  Department  of  Paleobiology,  is  helping  piece  together 
a  detailed  knowledge  of  the  physical  processes  that  shape  the  Medi- 
terranean region,  a  project  that  often  finds  him  out  on  an  oceano- 
graphic  vessel  taking  sediment  cores  from  the  Mediterranean  Sea 
bed.  The  recent  development  of  deep-sea  drilling  technology  as  well 
as  submersibles  —  deep-sea*  cameras,  underwater  television,  and 
very  high  resolution  seismic  profilers  —  have  made  it  possible  for 

92  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

•^View  toward  the  north  from  the  summit  of  the  Rock  of  Gibraltar  showing  the 
powerful  nearshore  currents  flowing  parallel  to  the  coast  in  the  westernmost 
Mediterranean  Sea.  The  concrete  revetment  in  the  foreground  is  a  rain-water  catch- 
ment structure.  Below:  Wind  is  a  significant  agent  for  transporting  sediment  to  sea 
in  the  Mediterranean  Sea.  The  photograph  taken  in  April  1973  near  Pointe  des 
Pecheurs  on  the  northern  coast  of  Morocco  shows  silt-  and  sand-size  material  being 
blown  out  to  sea  by  a  powerful  Sirocco  wind. 

.-^   ~X 

him  and  other  scientists  to  carry  out  revolutionary  studies  that  make 
it  apparent  that  the  configuration  of  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  as  we; 
know  it  today,  is  a  geologically  recent  phenomenon. 

This  emerging  picture  of  geologic  change  includes  Dr.  Stanley's 
discovery  of  sedimentological  evidence  for  the  existence  of  a  large 
emerged  land  mass  present  in  the  area  now  occupied  by  the  Ligurian 
Sea  (between  the  Riviera  and  Corsica,  in  the  western  Mediterranean) 
until  early  Tertiary  time.  Seismic  studies  of  the  present  Ligurian  Sea 
floor,  and  examination  of  exposed  sediments  found  in  the  French 
Maritime  Alps,  Corsica,  and  the  northwestern  Apennines  of  Italy, 
confirm  that  this  land  mass  foundered  and  became  submerged  after 
the  Oligocene. 

Finding  specimens  of  exposed  ancient  sedimentary  deposits  — 
now  uplifted  to  10,000  feet  above  sea  level  in  the  mountain  chains 
that  surround  the  Mediterranean  —  is  one  part  of  Dr.  Stanley's  i 
work  that  does  not  require  advanced  technology.  For  this.  Dr.  Stan- 
ley depends  upon  his  keen  geologist's  eye  and  his  skill  as  a  mountain 

The  publication  in  1973  of  the  765-page  bilingual  volume  The 
Mediterranean  Sea:  A  Natural  Sedimentation  Laboratory,  edited  by 
Dr.  Stanley  and  Drs.  Gilbert  Kelling  and  Yehezkiel  Weiler,  was  the 
result  of  Dr.  Stanley's  determination  to  achieve  a  needed  multi- 
disciplinary  and  multinational  synthesis  of  current  research  in  sedi- 
mentation and  related  fields  in  the  Mediterranean  and  circum- 
Mediterranean.  The  book  has  contributions  by  85  specialists  from 
15  countries,  all  of  whom  participated  in  a  symposium  organized  by 
Dr.  Stanley  in  1971  at  the  VIII  International  Sedimentological  Con- 
gress in  Heidelberg. 

The  book  includes  an  outline  of  criteria  for  a  needed  international 
effort  to  find  out  what  happens  to  pollutants  when  they  are  intro- 
duced into  the  Mediterranean,  where  they  go,  and  what  their  conse- 
quences are.  It  calls  for  the  construction  of  monitoring  stations  to 
detect  and  map  sediment  and  pollutant  dispersal  and  depositation; 
aerial  flights  and  space-satellite  photography  to  monitor  the  dis- 
charge of  sediments  from  river  mouths,  and  rates  of  serious  erosion 
along  selected  coastlines  (such  as  the  Nile  Delta  area  affected  by  the 
Aswan  Dam);  and,  finally,  more  deep-sea  drilling  to  resolve  addi- 
tional questions  of  the  Mediterranean's  geological  and  stratigraphic 

94  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

National  Zoological  Park 

The  National  Zoological  Park  is  accelerating  its  change  from  cages 
for  containment  of  species  to  open  arenas  for  awareness  of  the  rela- 
tionship of  all  living  things;  from  a  consumer  of  animals  out  of  the 
wild  into  a  conservator  and  producer  of  animals  and  into  a  major 
zoological  resource  of  animal  knowledge  that  can  be  disseminated 
around  the  world. 

In  fiscal  year  1974,  the  Zoo  advanced  efforts  to  establish  new 
standards  of  excellence  and  responsibility  in  all  areas  of  zoological 
park  programs  with  concurrent  courses  of  action: 

Rebuilding  yesterday's  zoo  for  tomorrow's  purpose. 

Marshalling  the  most  creative  contributions  of  all  staff  members. 

Launching  necessary  programs  in  off-site  breeding  and  research. 

Studying  the  relationships  of  animals  to  one  another,  to  place  and 
to  time  —  and  in  time  for  survival. 

Coordinating  resources  in  forms  that  will  reach  people  of  all  ages 
and  walks  of  life. 

Parent  and  four  young  barn  owls  which  were  hatched  in  the  tower  of  the 
Smithsonian  Castle.  (Photograph  by  M.  J.  Johnson,  NZP) 

Science  I  95 


Perhaps  the  Zoo's  most  notable  achievement  since  its  founding  in 
1890  was  receiving,  in  January  1974,  a  permit  for  3200  acres  of 
land  in  Front  Royal,  Virginia,  that  formerly  served  successively  as  a 
United  States  Army  Remount  Depot  for  horse  breeding,  and  the 
United  States  Department  of  Agriculture  as  a  Beef  Cattle  Experi- 
ment Station. 

The  acquisition  of  this  propagation  and  research  facility  —  to  be 
known  as  the  National  Zoological  Park's  Research  and  Conservation 
Center  —  will  mark  the  end  of  the  long  search  for  a  country  facility 
which  could  be  used  to  breed  and  maintain  animal  herds  in  sufficient 
numbers  to  insure  their  continuation  as  a  viable,  social,  and  genetic 
group.  The  educational  mission  of  the  National  Zoological  Park 
located  in  the  valley  of  Rock  Creek  in  Washington  precludes  the  use 
of  vast  amounts  of  land  for  a  single  species  so  that  it  is  not  able  to 
maintain  ongoing  herds  of  animals  with  proper  age-pyramid  and 
genetic  mixture.  Considering  the  worldwide  shrinking  of  land  areas 
available  to  wild  animals,  the  increased  hazards  of  disease,  poach- 
ing, and  land  degradation  by  humans,  the  plight  of  many  animals  is 
indeed  precarious.  It  is  hoped  that  by  establishing  herds  of  threat- 
ened and  endangered  species  at  the  Research  and  Conservation  Cen- 
ter, in  some  cases  through  collaboration  with  other  zoos  in  the  United 
States,  the  Zoo  will  have  a  steady  and  reliable  source  of  animals  as 
well  as  a  source  for  continuing  zoological  research  on  behalf  of  these 

The  development  of  the  Research  and  Conservation  Center  will 
be  deliberately  paced,  and  future  reports  will  carry  information  con- 
cerning its  advancement.  This  year  the  Zoo  was  able  to  enclose  80 
acres  of  rolling  pasture  for  the  first  two  resident  groups  of  animals 
—  Scimitar-horned  Oryx  and  Pere  David's  Deer. 

The  Front  Royal  Center  will  be  an  extension  of  the  Rock  Creek 
Park  facility  with  major  input  in  the  first  few  years  from  the  Offices 
of  Animal  Management,  Animal  Health,  Zoological  Research,  Con- 
struction Management,  and  Facilities  Management.  Public  informa- 
tion efforts  at  the  Center  focus  now  on  the  animal's  needs  for  isola- 
tion and  space.  Low-key  programs  in  conservation,  education,  and 
natural  viewing  will  be  planned  for  coexistence  with  the  principal 
mission  in  future  years.  When  we  speak  of  the  National  Zoological 

96  I  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Aerial  view  of  research  and  breeding  farm  at  Front  Royal,  Virginia,  recently 

acquired  by  the  Zoo. 

Park,  we  are  now  referring  to  3400  acres  in  two  locations  but  with 
one  purpose,  one  management,  and  one  organization. 


The  most  interesting  and  exciting  animal  event  was  the  birth  of  an 
Indian  Rhinoceros  in  January,  marking  the  first  successful  breeding 
of  this  endangered  species  in  the  Western  Hemisphere.  This  achieve- 
ment was  the  result  of  almost  two  years  of  concerted  and  integrated 
efforts  by  the  scientific  research  staff,  curators,  keepers,  and  even 
volunteers  who  remained  in  the  Zoo  after  hours  to  monitor  the  male's 
and  female's  activities  during  mating  and  later  at  birth.  Therefore, 
the  Zoo  not  only  gained  a  127-pound  male  (named  Patrick  in  honor 


Patrick,  Indian  rhinoceros.  Rhinoceros  unicornis,  born  to  Rajkumari  and  Tarun 
on  January  30,  1974.  Patrick  is  the'first  live  Indian  rhinoceros  born  in  captivity 
in  the  United  States. 

98  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

of  Daniel  Patrick  Moynihan,  our  United  States  Ambassador  to  In- 
dia), but  also  a  wealth  of  valuable  data  on  courtship,  mating,  and 
parturition  behavior.  At  six  months  of  age,  we  estimate  Patrick's 
weight  to  be  about  350  pounds;  however,  he  is  too  rambunctious  to 
get  onto  the  scales. 

Among  the  antelope,  the  most  outstanding  birth  was  that  of  a 
lovely  female  calf  to  Kanitia,  the  imported  Bongo;  and  the  hope  of 
a  second-generation  birth  on  her  mother's  side  to  Nyandarua,  Kan- 
itia's  offspring  of  two  years  ago.  Nyandarua  was  the  first  Bongo 
bred  and  born  in  captivity  in  the  world. 

The  lesser  pandas  gave  birth  to  their  second  pair  of  kits  on  the 
next  to  last  day  of  the  fiscal  year  so  were  not  mentioned  in  last  year's 
report,  and  as  if  to  catch  us  again,  their  pair  from  the  year  before 
provided  the  Zoo  with  young  on  the  night  of  June  30,  1974. 

The  white-cheeked  gibbon  family  produced  a  fine  offspring  to  the 
delight  of  the  staff  and  the  visitors;  and  for  the  first  time  at  the 
National  Zoological  Park,  the  binturongs  produced  young,  which 
are  being  closely  studied  both  for  their  growth  and  development  as 
well  as  their  behavioral  relationship  with  the  mother.  The  golden 
marmoset  program  continues  to  go  well  in  terms  of  understanding 
the  tie-in  of  behavior  and  reproduction.  The  Zoo  now  has  20  ani- 
mals with  birth  this  year  of  a  first  set  of  second-generation  offspring 
as  well  as  a  set  of  twins  from  a  wild-caught  pair. 

Ling-Ling  and  Hsing-Hsing,  the  giant  pandas,  continue  to  thrive 
and  hold  the  interest  of  the  visiting  public,  behaving  in  their  new 
yards  rather  like  children  released  from  school  because  of  snow  — 
rolling,  somersaulting,  playfully  demolishing  snowmen  made  for  the 
occasion  by  the  keepers.  They  are  still  unquestionably  the  most 
popular  animals  at  the  Zoo.  Ling-Ling,  the  female,  now  weighs  250 
pounds  and  Hsing-Hsing,  the  male,  weighs  264  pounds.  Studies  on 
their  behavior,  vocalization,  social  relationships,  and  general  habits 
are  continuing  with  the  assistance  of  volunteers  from  the  Friends  of 
the  National  Zoo  to  the  scientific  research  staff  and  to  the  keeper 
and  curatorial  personnel.  This  April,  Ling-Ling  came  into  estrus, 
and  we  all  had  high  hopes  that  there  would  be  a  breeding,  particu- 
larly with  the  promising  experiences  of  last  year.  However,  although 
the  animals  got  along  well  with  the  normal  amount  of  premating, 
roughhouse  play,  vocalizations,  and  general  juvenile  nonsense,  there 
was  no  actual  breeding.  No  doubt  this  has  been  a  further  learning 

Science  I  99 

experience  for  the  male,  but  it  appeared  to  be  a  frustrating  experi- 
ence for  the  female.  There  are  hopes  for  a  breeding  in  the  fall  season, 
but  if  not  then  perhaps  next  spring  when  they  are  both  older  and 
wiser  from  their  two  encounters. 

Despite  the  move  of  the  white  tigers  (Mohini  and  Rewati)  to  Chi- 
cago's Brookfield  Zoo  and  the  white-gene  carrying  Ramana  and 
Kesari  to  the  Cincinnati  Zoo  to  allow  replacement  of  the  old  Lion 
House,  the  latter  pair  added  a  new  chapter  to  the  breeding  program 
by  producing  four  cubs,  three  of  which  are  white.  A  normal-colored  ^i 
male,  along  with  a  white  male  were  taken  from  the  mother  for  hand- 
rearing  and  are  doing  well  under  the  expert  care  of  the  Cincinnati 
staff,  and  the  same  can  be  said  for  the  two,  unsexed  animals  who 
remain  with  their  mother,  Kesari.  Unfortunately,  the  sire  Ramana 
passed  away  the  week  before  with  a  chronic  kidney  condition,  which 
is  so  often  seen  in  the  big  cats  between  10  or  12  years  of  age.  These 
four  new  cubs  give  great  hope  for  continuing  the  line  of  white  tigers 
and  should  be  a  stellar  attraction  when  the  "Dr.  William  M.  Mann 
Lion  and  Tiger  Exhibit"  is  completed,  hopefully  in  early  1976. 

Among  the  outstanding  bird  hatchings  can  be  counted  the  con- 
tinuation of  the  Bornean  Great  Argus  Pheasant  breeding  program 
with  the  successful  raising  of  12  of  these  young  birds.  Rivaling  the 
success  of  this  program  was  the  raising  of  three  Nene  Geese  for  the 
first  time  in  the  history  of  the  Zoo.  Other  outstanding  hatchings 
include  three  Stanley's  Cranes,  ten  Rheas,  and  three  American 

Among  the  reptiles,  the  most  notable  breeding  was  of  the  Bur- 
mese pythons  in  which  three  clutches  were  laid  and  45  young  snakes 
were  hatched.  This  program  was  of  great  scientific  interest  as  incu- 
bation of  the  eggs  was  carried  out  both  artificially  and  naturally.  In 
the  latter  case  the  females  coiled  around  the  egg  masses,  maintaining 
the  proper  body  heat  by  rhythmic  muscle  twitchings.  This  process 
was  of  great  interest  to  the  visitors  and  particularly  so  since  electrical 
sensors  were  connected  to  recording  thermometers  to  trace  tempera- 
ture fluctuations. 

The  breeding  program  at  the  National  Zoological  Park  is  pro- 
gressing quite  well,  space  permitting,  and  the  efforts  of  the  scientific 
research  department's  behavioral  studies,  the  contributions  from  the 
animal  health  department  on  nutrition,  preventive  medicine,  as  well 
as  the  diligent  endeavors  of  the  animal  management  department  are 

100  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Burmese  pythons.  Python  molurus  bivittatus,  incubating  their  clutches  of  eggs. 
The  probes  under  the  pythons  are  attached  to  a  telethermometer  in  order  to 
determine  the  body  heat.  Of  the  total  of  71  eggs  laid,  20  hatched. 

Science  I  101 

beginning  to  pay  off.  At  the  present  tinne,  66  percent  of  all  mammals 
exhibited  at  the  Zoo  are  captive  born  either  here  or  at  other  zoos. 
Approximately  30  percent  of  the  mammals  species,  14  percent  of 
the  bird  species,  8  percent  of  the  reptile  and  amphibian  species  in 
the  collection  are  breeding.  This  is  a  slight  but  significant  increase 
over  previous  years. 

While  it  is  pleasant  to  report  on  significant  births,  note  must  also 
be  taken  of  deaths,  and  four  famous  old-timers  at  the  Zoo  have 
passed  on.  Pokodiak,  a  female  hybrid  bear  (Alaskan  Brown  X  Polar 
Bear),  born  in  1936,  died  in  April  at  the  age  of  38  years.  She  is  the 
last  of  the  National  Zoological  Park's  famous  hybrid  bears  which 
had  such  an  eminently  popular  appeal  due  to  their  great  size  and 
unusual  family  background.  Biggy,  the  14-foot  saltwater  crocodile, 
one  of  the  largest  crocodilians  in  captivity,  died  this  March  after 
42  years  on  exhibition.  He  was  a  spectacular  animal  and  well  beloved 
by  his  visitors.  The  Silver-crested  Cockatoo,  Richard,  originally 
known  as  Jacob,  died  in  February.  This  bird  was  brought  back  from 
Sumatra  as  a  mature  bird  by  Dr.  Mann  with  the  1937  National 
Geographic/Smithsonian  Institution  Expedition.  He  had  been  for 
many  years  in  the  home  of  a  Dutch  plantation  owner  and  spoke  a 
smattering  of  Dutch  and  Indonesian.  He  was  a  great  delight  to  the 
visitors,  being  an  excellent  talker.  He  soon  learned  English,  and  one 
of  his  favorite  phrases,  "open  the  door,  Richard,"  gradually  brought 
about  his  change  in  name  by  which  in  later  years  he  was  known. 
This  bird  was  thoroughly  imprinted  on  human  beings  and  would 
have  nothing  to  do  with  his  feathered  kin,  preferring  the  company 
of  humans;  for  this  reason  since  1965  he  was  exhibited  in  the  Ele- 
phant House  to  the  delight  of  thousands  of  children  if  not  to  the 
delight  of  the  hippopotamuses,  his  nearest  neighbors.  His  maniacal 
laughter,  joyous  whistling,  and  general  rowdiness  will  be  missed.  He 
has  been  replaced  by  an  Amazon  parrot,  who  was  given  to  the  Zoo 
as  a  pet  similarly  imprinted. 

The  animal  health  programs  have  continued  with  ongoing  investi- 
gative research.  With  the  addition  of  an  assistant  veterinarian,  the 
program  has  been  greatly  accelerated,  including  initiation  of  a  train- 
ing course  for  Animal  Keepers  to  expand  their  ability  to  recognize 
deviation  from  healthful  behavior  and  habits  which  may  signify  the 

102  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


One  of  seven  smooth-fronted  caiman,  Paleosuchus  trigonatus,  imported  from 
the  Amazon  Basin  for  a  breeding  program  as  well  as  adding  a  new  species 

to  the  collections. 

existence  of  potential  health  problems.  The  death  rate  has  lessened 
slightly  and  significant  improvements  are  anticipated  in  the  future. 
Investigations  into  collection-based  health  problems  were  multi- 
plied to  include : 

1.  A  study  of  avian  orthopedics  because  existing  fracture  repair 
techniques  fall  short  of  preventing  shattering  in  weakened  bones. 
The  techniques  currently  being  tested  consist  of  multiple  pins  and 
external  fracture  fixation. 

2.  A  study  of  avian  hematology  to  increase  knowledge  of  the 
sources  of  avian  diseases,  a  field  heretofore  not  well  studied  even 
though  species  of  birds  represent  the  largest  proportion  of  our  col- 
lection. Diagnostic  techniques  involving  use  of  blood  serum  constitu- 
ents have  been  virtually  unknown  in  birds.  The  study  thus  far  indi- 
cates that  white  blood  cell  level  might  be  an  effective  indicator  of 
infectious  diseases  which  respond  to  antibiotic  treatment.  A  paper 
has  been  prepared  and  submitted  for  publication. 

Science  1 103 

3.  A  Tiger  Virus  Disease  study  has  been  started  to  isolate  the  viral 
agent  believed,  as  a  result  of  tissue  alterations  identified  through 
light  microscopy,  to  be  the  possible  cause  of  white  tiger  cubs'  deaths 
earlier  in  the  year. 

Studies  continued  into  avian  tuberculosis,  selenium-vitamin  E  de- 
ficiency, chromosome  studies  for  taxonomic  designation,  sable  blood, 
reindeer  metabolism,  and  the  important  area  of  establishing  normal 
blood  values  for  exotic  species.  The  office  has  cooperated  in  the  de- 
velopment of  capture  equipment  and  participated  in  field  trials  of 
newly  developed  immobilizing  agents. 

This  unit  has  established  a  series  of  seminars  for  veterinarians  on 
the  East  Coast  that  are  involved  in  exotic-animal  medicine,  and  this 
long-felt  need  for  the  improvement  of  exotic-animal  medicine  has 
been  well  received  by  the  participants. 


The  Office  of  Zoological  Research,  under  Dr.  John  Eisenberg, 
achieved  notable  progress  on  24  projects  in  field  mammalian  ecology, 
reproduction,  behavioral  analysis,  and  nutritional  analysis.  As  one 
arbitrary  measure  of  success,  28  original  contributions  were  pub- 
lished in  the  department's  six  years  of  history  to  1972,  and  43  titles, 
with  9  more  now  in  press,  since  then.  Nine  graduate  students  and 
two  postdoctoral  students  from  six  universities  were  guided  and 
supported  in  1974. 

Field  efforts  in  the  neotropics  by  Dr.  G.  C.  Montgomery  illumi- 
nated the  importance  of  the  significant  biomass  contributions  of  the 
three-toed  sloth  and  of  the  lesser  anteater,  as  well  as  to  improving 
chances  for  their  eventual  captive  acclimatization.  Other  studies  inte- 
grated with  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  and  the  Smith- 
sonian Tropical  Research  Institute  advanced  with  respect  to  a  host 
of  rodent  and  primate  species. 

Methods  for  scoring  the  behavior  of  female  mammals  as  they  pass 
through  estrus  were  developed  by  Dr.  Devra  Kleiman.  Behavioral 
changes  associated  with  estrus  in  the  tigress  were  published  for  the 
first  time.  The  role  of  olfaction  as  a  mediator  of  reproductive  behav- 
ior in  the  binturong  was  published.  The  propagation  of  the  golden 
marmoset  in  the  second  generation  was  accomplished  by  Dr.  Klei- 
man and  associated  staff.  The  analysis  of  reproductive  behavior  of 
the  lesser  panda  and  factors  contributing  to  reproductive  success  in 

104  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

the  giant  panda  were  described.  The  reproductive  behavior  and  cy- 
cHng  in  the  Indian  rhinoceros  was  worked  out  by  Dr.  H.  K.  Buechner 
and  associates.  Dr.  Buechner  also  initiated  a  long-term  study  on  the 
determination  of  estrus  and  sexual  behavior  in  the  sable  antelope. 

Studies  on  reproduction  in  caviomorph  rodents  have  proceeded 
in  the  Zoo  collection  resulting  in  the  first  establishment  of  captive 
colonies  of  two  —  Octodontomys  gliroides  and  Pediolagus  salini- 
cola  —  and  the  Zoo  being  in  position  to  rear  successfully  two  more. 
The  breeding  of  Carollia  perspicillata,  a  species  of  fruit  bat,  was  a 
milestone  study  in  the  effective  management  of  Chiropterans. 

Recognizing  the  importance  of  olfaction  and  the  role  of  olfactory 
signals  in  the  priming  and  triggering  of  sexual  behavior,  several 
rodent  species  have  been  explored  by  Dr.  Michael  Murphy,  includ- 
ing wild  stocks  of  the  golden  hamster  and  three  genera  of  cavio- 
morph rodents. 

Aspects  of  animal  communication,  the  genesis  of  social  bonds, 
and  the  structure  of  mammalian  societies  have  been  under  intensive 
investigation  with  self-evident  applications  to  animal  management. 
For  example,  efforts  in  1974  show  that  the  success  of  second-genera- 
tion breeding  in  the  golden  marmoset  hinges  upon  an  understanding 
of  the  formation  of  social  bonds  and  the  role  of  early  experience  in 
the  participation  of  rearing  young.  Through  analysis,  such  as  are 
currently  being  carried  on  in  the  Zoo  and  in  parallel  in  the  field,  an 
understanding  and  interpretation  of  communication  in,  for  example, 
the  spider  monkey  now  becomes  possible. 

Dr.  Eisenberg  and  his  associates  were  deeply  involved  guiding  the 
success  of  the  Thirteenth  International  Congress  of  Ethology  held 
in  August  with  George  Washington  University  and  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  being  the  co-hosts.  Scientists  from  many  differ- 
ent nations  attended,  resulting  in  an  exciting  exchange  of  stimulating 
scientific  information. 


As  mentioned  previously  the  old  Lion  House  has  been  demolished 
and  the  new  exhibit  will  begin  construction  early  in  July.  The  char- 
acter of  "lion  house  hill"  is  changing  and  for  the  definite  advantage 
of  the  big  cats  and  their  visiting  public.  The  old  Monkey  House  is 
being  renovated  at  this  time  and  should  be  completed  early  in  the 
next  calendar  year.  This  house,  built  in  1904,  will  be  modernized 

Science  I  105 

to  have  12  glass-fronted,  larger  inside  exhibit  cages  and  the  corre- 
sponding number  of  outside  cages.  The  selection  of  monkeys  will 
be  fewer  than  were  exhibited  before,  but  they  will  be  in  larger  family 
groups.  The  old,  small-cat  house  generally  referred  to  as  the  "puma 
house"  has  been  removed  and  plans  are  being  prepared  for  its  re- 
placement by  a  series  of  free  standing  corn-crib-type  cages  to  house 
the  lesser  cats,  such  as  pumas,  lynx,  and  servals.  The  dog  line  below 
the  sea  lion  pool  has  also  been  removed  with  anticipated  replacement 
next  year  by  fewer  but  larger  compounds. 

Plans  are  proceeding  for  the  renovation  of  the  outside  Elephant 
House  yards  as  well  as  of  the  outside  cages  around  the  Bird  House. 
New  cheetah  facilities  are  being  presently  constructed  just  north  of 
the  sea  lion  pool.  This  will  consist  of  spacious  double  enclosures 
that  will  give  the  cheetahs  a  much  larger  area  in  which  to  run.  This 
will  also  allow  separation  of  the  males  and  females  and  it  is  hoped 
will  enable  the  establishment  of  a  breeding  program  for  these  lovely 
cats.  In  this  vein  the  Zoo  has  secured,  on  breeding  loan,  a  pair  of 
cheetahs  from  the  Baltimore  Zoo  and  a  second  pair  from  the  Chey- 
enne Mountain  Zoo  in  Colorado  Springs.  Based  on  recent  success  of 
cheetah  breedings  at  the  San  Diego  Zoo  and  Lion  Country  Safari,  it 
is  hoped  that  a  rotating  encounter  program  can  be  established  be- 
tween the  males  and  the  females  which  will  result  in  successful 


In  1974,  an  effort  was  launched  to  bring  progress  in  graphics,  ex- 
hibits, education,  and  information  up  to  the  pace  now  being  set  by 
the  Zoo's  sound  and  progressive  programs  in  animal  management, 
animal  health,  and  zoological  research.  The  Visitor  Services  Group, 
led  by  an  assistant  director,  assembled  the  Office  of  Graphics  and 
Exhibits,  Education  and  Information,  and  the  Protective  Services 
with  the  mission  of  providing  the  Zoo  visitor  good  guidance  and 
opportunities  for  quality  educational  experiences,  and  a  high  degree 
of  public  service  and  accommodation.  This  effort  coordinates  with 
the  Friends  of  the  National  Zoo  as  they  continue  to  carry  the  Zoo's 
educational  programs  to  the  visitors,  to  the  local  school  systems, 
and  surrounding  community. 

The  information  and  education  staffs  are  being  increased,  and 
exhibits  came  under  the  control  of  an  experienced  and  creative  de- 

106  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

signer  in  order  to  bring  the  interpretive  program  up  to  highest  stand- 
ards. This  person  will  also  work  closely  with  the  designers,  Wyman 
and  Cannon,  Inc.,  contracted  with  under  a  matching  grant  from  the 
National  Endowment  for  the  Arts  to  develop  a  Master  Graphics 
Plan  and  Design  Manual  for  the  Zoo. 

Another  important  new  service  for  both  the  employees  and  visi- 
tors was  the  appointment  of  a  Health  and  Safety  Officer,  with  in- 
creased emphasis  on  providing  this  vital  area  of  visitor  services. 

Management  efforts  in  general  in  fiscal  1974  focused  on  building 
up  understanding  and  administrative  capability  at  the  level  of  the 
operating  offices  assembled  into  the  Animal  Programs  Group,  Visi- 
tor Services  Group,  and  Central  Services  Group.  Central  manage- 
ment was  reduced  to  a  handful  of  people  working  to  help  guide  the 
growth  and  progress  of  the  ambitious  and  spirited  Zoo  staff. 

Office  of  International  and  Environmental  Programs 

The  new  Office  was  established  on  October  15, 1973,  combining  the 
Offices  of  International  Activities  and  Environmental  Sciences.  It  is 
designed  to  further  increase  opportunities  for  the  Smithsonian  to 
conduct  research  abroad  through  the  application  of  its  traditional 
strengths  in  collection-based  natural  history  to  ecosystem-oriented 
studies  in  the  tropics.  A  new  International  Environmental  Science 
Program,  incorporating  the  former  programs  in  Oceanography,  Lim- 
nology, and  Ecology,  was  initiated  at  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year.  The 
previous  program  categories  are  used  below  to  describe  studies 
conducted  during  1973. 

The  Office  also  continues  to  provide  support  to  United  States  re- 
search institutions,  including  the  Smithsonian,  through  Foreign 
Currency  Program  grants,  and  service  to  other  Smithsonian  units 
through  the  Liaison  Section  of  the  International  Activities  Program. 

The  Center  for  Short-Lived  Phenomena,  an  independent  unit  of 
the  Office  in  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  provides  for  the  rapid  com- 
munication of  technical  data  on  natural  and  environmental  phe- 
nomena of  short  duration  through  a  global  network  of  scientific 

Wymberley  Coerr,  formerly  Ambassador  to  Ecuador  and  Uruguay, 
was  appointed  to  head  the  new  Office. 

Science  1 107 

A  series  of  ecological  assessment  studies  in  foreign  countries,  ad- 
ministered by  the  Office  and  supported  by  the  Agency  for  Inter- 
national Development,  was  completed  during  the  year.  The  studies 
included  an  analysis  of  the  effect  of  oil  pollution  on  marine  orga- 
nisms in  Indonesia,  a  review  of  the  environmental  consequences  of 
rapid  urbanization  in  a  developing  country  (Seoul,  Korea),  and  the 
ecological  impact  of  Lake  Volta  in  Ghana,  the  world's  largest  man- 
made  lake.  A  4-year  study  for  the  purpose  of  predicting  the  spread 
of  waterborne  diseases,  particularly  schistosomiasis,  with  the  im- 
poundment of  the  Mekong  River  and  its  tributaries,  was  completed. 


During  their  combined  15  years  of  operations  the  Smithsonian's  two 
oceanographic  sorting  centers  have  processed  bulk  marine  samples, 
monitored  and  assessed  marine  pollution,  and  conducted  baseline 
and  environmental  prediction  studies.  In  the  past  year,  the  centers 
have  processed  more  than  8  million  specimens  for  specialists  and 
reference  collections.  Much  of  the  material  processed  by  the  Oceano- 
graphic Sorting  Center  in  Washington  involved  Arctic  and  Antarctic 
biological  samples  in  cooperation  with  the  nsf  Office  of  Polar  Pro- 
grams. The  biological  and  environmental  data  accompanying  these 
samples  have  been  computerized. 

Over  3000  specimens  at  the  Mediterranean  Marine  Sorting  Cen- 
ter have  become  a  part  of  the  Reference  Collections  of  Mediterra- 
nean Marine  Biota.  Sorted  specimens  are  divided  equally  and 
deposited  in  the  Smithsonian's  National  Museum  of  Natural  History 
and  the  Institut  National  Scientifique  et  Technique  d'Oceanographie 
et  de  Peche. 

The  Existing  Conditions  of  the  Biota  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay 
Project  for  the  U.S.  Army  Corps  of  Engineers  is  providing  informa- 
tion on  the  most  important  species  of  Chesapeake  Bay,  descriptions 
of  community  structure,  and  analyses  of  water  quality  criteria.  An 
interim  report  was  submitted  in  October,  and  the  final  report  will 
be  submitted  during  the  fiscal  year  1975.  Coordination  responsibili- 
ties of  the  report  on  the  effects  of  Tropical  Storm  Agnes  were  also 
performed  for  the  Corps. 

The  second  year  of  a  United  States-Yugoslav  aquatic  study,  en- 
titled "Limnological  Investigations  of  Lake  Skadar,"  was  success- 
fully completed  in  cooperation  with  the  Limnology  Laboratory  of 

108  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

the  Biological  Institut  of  Titograd.  Extensive  progress  was  made  in 
adequately  equipping  the  laboratory  and  in  sampling  and  analyzing 
the  preliminary  research  results.  Manuscripts  are  in  progress  and 
in  press. 

Development  of  comprehensive  biological  studies  of  marine  and 
freshwater  ecosystems  in  Egypt  and  Pakistan  is  proceeding.  A  post- 
impoundment  ecological  assessment  of  the  Nam  Ngum  Reservoir 
in  Laos  was  initiated  in  May  1974. 

Liaison  with  other  Smithsonian  Institution  aquatic  sciences  was 
continued,  as  was  representation  on  various  committees  and  coun- 
cils concerned  with  oceanography  and  limnology. 


An  evaluation  of  environmental  resources  was  undertaken  in  a  study 
for  the  U.S.  Army  Corps  of  Engineers  in  connection  with  the  Corps' 
responsibility  for  preserving  natural,  historical,  and  cultural  aspects 
of  America's  natural  heritage.  The  project  involved  a  comprehensive 
review  of  current  environmental  inventories  and  literature  on  re- 
quirements for  such  inventories,  a  critique  of  pilot  environmental 
reconnaissance  inventories,  and  preparation  of  guidelines  for  agen- 
cies conducting  statewide  inventories  of  critical  environmental  areas. 
The  guidebook  deals  with  key  issues  and  decisions  that  must  be 
resolved  in  conducting  the  inventories  and  suggests  methodology 
for  delineating  areas  of  critical  environmental  concern. 

The  Smithsonian  Center  for  Natural  Areas  assists,  through  eco- 
logical studies,  in  planning  and  establishing  priorities  for  the  selec- 
tion and  preservation  of  ecologically  significant  areas.  Natural  areas 
include  habitats  of  threatened  species  of  plants,  animals,  and  com- 
munities; important  breeding  and  overwintering  areas;  sites  of 
unique  interest  for  research  or  education  interests;  and  archeological 
and  related  locations  that  should  be  preserved.  The  Center  has  de- 
veloped a  quantitive  evaluation  technique  of  ecological  indicators 
as  a  scientifically  valid  basis  of  assigning  priorities  for  acquisition  of 
permanent  nature  reserves  by  procuring  agencies. 

The  Center  published  a  2-year,  natural-areas  study  of  the  Chesa- 
peake Bay  region.  The  Nature  Conservancy,  co-sponsor  of  the  study, 
intends  to  use  the  findings  as  one  basis  for  procurement  and  desig- 
nation as  protected  areas  sites  in  the  Chesapeake  Bay  watershed 
regarded  as  ecologically  significant. 

Science  I  109 


The  Center  prepared  an  inventory  of  ecologically  representative 
sites  within  the  Atlantic  Coastal  Region,  together  with  descriptions 
and  recommendations  to  assist  the  National  Park  Service  in  desig- 
nating sites  for  its  Registry  of  Natural  Landmarks. 

The  Center  is  helping  to  assess  the  ecological  consequences  of 
activities  at  U.S.  Air  Force  Bases  in  the  continental  United  States  in 
order  to  offer  a  scientific  basis  for  suggesting  improvements  in  con- 
servation practices.  A  comprehensive  survey  was  made  for  the  Air 
Force  of  the  existing  data  on  the  flora  and  fauna  of  Johnston  Atoll 
in  the  Pacific,  including  both  terrestrial  and  marine  organisms.  The 
baseline  information  was  compiled  for  an  evaluation  required  for 
an  environmental  impact  statement  for  the  islands. 

The  Center  for  Natural  Areas,  with  approval  of  the  Smithsonian, 
was  incorporated  as  an  independent  organization  during  fiscal  1974. 
The  Center's  studies  henceforth  will  be  supported  by  grants  and 
contracts  from  foundations,  charitable  trusts,  federal,  and  state 

The  Smithsonian-Peace  Corps  Environmental  Program  provides 
assistance  in  two  general  areas.  It  develops  Peace  Corps  projects 
and  assignments  dealing  with  environmental  and  natural  resource 
problems  in  the  developing  countries  and  recruits  and  places  appli- 
cants skilled  in  the  environmental  biological  sciences.  Over  700 
applications  were  received  in  fiscal  1974,  and  207  volunteers  with 
environmental  skills  were  assigned  to  28  countries.  The  volunteers 
were  requested  directly  by  the  host  governments  for  assignment  to 
scientific  and  natural  conservation  programs. 


As  a  part  of  the  new  Office  of  International  and  Environmental  Pro- 
grams, the  International  Activities  Program  has  undergone  no  sub- 
stantive changes  in  its  functions. 

As  its  major  responsibility,  the  International  Activities  Program 
administers  the  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program.  This  Pro- 
gram awards  grants  to  support  the  research  interests  of  American 
institutions,  including  the  Smithsonian,  in  those  countries  where  the 
United  States  holds  "excess"  amounts  of  local  currencies,  derived 
largely  from  sales  of  surplus  agricultural  commodities  under  Public 
Law  480.  Qualifying  countries,  where  the  Treasury  Department 
deems  United  States  holdings  of  these  currencies  to  be  in  excess  of 

110  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

normal  federal  requirements,  are  presently  India,  Pakistan,  Burma, 
Egypt,  Tunisia,  Guinea,  and  Poland.  The  Smithsonian  received  a 
fiscal  1974  appropriation  of  $4.5  million  in  "excess"  currencies  for 
the  support  of  grants  in  the  disciplines  of  archeology  and  the  anthro- 
pological sciences,  systematics  and  environmental  biology,  astro- 
physics and  the  earth  sciences,  and  museum-related  fields.  During 
its  first  decade  of  operation,  the  Foreign  Currency  Program  has 
awarded  more  than  $24  million  in  foreign  currency  grants  to  more 
than  70  institutions  in  32  states  and  the  District  of  Columbia,  in- 
volving some  220  museums,  universities,  and  research  institutions. 
Within  the  framework  of  the  Program,  the  Smithsonian  made  ar- 
rangements in  fiscal  1974  for  the  United  States  to  contribute  $1 
million  in  support  of  unesco  efforts  to  save  the  submerged  temples 
at  Philae,  Egypt.  The  Program  participated  in  interagency  negotia- 
tions leading  to  the  establishment  of  a  United  States-Yugoslav  Joint 
Board  of  Scientific  and  Technical  Cooperation.  This  Board  makes  it 
possible  to  extend  the  period  for  which  support  will  be  available  for 
already  approved  United  States-Yugoslav  cooperative  research  proj- 
ects, including  Smithsonian  research  in  limnology  and  Smithsonian 
Foreign  Currency-supported  archeological  research. 

The  International  Liaison  Section  continues  to  provide  other 
Smithsonian  units  with  assistance  in  international  matters  involving 
travel  and  projects  abroad.  It  coordinated  the  travel  and  research 
arrangements  of  the  many  foreign  scholars  visiting  the  Smithsonian, 
and  it  makes  arrangements  for  other  foreign  visitors.  A  growing 
area  of  liaison  responsibility  is  in  special  programs  for  foreign  re- 
search cooperation.  These  include  promoting  Smithsonian  scientific 
and  scholarly  cooperation  with  the  People's  Republic  of  China  and 
under  binational  arrangements  with  Israel  and  Germany. 


The  Center  operates  a  worldwide  electronic  alert  system  for  rapid 
communication  of  scientific  data  on  natural  and  environmental  phe- 
nomena of  short  duration.  During  the  year  the  Center  reported  155 
short-lived  events  that  occurred  in  44  countries,  islands,  and  ocean 
areas.  Scientific  field  teams  investigated  120  of  the  events.  The  re- 
porting network  consists  of  about  2000  scientists,  scientific  research 
institutions,  and  field  stations  located  in  138  countries  throughout 
the  globe. 

Science  I  111 

Scientists  and  other  subscribers  to  the  Center's  service  receive  in- 
formation on  significant  changes  in  biological,  ecological,  and  geo- 
physical systems,  including  rare  or  unusual  animal  migrations, 
population  increases,  and  mortalities,  major  floods,  forest  fires,  and 
pollution  events,  such  as  oil  and  chemical  spills,  gas  and  radioactive 
substance  leaks,  volcanic  eruptions,  earthquakes,  landslides,  and 
occasional  astrophysical  events,  such  as  meteorite  falls  and  fireballs. 

The  Center  has  enlarged  its  International  Environmental  Alert 
Network  to  include  more  than  60,000  secondary  school  and  univer- 
sity students  in  over  800  schools  throughout  the  United  States  and 
Canada,  Puerto  Rico,  Brazil,  Belgium,  Ireland,  Italy,  Rumania,  Jor- 
dan, Lebanon,  Ghana,  Korea,  Singapore,  Tanzania,  Sudan,  Sri 
Lanka,  South  West  Africa,  England,  Greece,  Saudi  Arabia,  Cyprus, 
Zambia,  France,  The  Netherlands,  and  Kenya. 

Services  under  contract  were  provided  to  the  United  Nations  En- 
vironment Program;  the  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific,  and 
Cultural  Organization;  the  United  States  National  Aeronautic  and 
Space  Administration;  and  the  United  States  Environmental  Protec- 
tion Agency. 

Radiation  Biology  Laboratory 

The  importance  and  significance  of  energy  as  the  driving  force  of 
our  technological  society  became  abundantly  clear  in  1974  as  politi- 
cal and  economic  forces  displaced  familiar  use  patterns.  Thus,  the 
laboratory's  charter  "to  study  the  role  of  sunlight  in  maintaining 
life  on  the  earth"  anticipated  current  concerns  by  almost  a  half  cen- 
tury. In  fact,  the  purposes  and  objectives  of  the  laboratory  become 
increasingly  important  as  the  world's  population  grows,  and  its  food 
needs  and  requirements  for  diminishing  fossil-fuel  resources  expand. 
During  fiscal  1974  the  laboratory  emphasized  several  major  areas 
of  research  on  aspects  of  solar  radiation  that  influence  biological 
systems:  (1)  measuring  the  solar  energy  received  at  the  earth's  sur- 
face, its  quantity,  quality,  and  duration,  since  these  parameters 
establish  the  starting  point  for  all  aspects  of  photobiology;  (2)  the 
biochemistry  and  biophysics  of  energy  storage  (photosynthesis)  and 
the  structures  (pigments  and  membrane  systems)  involved  in  cap- 

112  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

turing  the  sun's  energy;  (3)  the  regulation  of  the  use  of  this  stored 
energy  by  Hving  organisms  in  response  to  complex  signals  of  light, 
temperature,  or  gases  in  the  environment;  and  (4)  the  use  of  the 
photosynthetic  products  to  date  the  time  when  objects  of  biological 
origin  were  last  alive  and  in  equilibrium  with  the  environment 
(carbon  dating). 


Measurements  of  solar  energy  were  recorded  from  a  monitoring 
network  including  four  locations:  Barrow,  Alaska;  Flamenco  Island, 
Panama;  the  National  Physical  Laboratory  in  Jerusalem,  Israel;  and 
at  Rockville,  Maryland.  This  network  covers  the  Northern  Hemi- 
sphere reasonably  well  and  records  at  three-minute  intervals  the 
energy  received  in  six  color  bands,  as  well  as  the  total  energy  from 
the  ultraviolet  short  wavelength  limit  to  the  infrared  (2.8  microns), 
where  the  energy  per  photon  is  no  longer  capable  of  driving  photo- 
chemical reactions. 

From  this  enormous  volume  of  data  have  been  extracted  many 
useful  pieces  of  information.  For  example,  the  area  required  for 
suitable  collectors  to  provide  the  necessary  energy  to  heat  or  to  air 
condition  buildings  may  be  'calculated  or  estimates  of  the  upper 
limits  for  plant  growth  in  an  area  may  be  computed. 

In  addition,  some  data  implicate  solar  ultraviolet  with  skin  cancer 
incidence.  Particularly,  as  more  and  more  supersonic  transport  air- 
craft are  flown,  it  is  postulated  that  the  fuel  exhausts  will  catalyze 
the  breakdown  of  the  protective  ozone  screen  in  the  atmosphere, 
which  limits  the  amount  of  ultraviolet  penetrating  to  the  earth's 
surface.  In  cooperation  with  the  Air  Resources  Laboratories  of 
NOAA,  a  scanning  radiometer  was  stationed  at  Tallahassee,  Florida. 
This  instrument  measures  narrow  bandwidths  of  ultraviolet  in  the 
erythemal  (region  of  sunlight  that  causes  skin  reddening)  band  and 
these  data  are  being  tested  to  see  if  a  correlation  exists  between 
quality  and  quantity  received  and  the  incidence  of  skin  cancer  (as 
measured  by  the  National  Cancer  Institute)  in  Tallahassee, 

Another  important  factor  in  solar  irradiance  measurements  is  the 
primary  standard  to  which  all  measurements  are  referred.  The 
Smithsonian  has  a  long  history  of  developing  standards,  and  this 
year  a  symposium  was  held  for  international  authorities  on  solar 
instruments  and  measurements  to  discuss  and  evaluate  the  initiation 

Science  1 113 

Spectral  radiation  monitoring  by  the  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory  at  the 
Pacific  entrance  of  the  Panama  Canal.  The  units  shown  are  pyranometers 
mounted  on  the  roof  of  the  monitoring  site. 

and  worldwide  use  of  a  uniform  and  precisely  defined  measuring 
scale.  While  there  is,  as  yet,  no  consensus  as  to  the  best  scale  system, 
at  least  intercomparison  may  now  be  made  in  a  more  rational  man- 
ner. The  papers  presented  at  this  symposium  will  be  published  as  a 
Smithsonian  publication. 

In  order  to  pursue  the  importance  of  light  on  plant  growth,  four 
large  growth  chambers  were  installed  in  which  the  major  parameters 
regulating  plant  growth  can  be  controlled.  These  include  the  nutrient 
and  root  media,  the  atmospheric  media  and  the  light  environment. 
Plants  are  grown  on  soil  or  artificial  substrate  systems  (nutriculture). 


Light  in  the  environment  also  may  regulate  the  rate  of  synthesis 
of  cell  components  or  the  rate  of  metabolism  and  growth  of  plant 
parts.  Such  light  signals  must  be  absorbed  by  pigment  molecules  to 
be  effective.  During  the  past  year  the  laboratory  has  been  isolating 
and  purifying  the  pigment  ph'ytochrome.  By  hydrolyzing  it  in  vari- 
ous ways  and  determining  the  amino-acid  composition  of  the  various 

114  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


#  i^aflM 

The  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory  scanning  radiometer  used  to  monitor  the 
erythemal  band  of  daylight.  The  unit  shown  monitors  5  nm  bands  of  energy 
from  285  nm  to  320  nm  in  Tallahassee,  Florida. 

Instruments  used  for  measuring  solar  radiation.  The  instrument  in  the  rear  is 
the  Smithsonian  standard  water-flow.  The  other  instruments,  from  left  to 
right,  are  a  Smithsonian  modified  1905  Angstrom  normal  incidence  pyrhelio- 
meter,  an  Abbot  pyranometer,  a  modified  Abbot  pyranometer  and  an  Abbot 
silver  disk  pyrheliometer.  The  pyranometers  are  used  to  measure  radiation 
from  the  sun  and  sky  while  the  pyrheliometers  and  the  water-flow  measure 
only  radiation  from  the  sun  (direct  solar  beam). 

peptides  produced,  information  has  been  obtained  about  the  mole- 
cular weight  and  the  chemical  structure  of  this  protein  pigment. 

The  phytochrome  pigment  was  isolated  from  dark-grown  rye  seed- 
lings. After  purification,  electrophoresis,  and  gel  permeation  chroma- 
tography of  the  undenatured  protein  indicated  a  molecular  weight 
of  about  400,000  daltons.  Disc  gel  electrophoresis  in  detergents 
indicated  a  principal  product  was  formed  with  a  molecular  weight 
of  about  120,000  daltons.  Cleavage  of  the  protein  was  performed 
with  cyanogen  bromide,  which  reacts  with  methionine  residues. 
This  produced  five  peptides:  one  of  15,000  daltons,  a  chromopeptide 
containing  the  light-absorbing  portion  (11,000  daltons),  one  about 
8000  daltons,  and  two  smaller  ones.  These  data  are  consistent  with 
the  13S  phytochrome  being  composed  of  one  species  of  protomer 
having  a  molecular  weight  of  42,000  and  4  methionine  residues 
per  protomer. 

Another  approach  to  the  molecular  function  of  phytochrome  is 
the  determination  of  the  dependence  of  physiological  responses  upon 
the  dose  of  light  given.  For  a  number  of  flowering  plants,  such  as 
peas  and  mustard,  dose-response  curves  were  determined,  as  well 
as  changes  in  the  dose-response  curves  following  sequential  expo- 
sures to  light.  In  addition,  the  capacity  for  rapid  chlorphyll  accumu- 
lation was  measured.  Data  indicate  that  the  physiologically  active 
form  of  phytochrome  produced  by  the  first  red  exposure  migrates 
to  a  membrane  surface,  which  results  in  more  light  being  required 
for  a  given  response.  But  once  light  is  absorbed,  it  is  more  effective 
because  the  active  molecule  is  already  attached  to  a  membrane  in- 
volved in  the  response. 

For  photosynthesis  to  occur  efficiently,  the  incident  sunlight  must 
be  absorbed  in  all  wavelength  regions.  Algae  have  solved  this  prob- 
lem by  forming  special  pigment  protein  complexes  known  as  phyco- 
bilisomes.  These  complexes  trap  the  light  energy  and  transfer  it  to 
a  "reaction  center,"  where  it  is  used  to  produce  energy-rich  com- 
pounds. Phycobilisomes  can  be  isolated  and  then  dissociated  into 
their  component  parts.  A  model  has  been  developed  this  year  that 
describes  at  the  molecular  level  the  spatial  arrangement  of  at  least 
four  pigments  involved  and  their  attachment  to  the  photosynthetic 

The  chloroplasts  of  higher  plants  also  trap  light  energy  and 
convert  it  to  chemical  energy.  Formation  of  chloroplasts  and  the 

116  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

maintenance  of  chloroplast  structure  is  a  fascinating  problem  that  is 
attracting  considerable  attention.  Making  the  proteins  for  a  func- 
tional chloroplast  requires  cooperation  between  nuclear  and  chloro- 
plast genetic  systems.  That  is,  the  genetic  material  for  and  the 
synthesis  of  certain  chloroplast  proteins  are  located  in  the  nucleus 
and  cytoplasm  respectively,  while  the  genetic  material  for  and  the 
synthesis  of  other  chloroplast  proteins  are  located  in  the  chloroplast. 
Part  of  the  chloroplast  protein  synthesis  occurs  on  chloroplast 
photosynthetic  membranes. 

During  the  past  year,  a  system  was  developed  in  which  biosyn- 
thesis of  chloroplast  photosynthetic  membranes  could  be  studied  in 
vitro.  In  actively  growing  cells  of  the  alga  Chlamydomonas,  a  large 
portion  of  chloroplast  ribosomes  exists  attached  to  the  photosyn- 
thetic membranes.  Electron  micrographs  of  isolated  membranes  show 
that  some  of  the  ribosomes  are  bound  as  polyribosomes.  When  the 
membranes  are  dissolved  by  detergent,  these  polyribosomes  can  be 
recovered  and  account  for  more  than  half  of  the  ribosomes  bound  to 
the  membranes.  These  results  suggest  that  the  membrane-ribosome 
association  functions  in  protein  synthesis,  because  polysomes  occur 
when  active  protein  synthesis  takes  place.  This  assumption  was 
confirmed  by  the  finding  that  the  isolated  membrane-ribosome 
association  will  carry  out  protein  synthesis.  This  protein  synthesis 
reaction  depends  on  the  presence  of  the  ribosomes  attached  to  the 
membranes.  It  is  inhibited  by  chloramphenicol,  not  by  cyclohexi- 
mide,  as  is  expected  for  protein  synthesis  by  chloroplast  ribosomes. 
The  protein  synthesis  reaction  requires  an  energy  generation  system 
and  a  soluble  cell  extract.  The  reaction  is  inhibited  by  ribonuclease. 
These  properties  indicate  that  the  protein  synthesis  reaction  is  car- 
ried out  by  the  isolated  membranes. 

Blue  light  regulates  the  biosynthesis  of  yellow  pigments,  such  as 
the  vitamin  A  precursor,  ^-carotene.  At  least  eight  different  caro- 
tenoids  are  synthesized  after  light  exposure  of  dark-grown  mycelial 
pads  of  the  bread  mold  Neurospora  crassa.  The  photoinduction  of 
these  pigments  can  be  divided  into  at  least  three  phases :  (a)  a  rapid 
light  reaction,  (b)  a  period  of  protein  synthesis,  and  (c)  accumulation 
of  the  carotenoid  pigment. 

The  effect  of  temperature  on  these  processes  has  been  studied 
this  year.  The  light  reaction,  of  course,  is  temperature-independent, 
but  synthesis  immediately  following  light  exposure  has  an  optimum 

Science  1 117 

near  6°C.  These  data,  as  well  as  studies  with  inhibitors  of  protein 
synthesis,  indicate  that  the  light  reaction  produces  an  inducer  that 
activates  a  gene.  The  genetic  code  in  the  activated  gene  specifies  the 
amino-acid  sequence  of  an  enzyme  required  for  carotenoid  biosyn- 
thesis. This  enzyme  is  apparently  absent  in  dark-grown  cultures. 
Furthermore,  physiological  evidence  indicates  that  the  inducer  is 
lost  from  the  carotenoid-synthesizing  system  in  a  temperature- 
dependent  competitive  reaction. 

In  addition,  four  different  types  of  mutant  strains  of  Neurospora 
were  produced  from  wild  type  by  uv  light:  albinos,  which  do  not 
make  pigment  even  in  the  presence  of  light;  yellow-orange  mutants, 
which  synthesize  a  different  distribution  of  pigments;  mutants  in 
which  the  sensitivity  of  carotenoid  synthesis  to  temperatures  above 
6°C  has  been  reduced;  and  mutants  which  can  make  pigment  in  the 

The  activities  of  many  enzymes  in  organisms  from  bacteria  to 
man  appear  to  be  under  the  control  of  cyclic-AMP  (adenosine  mono- 
phosphate). For  example,  in  man  the  hormones  epinephrine  or  glu- 
cagon stimulate  the  synthesis  of  cyclic-AMP,  which  in  turn  activates 
a  series  of  enzymes  required  for  starch  breakdown.  Evidence  has 
been  obtained  that  animal  cells  that  have  been  transformed  by  a 
virus  to  cancerous  cells  have  lower  than  normal  cyclic-AMP  levels. 
There  is  evidence  in  frogs  and  rats  that  light  controls  the  level  of 
cyclic-AMP.  We  have  obtained  evidence  that  such  a  control  system 
exists  in  Neurospora  and  may  be  part  of  the  mechanism  for  photo- 
induction  of  carotenoid  synthesis.  Since  cyclic-AMP  probably  regu- 
lates the  activities  of  many  different  enzymes  in  Neurospora,  then 
control  of  the  level  of  cyclic-AMP  by  light  should  regulate  a  number 
of  biochemical  pathways  besides  carotenoid  synthesis.  Such  a  control 
mechanism  can  be  conveniently  studied  in  Neurospora  and  the 
results  used  to  predict  the  type  of  control  system  that  operates  in 
higher  organisms. 


Light  acts  not  only  as  a  carrier  of  information  for  regulating  metabo- 
lism but  is  also  absorbed  and  stored  as  chemical  energy,  along  with 
the  production  of  oxygen  as  a  byproduct  (photosynthesis).  If  leaves 
of  plants  are  exposed  to  low  temperatures  (chilling),  there  is  an 
inhibition  in  the  rate  of  fixation  of  carbon  dioxide.  In  addition,  the 

118  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

oxygen-evolving  power  of  leaves  after  cold  storage  is  regulated  by 
mangano-protein  in  the  chloroplast  thylakoids.  Since  a  great  deal  of 
the  world's  agriculture  and  the  distribution  of  wild  plant  populations 
are  limited  by  temperature,  it  is  important  to  determine  the  portion 
of  the  photosynthetic  mechanism  directly  affected  by  chilling. 
Plants  that  were  grown  under  very  warm  conditions  (30  °C)  were 
exposed  to  a  succession  of  days  and  nights  of  cool  (10°C  day,  S^C 
night)  temperatures,  and  the  ability  of  whole  leaves  to  take  up 
carbon  dioxide  was  measured.  Within  24  hours  after  exposure  to 
low  temperature,  the  plants'  capacity  to  take  up  carbon  dioxide  at 
warm  temperatures  was  reduced  by  about  25  percent.  Longer  expo- 
sure to  low  temperature  brings  with  it  further  reduction  in  carbon 

The  process  of  photosynthesis  involves  considerably  more  than 
carbon  dioxide  assimilation,  and  in  order  to  determine  which  of  the 
many  steps  is  affected  by  changes  in  temperature,  a  partitioning  of 
the  process  was  attempted.  Photosynthetic  cells  from  the  leaf  were 
separated  from  the  remaining  nonphotosynthetic  tissue.  Active 
whole  cells  were  obtained  which  retain  the  capacity  to  evolve  oxygen 
using  light.  Exposure  of  plants  to  chilling  temperatures,  however, 
does  not  consistently  affect  the  capacity  of  cells  extracted  from  these 
plants  to  evolve  oxygen.  Sometimes  there  is  a  substantial  reduction 
in  oxygen  evolution  and  sometimes  only  minor  change.  The  reason 
for  this  variability  is  as  yet  unknown. 

Measurements  have  been  made  of  the  total  productive  capacity 
for  communities  of  plants  in  a  salt  marsh  in  the  Chesapeake  Bay. 
It  has  been  assumed  that  salt  marshes  contribute  substantially  to 
their  neighboring  estuaries  and  are  consequently  essential  to  the 
maintenance  of  life  in  the  estuaries.  Assimilated  carbon  in  the  marsh 
is  exported  to  the  estuary;  however,  most  data  for  this  assumption 
are  based  upon  an  incomplete  examination  of  the  capacity  of  the 
marsh  to  take  up  and  metabolize  carbon!  A  plastic  chamber  to 
enclose  a  section  of  the  marsh  community  has  been  constructed  in 
conjunction  with  a  continuous  flow,  infrared,  gas-analysis  system 
to  monitor  the  net  carbon  dioxide  exchange  over  the  marsh  com- 

In  addition  to  net  carbon  dioxide  exchange,  a  method  has  been 
evaluated  for  determining  the  amount  of  green  matter  in  a  marsh 
without  the  necessity  of  destroying  any  of  the  community  being 

Science  1 119 

f  0- 


Plastic  chamber  for  measuring  net  carbon  dioxide  exchange  over  a  marsh 
community  on  an  estuary  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay.  Carbon  dioxide  concentra- 
tion is  determined  in  air  as  it  enters  and  leaves  the  chamber.  Below:  Radio- 
meter device  for  measuring  reflectance  of  red  and  far-red  light  from  a  marsh 
community.  Reflectance  measurements  are  used  in  estimating  the  standing 
crop  biomass. 

/^X^i»*iE^J"»'    ;r     ■** 

studied.  The  method  depends  upon  the  fact  that  green  plants  reflect 
red  light  less  than  they  reflect  far-red  radiation  (light  that  is  at  and 
just  beyond  the  sensitivity  of  the  human  eye).  The  seasonal  change 
in  reflectance  of  these  two  bands  of  light  was  found  to  change  as 
the  total  amount  of  green  matter  in  the  stand  of  plants  changed. 
This  method  was  originally  developed  to  study  productivity  of 
prairie  communities,  but  the  method  appears  to  work  in  marshes. 
A  correlation  was  found  between  the  reflectance  measurements  and 
direct  measurements  of  biomass  obtained  by  cutting  and  weighing 
samples.  Thus,  a  rapid,  nondestructive  assay  of  growth  in  marshes 
can  be  obtained.  The  method  also  has  the  advantage  that  the  equip- 
ment is  portable  and,  thus,  usable  in  remote  locations. 

The  growth  of  plants  in  an  estuarine  environment  is  sometimes 
limited  by  phosphorus  cycling  in  the  tidal  environment.  Phosphorus 
flux  rates  and  phosphorus  cycling  in  situ  in  the  tidal  marsh,  mud 
flat  periphyton,  and  plankton  communities  of  the  Rhode  River  sub- 
estuary  of  Chesapeake  Bay  were  measured.  Techniques  employed 
included  phosphorus-32-orthophosphate  uptake  and  chase  kinetics. 

Higher  Members 
of  the  Food  Chain 

Orgonic-P  '*" 


1  ! 

,,1'Phytoplankton  \ 

\  V*-         lAA  \ 

Bacteria  *    ^'^^Z^      *. 

o,.  z^**-  Dissolved 

^^  /^    Ortho-P 




Bottom  Sediments 

Current  concept  of  the  pathways  of  estuarine  plankton  phosphorus  cycling. 
Processes  stopped  by  enclosing  a  sample  in  a  bottle  are  indicated  as  dashed 
arrows.  Heavy  lines  indicate  major  processes.  Phosphate  uptake  by  phyto- 
plankton  requires  light  energy  and  the  presence  of  iodoacetic  acid  (lAA) 
inhibits  direct  biological  uptake  of  orthophosphate. 

Science  1 121 

analysis  of  specific  and  total  activity  in  various  metabolically  mean- 
ingful phosphorus  fractions,  detailed  chromatographic  fractionation, 
continuous-flow  pulse-labeling  of  plankton,  direct  microscopic 
examination  of  microbial  communities,  and  phosphorus-33  micro- 
autoradiography. From  these  data  the  major  pathways  of  phosphorus 
cycling  in  estuarine  plankton  were  constructed.  The  heavy  arrows 
are  believed  to  be  main  pathways.  Microbiological  data,  as  well  as 
the  size  classing  and  inhibitor  data,  support  this  picture.  Thus, 
orthophosphate  is  taken  up  mostly  by  bacteria  that  are  mainly  on 
the  surfaces  of  suspended  sediments  and  detritus,  but  phytoplankton 
also  take  up  some  orthophosphate  in  the  light.  The  bacteria  and 
phytoplankton  are  then  eaten  by  filter  feeders,  especially  ciliate 
protozoans.  These  in  turn  release  most  of  the  phosphorus  as  dis- 
solved orthophosphate  and  organic  phosphorus. 

In  addition,  the  phosphorus  cycling  in  a  deciduous  forest  when 
subjected  to  various  levels  of  mineral  nutrient  loading  was  measured. 
Phosphorus  loading  of  the  leaf-litter  zone  beneath  beech  trees  in 
Maryland  was  varied  from  the  "natural"  level  (3  to  12  mg  P.m~^* 
day~^)  to  430  mg  P.m~^*day~^  above  the  natural  level.  Phosphorus- 
32  was  used  to  measure  rates  and  to  determine  pathways  of  phos- 
phorus cycling.  Upon  increased  loading,  the  phosphorus  content  of  \ 
the  litter  increased  fourfold  and  then  stabilized.  When  this  loading 
was  discontinued,  the  phosphorus  content  of  the  litter  declined  to 
the  original  level.  Phosphorus  not  assimilated  by  the  leaf  litter 
moved  rapidly  through  the  soil  both  vertically  and  horizontally. 
Forest  trees  obtained  most  of  their  phosphorus  from  the  litter  zone. 

Sometimes  the  effects  of  a  sudden  dramatic  changes  in  energy 
flow  in  the  environment  can  be  assayed.  Such  a  dynamic  stress 
occurred  in  tropical  storm  Agnes.  Although  the  storm  center  cir- 
cumnavigated the  Rhode  River  estuary,  the  salinity  reached  a 
minimum  about  two  weeks  later  because  of  flooding  by  the  Susque- 
hanna River.  This  event  was  coincident  with  the  year's  highest  water 
temperature  (30-31  °C)  and  resulted  in  severe  mortalities  in  the  ' 
biota.  Periphyton  (attached  microbial  communities)  experienced  a 
nearly  complete  die-off.  High  levels  of  sediments  and  of  nutrients, 
especially  nitrate  and  total-  phosphorus,  were  delivered  to  Rhode 
River  by  the  bay  proper  and  from  local  runoff.  These  nutrients 
were  deposited  in  Rhode  River  bottom  sediments.  This  reservoir 
released  nutrients  a  year  later,  especially  at  a  time  of  low  dissolved 

122  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

oxygen  in  the  bottom  water  and  of  intensive  dinoflagellate  blooms. 
In  a  13-day  period  it  is  estimated  that  over  900  Kg  phosphorus  was 
released  from  the  bottom  sediments.  Thus,  even  though  the  effects 
were  indirect  from  tropical  storm  Agnes,  they  were  large. 


Because  all  living  things  are  in  equilibrium  with  the  carbon  dioxide 
in  the  atmosphere,  and  this  equilibrium  is  fixed  at  the  time  of  death, 
with  the  radioactive  carbon^'*  gradually  decaying  away  as  the  sample 
ages,  it  is  possible  to  determine  the  age  of  biological  specimens  back 
to  about  40,000  years  by  measuring  their  radioactive  carbon^'*  con- 
tent. From  data  taken  from  the  remains  and  artifacts  of  archaic 
populations,  it  is  possible  to  explore  the  relationships  between 
changing  environments  and  changing  cultures. 

I      From  such  artifacts   a  chronological  framework  is  being  con- 
structed for  populations  in  North  America.  In  cooperation  with 
anthropologists,  geologists,  and  palynologists  the  time  period  6000 
B.c  to  2000  B.C.  has  been  examined  for  northeastern  North  America. 
f     Of  particular  interest  is  the  date  of  entry  of  man  into  the  New 
World.  In  cooperation  with  the  University  of  Alaska,  dating  of 
■selected  archeological  and  geological  sites  discovered  during  con- 
}  struction  of  the  Alaska  pipeline  have  been  accomplished.  Recent 
[findings  published  by  the  Scripps  Institution,  using  the  determina- 
I  tion  of  racemic  mixtures  of  aspartic  acid,  indicate  that  man  was 
i  present  in  North  America  at  least  50,000  years  before  the  present. 
[However,  dates  from  the  North  Slope  in  our  laboratory  confirm 
'  occupation  of  more  than  10,000  years  ago. 

Thus,  the  requirement  for  more  energy  to  drive  our  technology 
that  resulted  in  the  need  for  the  Alaska  pipeline  has  yielded  as  a 
secondary  scientific  benefit  an  indication  of  man's  early  history  in 
the  New  World. 


Lectures  and  invited  symposium  talks  were  presented  by  the  staff 
to  more  than  30  research  institutions  and  universities,  both  nation- 
ally and  internationally.  Hundreds  of  reprints  of  published  data 
were  distributed  to  interested  professional  colleagues,  and  several 
staff  members  taught  seminars  and  courses  in  their  professional 

Science  I  123 

Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory 

On  July  1, 1973,  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  Harvard  University 
established  at  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  a  Center  for  Astrophysics 
to  coordinate  the  related  research  activities  of  the  Smithsonian 
Astrophysical  Observatory  (sao)  and  the  Harvard  College  Observa- 
tory (hco)  under  a  single  director. 

At  that  time,  George  B.  Field,  Professor  of  Astronomy  at  Harvard 
University,  became  the  director  of  the  joint  facility  and  of  both 
observatories,  succeeding  Fred  L.  Whipple  of  sao  and  Alexander  i 
Dalgarno  of  hco.  | 

The  creation  of  this  new  consolidated  science  program,  drawing  • 
on  the  resources  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  Harvard  Univer- 
sity to  achieve  scientific  excellence,  is  both  a  response  to  the  new 
research  goals  and  opportunities  of  the  present  and  a  reflection  of 
traditional  ties  of  the  past. 

During  the  past  decade,  astrophysics  has  experienced  an  explosion 
of  ideas.  New  windows  on  the  universe  have  been  opened  by  the 
discovery  of  radiation  in  unexpected  bands  of  the  electromagnetic 
spectrum.  And  the  expanded  use  of  rocket,  balloon,  and  satellite 
experiments  has  allowed  observation  of  this  radiation  from  above 
the  earth's  obscuring  atmosphere.  Gamma  rays.  X-rays,  ultraviolet 
light,  and  infrared  radiation  are  all  now  observed  almost  as  routinely 
as  radio  and  visible  waves.  Each  new  spectrum  window  has  revealed 
a  vast  and  varied  universe  filled  with  objects  defying  the  imagina- 
tion: quasars,  pulsars.  X-ray  and  gamma-ray  stars,  black  holes,  and 
neutron  stars,  as  well  as  massive  interstellar  clouds  of  dust  particles 
and  complex  molecules. 

When  it  was  founded  by  Samuel  Pierpont  Langley  in  1890,  the 
goal  of  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  was  the  increase 
and  diffusion  of  knowledge  about  the  earth  and  its  immediate  as- 
tronomical environment.  This  goal  remains  unchanged  today;  how- 
ever, the  technological  developments  in  observational  techniques 
and  data  analysis,  coupled  with  unusual  advances  in  theoretical 
astronomy,  now  allow  Smithsonian  scientists  to  expand  their 
astronomical  horizons  to  the  very  edge  of  the  universe. 

Two  major  scientific  problems  are  at  the  core  of  this  expanded 
astronomical  research  program.  The  first  is  the  evolution  of  matter, 
starting  with  the  explosive  beginning  of  the  universe  some  20  billion 

124  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


years  ago.  After  the  formation  of  galaxies  and  stars,  some  matter 
collapsed  into  those  exotic  and  unusual  objects  known  as  quasars, 
neutron  stars,  and  black  holes. 

i  The  extreme  physical  conditions  existing  in  these  objects  severely 
test  all  the  fundamental  principles  of  modern  physics.  Obviously, 
the  evolutionary  processes  forming  stars  and  galaxies  hold  clues 
to  how  the  universe  began  —  and  how  it  may  end! 

The  second  problem  concerns  the  cosmic  matter  that  has  cooled 
sufficiently  for  molecules  and  solid  particles  to  form.  The  conden- 
sation of  materials  accompanying  the  formation  of  stars  like  our 
own  sun  apparently  results  in  the  formation  of  planets  and  the 
eventual  emergence  of  life.  Through  continued  studies  of  this  matter 
in  space,  as  well  as  of  the  sun,  planets,  and  earth,  sao  scientists 
seek  to  understand  the  processes  that  led  to  the  origin  of  life  in  the 

The  solution  of  these  two  problems  in  modern  astronomy  can  be 
achieved  only  through  the  concerted  efforts  of  a  variety  of  investi- 
gators using  a  diversity  of  approaches.  For  example,  the  study  of 
matter  under  extreme  conditions  can  be  approached  through  high- 
energy  astrophysics,  solar  and  stellar  physics,  or  optical  astronomy; 
while  the  study  of  solid  particles  can  be  approached  through  infra- 
red and  radio  astronomy,  planetary  sciences  or  geoastronomy. 
Theoretical  and  laboratory  studies  underlie  each  approach.  Each 
approach  also  requires  quite  different  research  tools,  ranging  from 
rocket,  balloon,  and  satellite  detectors  for  gamma-ray  and  X-ray 
astronomy,  to  shock-tube  and  radiation  laboratories  and  computers 
for  molecular  and  atomic  physics. 

The  complexity  of  modern  astronomical  research  thus  demands 
the  consolidation  of  efforts  whenever  possible.  The  Center  for 
Astrophysics  is  designed  for  this  purpose  —  to  draw  on  the  differ- 
ent strengths  of  the  Smithsonian  and  Harvard  observatories.  The 
once  loose  groupings  of  scientists  and  projects  are  now  concentrated 
in  eight  divisions  representing  the  major  approaches  to  the  dual 
problems  of  cosmic  evolution  and  life  in  the  universe. 


The  laboratory  and  theoretical  program  of  this  division  are  closely 
related  to  other  experimental  and  observational  programs  at  the 
Center.  Specifically,  this  group  is  concerned  with  the  chemical  re- 

Science  /  125 

actions  occurring  in  planetary  atmospheres  and  interstellar  clouds 
Major  efforts  include  the  development  of  model  potential  methods  ;| 
in  theoretical  atomic  physics,  the  calculation  of  atomic  transition 
probabilities,  and  the  application  of  laser  techniques  to  atomic  and 
molecular  spectroscopy.  The  measurements  resulting  from  the 
spectroscopic  research  will  play  a  critical  role  in  the  interpretation 
of  data  returned  from  other  Center  space  programs. 


This  division  continues  sao's  long-term  program  to  study  earth 
dynamics,  the  upper  atmosphere,  and  earth's  gravitational  field. 

In  cooperation  with  scores  of  other  organizations  around  the 
world,  the  earth  dynamics  program  is  building  the  large  data  base 
necessary  to  define  the  kinematics,  bulk  dynamics,  and  mass  distri- 
bution of  the  earth.  The  program  depends  heavily  on  sao's  sophisti- 
cated laser  and  camera  satellite-tracking  network,  supported  by  the 
National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration. 

The  upper  atmospheric  research  program  uses  computer  analysis 
of  the  anomalies  in  satellite  orbits  to  develop  accurate  models  of 
the  earth's  gravity  field  and  to  define  the  forces  exerted  by  both 
sunshine  and  earthshine. 

A  gravitational  redshift  project  will  utilize  an  extremely  accurate, 
rocket-borne,  maser  clock,  paired  with  a  similar  ground-based 
instrument,  to  test  the  equivalence  principle  of  Einstein's  Theory 
of  Relativity  in  the  gravitational  field  of  the  earth. 


The  Center  is  emerging  as  a  national  leader  in  the  field  of  high- 
energy  astronomy,  and  particularly  X-ray  research,  through  its 
participation  in  the  NASA-sponsored  series  of  high-energy  astronomi- 
cal observatories  (head).  Major  efforts  are  directed  toward  con- 
struction and  planning  of  experiments  aboard  the  heao-b,  now 
scheduled  for  launch  in  1975  as  the  first  true  space  observatory 
capable  of  high  angular  resolution  X-ray  observations.  This  satellite 
will  permit  the  first  studies  of  the  X-ray  structure  of  extended  objects 
and  complex  sources.  In  the  meantime,  the  division  continues  its 
analysis  of  data  obtained  by-UHURU  satellite,  the  pioneering  experi- 
ment in  this  field.  This  effort  has  led  to  the  first  identification  of  a 
probable  "black  hole"  in  the  constellation  Cygnus. 

126  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Ground-based  observations  at  Mt.  Hopkins  have  led  to  the  detec- 
tion of  gamma-ray  emissions  from  the  Crab  Nebula. 


This  division's  activities  fall  in  four  related  areas :  studies  of  infrared 
emissions  from  galaxies  and  H  II  regions;  studies  of  the  spectra  of 
stars  and  circumstellar  materials;  analysis  of  the  spectra  of  inter- 
stellar materials  and  planetary  atmospheres;  and  optical  studies  of 
emission  from  X-ray  sources  and  pulsars.  Observations  are  made 
with  Center  instruments  at  Mt.  Hopkins,  Arizona;  Agassiz  Station, 
Massachusetts;  and  Boy  den  Station,  South  Africa;  as  well  as  with 
instruments  at  the  Kitt  Peak  National  Observatory,  Arizona,  and 
the  Hale  Observatories,  California,  and  their  respective  Southern 
Hemisphere  installations  at  Cerro  Tololo  and  Las  Campanas,  Chile. 
The  Harvard  component  of  these  observing  programs  is  supported 
by  the  National  Science  Foundation  (nsf). 

This  division's  observational  capabilities  will  be  greatly  enhanced 
by  the  addition  of  a  large  telescope  of  revolutionary  design.  This 
multiple-mirror  telescope  (mmt)  combines  six  72-inch  mirrors  in  a 
hexagonal  array  around  a  central  core  to  produce  an  instrument  with 
the  light-gathering  capacity  of  a  conventional  176-inch  telescope. 
The  MMT  is  now  under  construction  jointly  by  sao  and  the  University 
of  Arizona. 


Traditionally,  sao  has  been  a  recognized  leader  in  the  study  of  the 
smaller  bodies  of  the  solar  system.  Vigorous  programs  involving 
geochemical  and  petrological  analyses  of  lunar  and  meteoritical 
samples  continue,  as  does  the  remote  sensing  of  planets,  satellites, 
and  asteroids,  largely  supported  by  nasa. 

Observations  of  comets,  combined  with  computer  analyses  of 
their  orbits  and  laboratory  studies  of  their  physical  properties,  also 
continue.  During  the  past  year,  the  Center  served  as  a  major  clearing- 
house for  information  related  to  the  international  program  to  observe 
and  study  Comet  Kohoutek.  Theoretical  work  in  this  field  is  being 
supported  through  Harvard  by  nsf. 

The  Center's  radio  astronomy  program  results  from  the  strong 

Science  1 127 

efforts  begun  at  the  Harvard  College  Observatory  with  nsf  support. 
It  includes  capability  in  both  the  centimeter  and  the  millimeter 
wavelength  bands  of  the  radio  spectrum.  Laboratory  facilities  sup- 
port the  observational  program  by  measuring  properties  of  spectral 
lines  in  these  wavelengths.  This  combined  effort  has  identified  sev- 
eral new  interstellar  molecules. 

A  cooperative  program  continues  with  the  University  of  Texas 
to  conduct  observations  in  the  2-  and  3-millimeter  wavelength 


The  Center's  unusually  strong  program  in  this  field  is  founded  on 
the  observational  data  provided  by  the  Harvard  solar  satellite  pro- 
gram and  the  theoretical  work  done  by  sao  scientists  in  the  develop- 
ment of  model  stellar  atmospheres.  The  extensive  data  produced 
by  the  Harvard  experiment  aboard  nasa's  Skylab  satellite  should 
provide  the  basis  for  several  years  of  analysis  and  interpretation 
leading  to  a  new  understanding  of  the  energy-generation  processes 
in  the  outer  layers  of  the  sun.  The  broad  range  of  SAO-developed 
computer  programs  and  theoretical  techniques  is  being  applied  to 
the  interpretation  of  ultraviolet  solar  and  stellar  observations,  both 
from  Skylab  and  other  satellites  such  as  Copernicus.  In  addition, 
the  successful  flight  of  a  balloon-mounted  40-inch  infrared  telescope 
in  early  1974  demonstrated  the  feasibility  of  further  large-aperture 
flights  for  broadband  photometry  and  mapping,  multiband  and 
galactic  sources.  This  project  was  a  joint  venture  of  sao,  hco,  and 
the  University  of  Arizona. 


If  the  Center  is  distinguished  by  its  broad  spectrum  of  astrophysical 
problems  under  investigation,  then  it  is  the  theoretical  effort  that 
serves  as  the  catalyst  encouraging  active  and  fruitful  interrelation- 
ships among  different  approaches  to  similar  problems.  Thus,  the 
objectives  of  this  division  are  to  establish  and  maintain  expertise 
in  those  areas  of  physics  underlying  the  applications  to  astrophysics, 
to  create  active  research  areas  along  a  broad  front,  and  to  alert  the 
Center  staff  of  new  directions  in  astrophysics.  Most  important, 
perhaps,  this  division  plays  a  major  role  in  the  Center's  commitment 
to  astronomy  education:  identifying,  encouraging,  and  training  new 

128  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

iastronomers,  as  well  as  bringing  talented  students  and  younger  pro- 
fessionals into  its  research  program.  Much  of  this  division's  effort 
is  also  supported  by  nsf. 

The  pooling  of  Smithsonian  and  Harvard  scientific  resources  in 
a  Center  for  Astrophysics  seems  an  appropriately  modern  and 
rational  adaptation  to  the  times.  Oddly  enough,  it  is  more  the  natural 
evolution  of  the  long  relationship  between  the  two  organizations. 
Since  1955,  when  the  headquarters  of  sao  moved  to  the  grounds  of 
the  Harvard  College  Observatory  in  Cambridge,  the  two  observa- 
tories have  pursued  astronomical  research  in  close  collaboration, 
with  many  members  of  the  Smithsonian  staff  holding  joint  appoint- 
ments at  Harvard  and  using  University-owned  facilities. 

The  ties  between  Harvard  and  Smithsonian,  however,  reach  back 
into  the  nineteenth  century,  when  Harvard  alumnus  and  United 
States  President  John  Quincy  Adams  urged  both  his  alma  mater 
and  his  Congress  to  establish  jointly  an  astronomical  observatory 
to  serve  the  nation,  preferably  under  the  aegis  of  the  Smithsonian 

Echoing  this  call  for  joint  academic-government  action,  Joseph 
Henry,  first  Secretary  of  the  Institution,  later  urged  that  any  observ- 
atory established  by  the  Smithsonian  should  be  "closely  connected 
with  some  well-endowed  and  well-established  college  or  university." 

Nearly  a  century  and  a  half  have  passed,  but  the  dreams  of  both 
Joseph  Henry  and  John  Quincy  Adams  are  finally  realized  in  the 
Center  for  Astrophysics.  This  cooperative  venture  has  great  impli- 
cations for  the  future,  not  only  because  it  may  serve  as  a  guide  for 
other  similar  pairings  of  private  and  public  institutions,  but  also 
because  the  basic  goals  it  pursues  must  surely  affect  all  aspects  of 
human  life  —  from  genetics  to  energy  production. 

Smithsonian  Science  Information  Exchange,  Inc. 

This  year  has  been  an  important  one  for  the  Smithsonian  Science 
Information  Exchange  (ssie)  as  it  actively  began  its  efforts  to  move 
from  a  national  center  for  information  about  ongoing  research  to  one 
more  international  in  terms  of  coverage  and  use  of  its  services.  The 
Exchange,  which  has  provided  services  to  foreign  users  over  the 

Science  1 129 

years,  has  now  begun  to  seek  and  include  input  on  research  in 
progress  overseas  in  a  more  concerted  way,  while  at  the  same  time  ! 
it  has  also  increased  its  coverage  at  the  national  level. 

Many  of  the  problems  now  confronting  our  own  government  are  I 
of  equal  concern  to  other  countries,  and  these  new  national  priorities 
require  a  knowledge  of  ongoing  research  in  other  countries  as  well. 
Such  information  will  ultimately  be  available  through  the  Exchange  > 
as  present  plans  to  increase  its  coverage  develop  over  the  next  few  I 
years.  Efforts  to  increase  coverage  in  such  major  areas  as  agricultural 
research,  cancer,  energy  and  environmental  research  are  already 
underway,  supported  by  both  federal  and  nonfederal  organizations 
as  well  as  through  the  help  of  both  national  and  international 

The  Exchange  is  presently  exploring  all  feasible  ways  for  collect- 
ing or  developing  access  to  a  comprehensive  record  of  worldwide 
scientific  and  technical  research  and  development  work  in  progress 
and  to  exercise  vigorous  United  States  leadership  in  creating  a  sys- 
tem for  storing  and  exchanging  such  information  with  initial  efforts 
directed  toward  those  programs  of  primary  national  interest.  These 
are  at  least  seven  data  bases  of  ongoing  research  currently  in  exist- 
ence in  other  countries  and  many  others  are  being  developed.  Input 
or  exchange  from  these  as  well  as  selected  input  in  specialized  areas 
of  interest  from  other  countries  will  enhance  the  value  of  the 
Exchange's  data  base  to  both  scientists  and  research  managers  in 
the  United  States.  Many  of  the  systems  currently  in  existence  are 
based  on  systems  that  were  developed  along  the  lines  of  the 
Exchange's  system  following  visits  to  the  ssie.  Compatibility  between 
systems  will  be  encouraged  wherever  possible  to  facilitate  exchange 
of  information. 

As  a  consequence  of  its  efforts  in  the  fiscal  year  1974,  the  Ex- 
change has  increased  foreign  input  and  established  methods  for 
increased  use  of  the  Exchange  by  foreign  scientists.  To  illustrate 
the  latter,  an  agreement  has  been  reached  with  the  Institute  for 
Documentation  in  the  Federal  Republic  of  Germany  which  will 
provide  support  for  the  use  of  ssie  services  by  a  large  number  of 
German  scientists  over  an  initial  one-year  period.  The  project  will 
provide  an  opportunity  for.  a  large  number  of  German  research 
investigators  to  observe  firsthand  the  value  of  learning  before  publi- 
cation what  their  colleagues  in  the  United  States  are  doing  in  areas 

130  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

of  research  closely  paralleling  their  own  efforts.  It  may  also  expedite 
development  of  similar  systems  such  as  ssie  in  Germany  as  well  as 
lead  to  more  cooperative  efforts  on  problems  of  similar  interest  and 
an  exchange  of  ongoing  research  information. 

The  Exchange  has  continued  to  explore  and  implement  techniques 
for  increased  utilization  of  its  information  by  coupling  it  with  biblio- 
graphic information  including  both  scientific  journal  literature  and 
technical  reports.  These  efforts  include  the  use  of  publications  con- 
taining the  combined  information  as  well  as  coupling  of  information 
obtained  directly  from  the  ssie  data  base  with  that  from  other 
information  systems,  thus  providing  users  of  such  material  with  the 
latest  in  both  published  and  ongoing  research  information.  Discus- 
sions have  taken  place  with  several  Federal  data-base  systems  to 
expand  this  approach  and  offer  remote  on-line  searches  of  selected 
portions  of  the  Exchange's  data  base. 

Considerable  progress  has  been  made  in  the  development  and 
testing  of  a  new  machine-aided  indexing  system.  This  system,  which 
was  designed  to  help  the  Exchange's  staff  of  professional  scientists 
and  engineers  cope  with  the  increasing  volume  of  information  com- 
ing into  the  Exchange,  will  also  be  of  interest  and  value  to  other 
information  systems  of  a  similar  nature.  The  system  is  not  intended 
to  replace  the  scientific  expertise  necessary  for  maintaining  a  high 
quality  of  indexing  but  rather  complements  it  by  picking  up  routine 
terms  that  are  readily  identifiable,  freeing  the  scientists  to  concen- 
trate on  the  more  important  aspect  of  conceptual  indexing.  Publica- 
tion of  the  technique  will  be  made  following  more  extensive  testing 
of  the  system  in  the  coming  year.  This  project  is  another  example 
of  the  Exchange's  continuing  effort  in  research  and  development 
designed  not  only  to  improve  the  ssie's  system  but  make  such 
developments  available  by  publication  for  use  throughout  the  infor- 
mation community. 

The  Exchange  as  a  result  of  offering  new  services  and  expanding 
previously  available  ones  has  shown  an  increase  in  use  in  fiscal  1974 
primarily  as  a  result  of  making  more  scientists  aware  of  the  Ex- 
change's services.  The  response  by  many  users  to  the  Exchange's 
Newsletter  has  been  excellent  in  terms  of  increased  subscriptions 
and  products  ordered  through  this  organ.  The  Exchange's  continu- 
ing user-evaluation  program  indicates  that  it  is  providing  a  highly 
useful  and  important  service.  The  Exchange  has  also  developed 

Science  1 131 

closer  liaison  with  Federal  agencies  to  increase  their  utilization  of 
ssiE  services  in  the  management  of  their  own  research  programs 
particularly  in  areas  of  high  national  interest. 

Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute 

This  year  marked  a  change  in  the  administration  of  the  Smithsonian 
Tropical  Research  Institute.  Dr.  Martin  H.  Moynihan,  in  order  to 
devote  his  full  time  to  research,  resigned  to  become  a  senior  scientist 
at  the  Institute  after  directing  this  bureau  for  16  years.  During  this 
period  he  guided  stri's  growth  from  a  biological  preserve  and  small 
field  camp  on  Barro  Colorado  Island  to  a  research  institute  with  a 
worldwide  reputation.  During  Dr.  Moynihan's  tenure  the  permanent 
professional  staff  increased  from  1  to  15,  and  the  geographic  scope 
of  their  investigations  extended  from  Barro  Colorado  Island  and 
the  surrounding  forests  to  adjacent  areas  of  Central  and  South 
America,  and  then  to  intertropical  comparisons  in  Gabon,  Ceylon, 
India,  Madagascar,  Malaya,  and  New  Guinea.  Moynihan  supported 
a  program  of  student  fellowship  at  both  the  pre-  and  post-doctoral 
level  and  encouraged  a  steadily  increasing  number  of  scientific 
visitors  from  around  the  world. 

The  research  of  the  institute's  staff  closely  reflects  the  depth  and 
diversity  of  Dr.  Moynihan's  own  scientific  interests,  which  in  the 
last  15  years  have  ranged  from  the  behavior,  evolution,  and  ecology 
of  such  diverse  groups  as  birds,  primates,  and  cephalopods.  Research 
on  the  latter  group  was  facilitated  by  the  development  of  a  marine 
research  program  and  stri  marine  laboratories  on  both  the  Atlantic 
and  Pacific  coasts  of  Panama. 

Ira  Rubinoff  was  appointed  the  new  Director,  and  A.  Stanley 
Rand  has  assumed  the  responsibilities  of  Assistant  Director  of  stri. 

The  development  of  stri  research  program  was  paralleled  by  an 
increase  in  facilities  and  support  staff.  These  include,  new  animal- 
keeping  facilities,  air-conditioned  laboratories,  sea-water  systems, 
research  vessels,  and  an  excellent  tropical  biology  library,  which 
now  includes  over  14,000  volumes  and  served  approximately  4000 
patrons  in  fiscal  1974. 

Research  at  stri  continue?  to  be  primarily  concerned  with  basic 

132  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

scientific  questions  of  the  evolutionary  and  ecological  adaptations 
of  tropical  organisms. 

Two  new  scientists  joined  our  staff  in  the  fiscal  year  1974.  Olga  F. 
Linares  is  an  anthropologist  studying  human  paleoecological  proc- 
esses and  contemporary  subsistence  adaptations  to  the  American 
and  African  tropics.  Alan  P.  Smith,  a  plant  ecologist,  has  accepted  a 
joint  appointment  with  stri  and  the  University  of  Pennsylvania.  He 
will  examine  the  physiological  adaptations  to  seasonality  of  plants 
on  Barro  Colorado  Island. 

Scientists  at  stri  continued  their  studies  concerning  a  variety  of 

R.  L.  Dressier  spent  several  weeks  in  field  work  in  Mexico  study- 
ing orchids  and  their  pollinators.  He  published  two  books:  Orqui- 
deas  de  las  Americas  (with  Mariano  Ospina  H.),  the  first  general 
reference  book  on  American  orchids  in  Spanish,  and  The  Genus 
Encyclia  in  Mexico  (with  Glenn  E.  Pollard),  the  first  detailed  treat- 
ment of  that  group.  A  Spanish  edition  of  the  latter  volume  will  be 
published  shortly. 

Pollination  of  Polycynis  barbata  by  Eulaema  speciosa.  When  the  male  bee 
lands  on  the  lip  to  gather  the  perfume,  its  weight  pulls  the  flower  down  and 
the  curved  column  touches  the  dorsal  surface  of  the  bee,  depositing  pollen. 
Pollination  results  if  the  bee  already  carried  pollen  from  another  flower. 

Science  1 133 

The  history  of  coral  reefs  off  both  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  coasts 
of  Panama  are  being  investigated  by  Peter  Glynn  and  his  associates. 
They  are  taking  core  samples  through  the  reefs  in  order  to  determine 
the  age  of  the  reefs  and  their  species  composition  at  different  levels. 
Reefs  in  Panama  have  been  found  to  be  about  6000  years  old.  Over 
the  past  1000  years  significant  changes  in  coral  populations  have 
occurred  on  a  Caribbean  fringe  reef,  but  the  causes  of  these  changes 
are  not  presently  known. 

J.  Graham  studied  the  diving  capability  of  the  sea  snake  Pelamis 
platurus,  which  is  common  along  the  Pacific  Coast  of  Panama,  and 
found  that  while  the  snake  has  some  of  the  typical  adaptations  found 
among  vertebrate  divers,  it  can  also  respire  aquatically.  J,  H.  Gee 
of  the  University  of  Manitoba  spent  a  sabbatical  year  at  stri  and 
collaborated  with  Graham  and  F.  S.  Robison  in  a  study  of  buoyancy 
adjustment  during  diving  of  sea  snakes. 

E.  Leigh  took  a  field  trip  to  the  Amazon  region  of  Peru  to  con- 
tinue his  comparative  studies  of  the  structure  of  tropical  forests. 

M.  Moynihan  and  A.  Rodaniche  have  continued  their  studies  on 
the  social  behavior  of  the  Caribbean  squid  Sepioteuthis  sepioidea 
and  have  begun  observations  on  a  number  of  Pacific  Ocean  cephalo- 
pods.  M.  Moynihan  has  completed  his  book  The  New  World  Pri- 
mates, which  should  be  published  shortly. 

A.  S.  Rand  continues  his  analysis  of  the  displays  of  species  of 
Anolis.  He  began  to  develop  the  first  animated  lizard  display  film, 
which  will  provide  a  tool  for  dissecting  displays  into  their  compo- 
nents and  analyzing  the  functional  aspects  of  these  components. 

Michael  and  Barbara  Robinson  continued  studies  of  the  ecology 
and  behavior  of  tropical  spiders.  They  investigated  the  ontogeny  of 
predatory  behavior  in  orb-web  spiders,  demonstrated  by  deprivation 
experiments  that  the  spiders'  ability  to  discriminate  between  certain 
types  of  prey  is  not  dependent  on  previous  experience  and  is,  there- 
fore, not  learned.  In  New  Guinea,  the  Robinsons  resumed  studies  of 
the  defensive  behavior  of  the  rich  orthopteroid  fauna  of  the  island. 
The  latter  studies  suggest  that  the  evolution  of  defensive  behavior  in 
these  insects  has  been  strongly  influenced  by  the  presence  of  a 
unique  assemblage  of  predatory  nocturnal  marsupials. 

R.  Rubinoff  continues  her  studies  of  the  behavior  of  the  sea 
urchin  Diadema  antillarum  and  has  succeeded  in  demonstrating  a 
social  component  to  their  "clumping"  behavior. 

134  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Excavating  a  small  village  site  dating  from  A.D.  300  in  Cerro  Punta, 
Volcan  Bani  area,  western  Panama. 

Scarus  ghobban  and  Acanthurus  friosfegMS,  Pacific  Panama. 





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Virtually  all  of  the  Swainson's  Hawks  in  the  United  States  pass 
through  Panama  during  migration,  as  do  large  numbers  of  other 
North  American  hawks  and  vultures.  By  photographing  the  sky 
along  the  migration  routes,  Neal  Smith  has  begun  to  evaluate  the 
abundance  and  population  characteristics  of  these  hawks.  These  data 
should  provide  a  useful  index  of  the  environmental  quality  of  the 
North  American  nesting  areas  of  these  birds. 

N.  Smythe,  in  addition  to  his  work  with  the  Environmental  Sci- 
ences Program,  continues  his  studies  of  mammalian  behavioral 

H.  Wolda  continued  his  studies  of  fluctuation  in  abundance  of 
insect  species.  The  moth  Zunacetha  annulata,  which  had  a  major 
outbreak  in  1971,  had  a  somewhat  smaller  outbreak  in  1973.  Species 
of  the  homopteran  genus  Empoasca  had  major  peaks  in  abundance 
in  March-April  in  the  last  three  years  and  were  virtually  absent  in 
the  same  period  in  1974.  The  cicada  Fidicina  mannifera  was  much 
less  abundant  in  1973  than  in  1972,  as  evidenced  by  monitoring  the 
sound,  number  of  pupal  cases,  and  by  light-trap  data.  Among  the 
important  factors  influencing  these  fluctuations  are  the  strategies  of 
the  species  in  dealing  with  unpredictable  patterns  of  rainfall  and 
dry  season. 

C.  Birkeland  is  comparing  the  community  structure  and  dynamics 
of  benthic  marine  populations  on  the  coasts  of  Panama. 

D.  Meyer  continues  his  studies  of  crinoid  populations  in  collabo- 
ration with  B.  Macurda  of  the  University  of  Michigan. 

P.  Campanella  has  examined  territorial  behavior  of  four  species 
of  dragonflies.  Males  of  some  species  show  a  high  degree  of  mating 
site  specificity,  which  appears  to  be  related  to  population  density  and 
availability  of  suitable  ovipositing  sites.  Territory  sizes  are  reduced 
and  spatial  overlap  is  avoided  by  using  the  ponds  at  different  times 
of  the  day. 

M.  May  has  continued  studies  on  the  effects  of  heat  exchange, 
heat  production,  and  thermal  tolerance  in  dragonflies  of  such  factors 
as  body  size,  temporal  and  spatial  distribution  patterns,  and  various 
energy-using  activities. 

R.  Warner  began  an  investigation  of  the  adaptive  significance  of 
intersexuality  commonly  found  in  coral-reef  fishes.  He  is  correlating 
population  structure  and  behavior  with  the  dynamics  of  sex  change 
in  these  fishes. 

136  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


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Juvenile  ocelot  on  Barro  Colorado  Island. 

Red  spider  monkey  on  Barro  Colorado  Island. 

Censuses  of  Polistine  wasps  were  carried  out  for  a  second  year  in 
Costa  Rica  by  D.  Windsor.  He  has  shown  that  in  response  to  the 
poorer  foraging  conditions  and  higher  predator  pressures  of  the  dry 
season  there  is  an  increase  in  the  number  of  females  per  nesting 
attempt.  These  and  other  observations  indicate  that  sociahty  has 
evolved  to  aid  reproduction  during  periods  of  poorer  environmental 

The  carnivores  of  the  New  World  tropics  are  poorly  known,  par- 
ticularly when  compared  with  those  of  Africa  and  Asia,  where  recent 
studies  on  mongoose,  lion,  hyena,  and  tiger  have  been  published. 
R.  F.  Ewer  has  been  at  stri  for  the  past  year  as  a  visiting  senior 
scholar.  She  has  been  studying  the  ethology  of  two  neotropical  cats 
(ocelots  and  jaguarundis)  and  two  mustelids  (tayras  and  grisons). 
Particular  attention  has  been  devoted  to  studying  social  and  prey- 
capturing  behavior. 

D.  Robertson,  supported  by  a  Commonwealth  Science  and  Indus- 
trial Research  Organization  (csiro)  fellowship,  is  studying  the 
patterns  of  spawning  activities  in  Thallasoma  bifasciatum  and  its 
relationships  to  hermaphroditism  in  this  species. 

Y.  Lubin  completed  her  study  of  the  nonadhesive  orb-webs  of 
Cyrtophora  moluccensis  and  is  now  collaborating  with  G.  Mont- 
gomery on  a  radio-tracking  study  of  tamandua. 

In  fiscal  1974  the  Smithsonian  Institution's  Environmental  Sci- 
ences Program  continued  ecological  monitoring  at  the  three  stri 
sites  in  Panama.  This  interbureau  effort  in  the  tropics  currently  in- 
volves the  cooperation  of  about  10  principal  investigators  from 
four  bureaus.  Spectral  quality  of  solar  radiation  is  being  measured 
at  Flamenco  Island.  On  Barro  Colorado  Island  the  emphasis  is  on 
the  tropical  forests.  We  are  beginning  to  understand  the  way  in 
which  year-to-year  fluctuations  in  climate,  particularly  in  the 
amount  and  distribution  of  rainfall,  affect  the  plants  and  their  re- 
sponses, in  turn,  affect  the  animals.  At  Galeta,  studies  are  proceed- 
ing on  the  reef  flat.  Interest  focuses  on  the  causes  of  unpredictable 
periods  of  reef  exposure  and  the  impact  these  have  on  the  intertidal 
community  and  its  recovery  patterns. 

STRI  sponsored  a  workshop  on  the  problems  and  strategies  of 
seedlings  in  tropical  forests.  Eight  scientists  from  four  countries  par- 
ticipated in  a  three-day  meeting  on  Barro  Colorado  Island  (bci). 

This  year  grants  were  obtained  from  the  Henry  L.  and  Grace 

138  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Doherty  and  the  Edward  John  Noble  foundations  for  the  purpose 
of  providing  short-term  fellowships  to  assist  students  in  tropical  re- 
search. A  number  of  students  from  United  States  and  Panamanian 
universities  have  already  begun  research  supported  by  these  funds. 

A  number  of  our  staff  engaged  in  formal  teaching  this  year. 
O.  Linares  taught  Anthropology  at  the  University  of  Texas.  J.  Gra- 
ham taught  in  the  Fundamental  Ecology  course  of  the  Organization 
for  Tropical  Studies.  P.  Campanella  gave  a  course  in  Ecology  at  the 
Canal  Zone  College,  and  M.  Robinson  taught  Invertebrate  Behavior 
at  the  University  of  Papua  and  New  Guinea. 

Use  of  STRi  facilities  continues  to  increase,  stri  was  host  to  722 
scientific  visitors  from  111  universities  and  other  organizations. 
These  visitors  represented  28  states  and  Puerto  Rico  as  well  as  21 
countries  from  the  Old  and  New  Worlds.  Twenty  of  these  visitors 
spent  a  full  year  at  stri.  The  appointment  of  M.  Quinley  in  February 
as  part-time  docent  has  enabled  us  to  initiate  tours  of  stri  by  pri- 
mary and  secondary  school  and  university  groups. 

During  1974  major  redevelopment  of  the  bci  waterfront  area  was 
begun.  The  old  boathouse  was  demolished,  dredging  has  been  com- 
pleted, and  the  driving  of  new  piles  is  scheduled.  A  new  boathouse 
and  bulwark  are  planned.  A  small  dormitory  has  been  provided  for 
the  Pacific  Coast  marine  facilities. 

Renovation  of  the  new  Tivoli  laboratory  has  been  initiated.  The 
building  has  been  reroofed,  the  exterior  painted,  and  work  has  be- 
gun to  install  the  first  seven  laboratories. 

Science  1 139 

Mr.  Joseph  H.  Hirshhorn,  who  gave  his  great  collections  of  sculpture  and  paintings  to  the 
Nation,  receives   the  James   Smithson   Society  Medallion  from  Secretary  Ripley. 

Smithsonian  Year  '1974 


In  singling  out  a  few  particularly  noteworthy  events  of  the  past 
year  one  runs  the  risk  of  paying  too  little  attention  to  the  continu- 
ing, quiet  achievements  that  in  the  long  run  are  perhaps  more  im- 
portant. The  temptation  to  stress  dramatic  change  at  the  expense  of 
often  undramatic  continuity  is  familiar  to  every  historian,  and  to 
every  writer  of  annual  reports. 

Before  succumbing  to  the  temptation,  then,  we  should  at  least 
begin  by  saying  that  the  past  year  was  marked  by  steady  growth 
and  consolidation  within  each  of  the  Institution's  history  and  art 
bureaus,  and  by  encouraging  signs  of  continuing  cooperation  among 
them.  Without  exception,  collections  were  improved  both  by  acqui- 
sition and  by  conservation;  control  over  collections  was  strength- 
ened by  better  cataloguing  and  storage  techniques;  new  exhibitions 
were  mounted  with  satisfying  regularity;  research  and  publication 
continued  in  the  best  Smithsonian  tradition;  and  programs  of  public 
education  made  our  collections  and  our  research  more  accessible  to 
thousands  of  children  and  adults. 

The  gradual  growth  of  cooperation  among  our  history  and  art 
bureaus  is  another  very  welcome  aspect  of  continuity  rather  than  of 
dramatic  change.  The  joint  appointment  of  a  Curator  of  American 
Art  by  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  and  the  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts  will  strengthen  both  museums  and  will  bring  the  Freer's  im- 
portant collection  of  American  paintings  into  the  mainstream  of 
scholarly  activity.  The  Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection 
of  Fine  Arts,  our  museum-without-a-collection,  continued  to  make 
imaginative  use  of  objects  from  the  collections  of  the  Museum  of 
Natural  History  and  the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  in  illu- 
minating exhibitions  on  the  subject  of  design.  The  establishment  in 
the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  of  the  Dwight  D.  Eisen- 


hower  Institute  for  Historical  Research,  and  the  appointment  of  Dr. 
Forrest  Pogue,  the  distinguished  biographer  of  General  George  C. 
Marshall,  as  its  first  director  is  the  result  of  happy  and  fruitful  col- 
laboration between  that  museum  and  our  National  Armed  Forces 
Museum  Advisory  Board.  With  the  cooperation  of  the  National  Por- 
trait Gallery,  the  Archives  of  American  Art  will  soon  be  able  to  open 
an  exhibition  gallery  in  the  Old  Patent  Office  building,  allowing  the 
public  to  see  for  the  first  time  some  of  the  treasures  in  its  vast  docu- 
mentary collections.  These  developments,  none  of  which  is  likely  to 
earn  headlines,  are  evidence  that  the  varied  entities  that  compose  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  have  the  will  and  the  means  to  work  to- 
gether toward  a  common  purpose. 

We  must  now  duly  note,  on  the  other  hand,  that  the  past  year  did 
not  lack  its  share  —  indeed,  perhaps  more  than  its  share  —  of  dra- 
matic events. 

After  what  seemed  to  be  years  of  delay  and  frustration,  the  Gen- 
eral Services  Administration  declared  that  the  Hirshhorn  Museum 
and  Sculpture  Garden  was  "substantially  complete."  The  difference 
between  this  somewhat  mysterious  technical  determination  and  the 
existence  of  a  museum  ready  for  the  public  is  considerable;  the  first 
three  months  of  the  next  year  will  be  a  time  of  unceasing  activity  for 
the  museum's  staff  and  the  Institution's  support  facilities. 

The  closing  months  of  the  past  year  also  saw  the  accomplishment 
of  a  major  part  of  what  must  surely  be  the  largest  shipment  of  art  in 
the  history  of  this  country.  With  remarkable  smoothness,  at  least 
from  the  point  of  view  of  one  observing  with  admiration  from  some 
distance,  the  great  Hirshhorn  collections  of  sculpture  and  painting 
were  moved  from  various  sites  in  New  York  City  and  Connecticut 
to  their  home  in  and  about  the  museum  and  sculpture  garden  on  the 

This  was  also  the  year  in  which  the  Museum  of  History  and  Tech- 
nology gained  a  new  director,  and  the  Institution  shared  in  the  re- 
flected glory  of  its  first  PuHtzer  Prize.  The  prize  winner  was  Daniel 
Boorstin,  for  The  Democratic  Experience,  the  concluding  volume  of 
his  trilogy  The  Americans.  Upon  becoming  a  Senior  Historian,  Dr. 
Boorstin  was  succeeded  in  the  directorship  of  the  Museum  of  History 
and  Technology  by  Dr.  Brooke  Hindle,  a  distinguished  historian  of 
early  American  science  and  technology.  An  outstanding  scholar  who 
has  long  been  associated  with  museums,  and  whose  university  ex- 
perience includes  service  as  a  departmental  chairman  and  a  dean.  Dr. 

142  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Brooke  Hindle  (center)^  new  Director  of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and 
Technology,  listens  as  Assistant  Secretary  for  History  and  Art  Charles  Blitzer 
(left)  compliments  Senior  Historian  Daniel  Boorstin,  winner  of  the  Pulitzer  Prize 
for  his  book  The  Democratic  Experience,  concluding  volume  of  his  trilogy  The 


Hindle  brings  to  his  new  position  the  experience,  the  talents,  and  the 
enthusiasm  required  for  the  directorship  of  the  world's  most  visited 

The  geographical  scope  of  the  Smithsonian  was  expanded  during 
the  past  year  by  the  opening  of  the  West  Coast  regional  center  of 
the  Archives  of  American  Art.  These  centers,  which  now  exist  in 
Detroit,  New  York,  Boston,  and  San  Francisco  serve  both  as  regional 
research  centers  in  which  scholars  may  have  access  on  microfilm  to 
the  entire  holdings  of  the  Archives,  and  as  the  foci  of  the  Archives 
national  collecting  program.  Often  housed  in  contributed  space  — 
we  are  indebted  to  the  DeYoung  Museum  for  the  new  center  —  and 
staffed  by  only  two  or  three  people,  these  centers  have  an  extraordi- 
narily positive  effect  on  the  study  of  the  history  of  American  art 
in  their  regions. 

After  many  years  of  activity  behind  the  scenes,  carried  forward 
with  the  generous  support  of  the  Congress,  the  Smithsonian's  pro- 
gram of  activities  for  the  Bicentennial  of  the  American  Revolution 
produced  its  first  public  manifestation  in  1974 :  the  exhibition  at  the 
National  Portrait  Gallery  entitled  "In  the  Minds  and  Hearts  of  the 
People  —  Prologue  to  the  American  Revolution:  1760-1774."  En- 
thusiastically reviewed  by  the  press,  and  editorially  commended  by 
The  Washington  Post,  this  exhibit  is  the  first  in  a  series  of  exhibits, 
publications,  and  festivals  with  which  the  Institution  will  mark  our 
Nation's  two-hundredth  birthday.  It  is  also  pleasant  to  be  able  to 
report  here  that  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  which  had  suf- 
fered patiently  the  inconveniences  of  subway  construction  outside 
its  walls  for  several  years,  now  enjoys  once  again  the  use  of  all  its 
galleries  and  of  its  front  door.  With  the  reinstallation  of  the  Lincoln 
Gallery,  and  the  completion  of  galleries  for  miniatures  and  non- 
American  works,  the  ncfa  is  now  able  to  show  its  collections  and  to 
mount  temporary  exhibitions  more  appropriately  and  handsomely 
than  ever  before. 

In  short,  then,  the  past  year  has  been  one  of  steady  growth  punc- 
tuated by  occasional,  dramatic  leaps  forward.  Between  milestones  — 
such  as  the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  the  Freer  Gallery  last  year,  the 
opening  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  next  year,  and  the  expected  open- 
ing of  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  the  year  after  —  the  real  progress 
takes  place. 

Finally,  we  must  sorrowfully  record  the  death  during  the  past  year 

144  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

of  Mrs.  Marjorie  Merriweather  Post,  one  of  the  Institution's  greatest 
benefactors,  and  of  Miss  Elisabeth  Houghton,  a  beloved  and  valued 
member  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum.  Each 
will  be  remembered  by  the  Smithsonian  and  by  the  public  for  her 
contributions  to  our  collections  and  museums. 

Archives  of  American  Art 

With  five  regional  offices  in  full  operation  for  the  first  time,  the 
Archives  experienced  an  unusually  active  year  in  both  acquisitions 
and  use  of  its  resources.  Among  the  larger  and  more  significant  col- 
lections of  papers  received  were  those  of  the  New  York  sculptor 
Paul  Burlin,  the  painters  Frank  Duveneck,  Barry  Faulkner,  and 
Henry  Varnam  Poor,  the  painter  and  designer  Gyorgy  Kepes,  and 
the  Detroit  collector  Hawkins  Ferry.  Records  of  three  major  art 
galleries  —  Doll  and  Richards  in  Boston  and  the  Rose  Fried  and 
Maynard  Walker  Galleries  in  New  York  —  were  also  accessioned. 
The  work  of  Walter  Heil,  Douglas  MacAgy,  and  Alan  Solomon,  all 
nationally  prominent  administrators  and  exhibition  organizers,  is 
reflected  in  large  groups  of  personal  and  professional  papers.  Insti- 
tutional records  made  available  for  microfilming  by  the  Archives 
included  those  of  the  Cranbrook  Academy  and  the  Allen  Memorial 
Museum  in  Oberlin,  Ohio. 

Three  particularly  interesting  smaller  groups  of  papers  are  a  long 
series  of  letters  from  Alfred  Stieglitz  to  Arthur  Dove,  written  in  the 
1920s  and  1930s;  15  Maurice  Prendergast  letters  to  a  friend  and 
collector,  Mrs.  Oliver  Williams,  and  a  diary  kept  by  the  New  York 
dealer  WilUam  Macbeth  in  the  1870s  and  1880s. 

Thirteen  hundred  calls  for  documentation  offered  by  the  Archives 
were  made  by  visiting  researchers  at  all  regional  offices,  an  increase 
of  one  hundred  over  fiscal  1973  in  spite  of  several  weeks  of  interrup- 
tion in  service  in  the  New  York  office.  Over  a  thousand  letters  of 
inquiry  were  answered  and  520  rolls  of  microfilm  were  lent  out 
through  interlibrary  loan.  The  latter  figure  represents  a  25-percent 
increase  over  the  previous  year. 

The  Archives'  New  York  office  underwent  a  major  renovation  in 
the  fall  and  held  an  opening  reception,  with  a  display  of  documents, 
in  its  new  quarters  on  the  ground  floor  at  41  East  65th  Street,  in  late 
November  1973.  Another  display  of  documents  was  arranged  in 

History  and  Art  1 145 

March  1974  in  connection  with  a  reception  held  to  explain  the 
Archives  to  New  York  art  dealers.  An  exhibition  of  letters  from 
Fitzwilliam  Sargent  containing  passages  on  the  growth  and  educa- 
tion of  his  son  John  Singer  Sargent  was  displayed  at  the  Washington 

The  Archives  Oral  History  Program  continued  its  activities  dur- 
ing the  year.  Twenty-one  interviews  with  artists  were  taped  and 
33  tapes  were  transcribed.  A  grant  from  the  Andrew  W.  Mellon 
Foundation,  received  in  December,  will  enable  the  Archives  to  work 
off  a  backlog  of  165  untranscribed  tapes.  As  an  aid  to  researchers, 
the  Archives  published  a  descriptive  guide  to  306  transcripts  of 
interviews  conducted  between  1958  and  1971, 

The  Archives  was  the  subject  of  three  articles,  one  written  by 
Russell  Lynes  and  published  in  American  Heritage;  one  by  David 
Sokol  published  in  Art  in  America,  November-December  1973;  and 
a  third  by  Garnett  McCoy  published  in  Manuscripts,  Summer  1974. 
In  addition,  32  books,  articles,  and  exhibition  catalogues  published 
during  the  year  acknowledged  assistance  from  Archives  resources. 
Among  these  were  James  R.  Mellow,  Charmed  Circle;  June  L.  Ness, 
Lyonel  Feininger;  Richard  G.  Coker,  Portrait  of  an  American  Painter: 
Edward  Gay;  Marguerite  Zorach,  The  Early  Years,  1908-1920  (Na- 
tional Collection  of  Fine  Arts);  Robert  Loftin  Newman  (National 
Collection  of  Fine  Arts);  Vorticism  and  Its  Allies  (Arts  Council  of 
Great  Britain);  and  Jacob  Lawrence  (Whitney  Museum  of  Ameri- 
can Art). 

Members  of  the  Archives  of  American  Art  Board  of  Trustees  are: 

Mrs.  Otto  L.  Spaeth,  Chairman  Robert  L.  McNeil,  Jr. 

Irving  F.  Burton,  President  Abraham  Melamed 

Mrs.  Alfred  Negley,  Vice  President  Mrs.  Dana  M.  Raymond 
Mrs.  E.  Bliss  Parkinson,  Vice  President     Mrs.  William  L.  Richards 

Henry  DeF.  Baldwin,  Secretary  Chapin  Riley 

Joel  Ehrenkranz,  Treasurer  Stephen  Shalom 

Edmond  duPont  Edward  M.  M.  Warburg 

Joseph  H.  Hirshhorn  George  H.  Waterman  III 

James  Humphry  III  S.  Dillon  Ripley,  ex  officio 

Miss  Milka  Iconomoff  Charles  Blitzer,  ex  officio 

Gilbert  H.  Kinney  founding  trustees 

Howard  W.  Lipman  Lawrence  A.  Fleischman 

Harold  O.  Love  -'  Mrs.  Edsel  B.  Ford 

Russell  Lynes  E.  P.  Richardson 

146  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Members  of  the  Archives  of  American  Art  Advisory  Committee  are: 

James  Humphry  III,  Chairman      Abram  Lerner 

Milton  W.  Brown  A.  Hyatt  Mayor 

Anne  d'Harnoncourt  Barbara  Novak 

Lloyd  Goodrich  Jules  Prown 

Eugene  C.  Goossen  J.  T.  Rankin 

James  J.  Heslin  Daniel  J.  Reed 

John  Howat  Charles  van  Ravenswaay 

Bernard  Karpel  Marvin  S.  Sadik 

Edgar  Kaufmann,  Jr.  Joshua  C.  Taylor 

John  A.  Kouwenhoven  William  B.  Walker 

Karl  Kup  Richard  P.  Wunder 
Eric  Larrabee 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum 

of  Decorative  Arts  and  Design 

,  Renovation  activity  has  begun  at  the  Carnegie  Mansion  and  the  first 
phase  should  be  completed  by  July  of  1975.  The  collections  and  exhi- 
bitions will  be  installed  and  the  Museum  will  reopen  to  the  public  in 
the  winter  of  1975-1976. 

During  the  past  year  the  Museum  organized  a  major  exhibition  of 
over  300  drawings,  textiles,  and  wallpapers  entitled  "The  Art  of 
Decoration:  Drawings  and  Objects  from  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Mu- 
seum" at  the  Brooklyn  Museum.  A  lecture  series  was  given  by  the 
staff  in  conjunction  with  this  exhibition,  A  second  exhibition,  of 
Winslow  Homer  drawings,  was  shown  at  the  Columbia  Museum  of 
Art  and  the  Telfair  Academy  in  Savannah.  In  addition,  objects  from 
the  collection  were  included  in  exhibitions  at  23  institutions  includ- 
ing the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art,  National  Gallery  of  Art,  Balti- 
more Museum,  Art  Institute  of  Chicago,  Pennsylvania  Academy, 
Princeton  University,  Harvard  University,  Amherst  College,  Rice 
University,  Finch  College,  and  Pratt  Institute.  Exhibitions  of  nine- 
teenth-century American  drawings  and  new  acquisitions  in  textiles 
were  shown  briefly  in  the  Carnegie  Mansion. 

The  collections  were  enriched  by  671  items.  The  most  outstanding 
gifts  were  the  "Martin  Scrapbook"  containing  samples  of  eighteenth- 
century  French  block-printed  fabrics  and  Indian  chintzes,  a  gouache 

History  and  Art  1 147 

drawing  by  Gino  Severini,  8  nineteenth-century  colored  engravings 
of  political  cartoons,  a  nineteenth-century  American  cast-iron  man- 
tel, 2  cast-iron  baluster  panels  designed  by  George  G.  Elmslie,  a 
fashion  drawing  by  Erte,  2  wallpapered  folding  screens,  a  collection 
of  turn-of-the-century  embroideries  and  embroidered  samplers  from 
the  Eva  Johnston  Coe  Collection.  A  total  of  1562  objects  were  cata- 
logued and  280  costumes  were  sent  to  the  Smithsonian  in  Washing- 
ton on  long-term  loan. 

The  William  H.  Goodyear  collection  of  architectural  photographs 
was  transferred  to  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Library  from  the  National 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  John  Maximus  gave  another 
portion  (1919  items)  of  his  classified  pictorial  reference  library.  The 
Color  and  Light  Archive  was  enlarged  with  a  gift  of  1293  items  on 
color  by  Mrs.  L  H.  Godlove. 

A  beginning  was  made  toward  the  formulation  of  an  Environmen- 
tal Design  collection  dealing  with  the  processes  of  design  —  how 
design  has  been  influenced  by  natural,  technological,  and  cultural 
forces,  how  it  affects  the  human  being  physically  and  psychologi- 
cally, and  how  it  shapes  landscapes  and  lifestyles.  A  meeting  of  40 
leading  architects,  designers,  planners,  and  educators  was  held  to 
advise  on  the  development  of  this  collection. 

The  Museum  is  presently  conducting  a  study  to  determine  the 
kinds  of  information  designers  need,  the  format  of  such  an  informa- 
tion system,  and  its  use  by  professionals  and  the  public.  In  order  to 
facilitate  research  and  to  save  wear  and  tear  on  fragile  objects,  a 
color  slide  catalogue  of  the  collections  was  begun.  This  project  has 
been  generously  supported  by  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Arts, 
New  York  State  Council,  and  the  Mary  Duke  Biddle  Trust.  Slides 
of  over  6500  items  have  been  made  to  date,  as  well  as  a  slide  kit 
of  embroideries.  An  anonymous  gift  was  received  to  make  a  proto- 
type film  on  traditional  crafts  in  danger  of  disappearing. 

A  series  of  lectures  entitled,  "The  Fin  de  Siecle  Medici:  Carnegie 
and  the  Designer"  was  held  in  the  Carnegie  Mansion.  Billy  Baldwin, 
the  famous  New  York  interior  designer,  gave  4  lectures  on  "Decorat- 
ing Today."  Five  lectures  and  a  colloquium  were  given  for  the  mem- 
bership and  19  additional  lectures  were  given  by  curators  at  other 
museums.  The  children's  workshops  continued,  and  a  tour  was  orga- 
nized to  see  the  furnishings  and  windows  for  Louis  Comfort  Tif- 
fany's famous  chapel  in  the  workshop  where  they  are  being  restored. 

148  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

New  York  Waterfront,  1926-1940,  a  hanging  by  Lydia  Bush-Brown  (Mrs. 
Francis  Head),  who  recently  presented  it  to  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of 
Decorative  Arts  and  Design. 

An  American  cast-iron,  mid-nineteenth  century  mantel  with  Eglomise  panels,  one  of 
a  pair.  Its  height  including  shelf  is  SeVi  inches;  its  height  to  the  top  of  the  arch  is 
36  inches;  width  of  the  arch  is  35  inches,  and  length  of  the  shelf  is  71  inches.  This 
mantel  was  given  to  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Decorative  Arts  and  Design  by 
Mrs.  Whitney  Atwood. 

Three  members  of  the  curatorial  staff,  Elaine  Evans  Dee,  Milton 
Sonday,  and  Catherine  Lynn  Frangiamore,  received  foundation 
grants  for  research  outside  of  the  Museum.  Mrs.  Frangiamore's  book 
on  wallpapers  used  in  America  will  be  published  by  Praeger  next 
spring.  The  staff  was  enlarged  by  two:  Dorothy  Twining  Globus, 
who  joined  the  Museum's  permanent  exhibition  staff,  and  Arete 
Swartz,  from  the  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum,  who  worked  in  the 
education  department  on  a  one-year  grant.  Twenty  scholars  studied 
the  collections,  and  7  student  interns  received  training.  Special  lec- 
tures were  given  for  visiting  classes  from  New  York  University,  City 
University  of  New  York,  the  Art  Students  League,  Pratt  Institute, 
and  Yale  University. 

The  Museum  held  an  extremely  successful  benefit  auction  under 
the  chairmanship  of  Mrs.  H.  J.  Heinz  II.  All  of  the  items  were  do- 
nated expressly  for  the  sale  by  collectors,  dealers,  and  other  friends 
of  the  Museum.  A  total  of  $125,000  was  raised  for  the  building  fund. 
Grants  were  received  from  the  Charles  Hayden  Foundation,  Janet 
Neff  Charitable  Trust,  Maya  Corporation,  Elsie  de  Wolfe  Founda- 
tion, and  New  York  Community  Trust,  and  an  additional  $72,000 
was  raised,  largely  from  corporations  and  individual  designers  for  a 
Study  Center  in  memory  of  Doris  and  Henry  Dreyfuss. 

Freer  Gallery  of  Art 

During  fiscal  year  1974  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  celebrated  its  fiftieth 
anniversary.  To  mark  that  occasion,  the  Gallery  presented  three 
special  exhibitions:  "Japanese  Ukiyoe  Painting,"  "Chinese  Figure 
Painting,"  and  "Ceramics  from  the  World  of  Islam."  The  Gallery 
published  illustrated  catalogues  for  each  exhibition  and  organized 
international  symposia  devoted  to  analysis  of  the  three  different 
themes.  Approximately  200  scholars  and  students  participated  in 
each  of  the  three  programs.  These  anniversary  activities  and  publi- 
cations, which  focused  on  the  arts  of  the  Far  and  Near  East,  sum- 
marized a  half  century  of  acquisitions  and  research. 

On  May  2, 1973,  the  Freer  Medal  was  presented  to  the  Japanese 
specialist.  Professor  Tanaka  Ichimatsu;  on  September  17,  1973,  the 
recipient  was  the  noted  museologist  and  historian  of  Chinese  art. 

150  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Prime  Minister  Tanaka  of  Japan  (second  from  right)  watches  intently  as  Harold  P. 
Stern,  Director  of  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  unrolls  a  treasured  painted  scroll.  Prime 
Minister  Tanaka  visited  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  July  30,  1973. 

w  ^ 


Empress  Farah  of  Iran  is  shown  a  part  of  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art's  Persian 
collection  by  Dr.  Harold  P.  Stern,  Director,  and  Dr.  Esin  Atil  (right).  Curator  of 
Near  Eastern  Art.  Looking  on  is  Karim  Pasha  Bahadori  of  the  Empress'  staff. 

Japanese  pottery  urn.  Jomon  period,  prehistoric;  its  height  is  19%  inches  and  its 
rim  diameter  is  12  Va  inches.    Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  74.5. 

Mr.  Laurence  Sickman;  and  on  January  16,  1974,  the  award  was 
given  to  the  renowned  Near  Eastern  scholar.  Professor  Roman 
Ghirshman.  The  three  men  were  honored  as  recipients  of  the  Freer 
Medal  for  their  "distinguished  contribution  to  the  knowledge  and 
understanding  of  Oriental  civilizations  as  reflected  in  their  arts." 

Construction  of  a  specially  designed  X-ray  room  and  installation 
of  initial  X-ray  equipment  will  enable  the  Freer  Conservation  Labora- 
tory to  keep  pace  with  its  steadily  increasing  activities.  This  essential 
equipment  will  considerably  facilitate  the  examination  of  objects  in 
the  Collection  and  those  being  considered  for  study  or  purchase.  In 
addition,  two  X-ray  diffraction  cameras  and  tracks  will  be  used  to 
identify  pigments  and  corrosion  products. 

In  the  course  of  fiscal  1974,  the  Collection  has  expanded  by  the 
accession  of  36  objects.  Of  those,  several  fine  items  were  acquired 
by  gift  from  the  estates  of  Mrs.  Agnes  E.  Meyer  and  Mr.  Myron 
Bement  Smith.  Other  objects  of  importance  were  presented  by  Mrs. 
Anna  Chennault  and  Mr.  Yoichi  Nakajima. 

Harold  P.  Stern,  Director,  participated  in  the  seventh  meeting  of 
the  United  States-Japan  Conference  on  Cultural  and  Educational 
Interchange  in  Tokyo  on  June  17-20.  Thomas  Lawton,  Assistant 
Director,  and  W.  Thomas  Chase  III,  Head  Conservator,  were  among 
the  12  members  of  the  American  Art  and  Archaeology  Delegation 
who  visited  the  People's  Republic  of  China  from  November  10 
through  December  9, 1973. 

Special  exhibitions  at  the  Freer  Gallery  were  "Turkish  Art  of  the 
Ottoman  Period"  (August  1,  1973,  through  December  19,  1973), 
"Chinese  Figure  Painting"  (September  11, 1973,  through  November 
30,  1973),  and  "Ceramics  from  the  World  of  Islam"  (January  17, 
1974,  through  June  30, 1974). 

Rutherford  J.  Gettens  joined  the  staff  of  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art 
on  October  1, 1951.During  the  more  than  20  years  of  his  association 
with  the  Gallery,  he  was  instrumental  in  establishing  the  Technical 
Laboratory  and  in  maintaining  its  high  level  of  research.  His  publi- 
cations on  problems  relating  to  pigment  analysis  and  on  the  fabrica- 
tion of  Chinese  bronze  vessels  achieved  an  international  reputation 
for  him  and  the  Laboratory.  After  his  retirement  in  1968,  Mr.  Get- 
tens remained  active  in  the  position  of  Research  Consultant.  His 
unexpected  death  on  June  17, 1974,  at  the  age  of  74,  is  an  irreplace- 
able loss. 

History  and  Art  I  153 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

The  public  opening  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 
is  scheduled  for  October  1, 1974. 

Final  plans  were  developed  for  the  inaugural  exhibition,  utilizing 
scale  models,  photographic  aids,  and  full-scale  mock-ups  in  styro- 
foam  of  monumental  pieces  of  sculpture,  to  help  determine  place- 
ment of  works  in  the  outdoor  sculpture  garden  and  plaza. 

Production  was  completed  on  postcards,  reproductions,  and  color 
slides  illustrating  outstanding  works  from  the  Collection  which  will 
be  available  to  the  public  in  the  Museum  shop. 

It  was  a  year  marked  by  the  transfer  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum 
and  Sculpture  Garden  (hmsg)  offices  and  personnel  from  New  York 
to  temporary  quarters  in  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building  in  July 
1973;  and  then  to  the  new  building  on  December  27, 1973.  Beneficial 
occupancy  of  the  new  Museum  was  accepted  by  the  Smithsonian  on 
March  29, 1974. 

On  April  17,  1974,  title  to  the  extensive  collections  included  in 
the  Agreement  of  May  17, 1966,  passed  from  Mr.  Joseph  H.  Hirsh- 
horn to  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  This  action  was  immediately 
followed  by  implementation  of  previously  established  plans  for 
moving  the  Collection. 

The  substantial  task  of  moving  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculp- 
ture Garden  collections  to  Washington,  D.C.,  from  various  points 
including  New  York  City,  Greenwich,  Connecticut,  and  Toronto, 
Canada,  was  commenced  on  April  14,  1974.  The  move  was  accom- 
plished on  schedule,  with  pieces  in  the  opening  exhibition  being  in 
the  vanguard  in  order  to  permit  the  Exhibits  and  Design  staff  to 
begin  the  installation.  A 

In  1974  the  inaugural  book/catalogue  went  to  press.  This  750- 
page  volume  includes  1001  paintings  and  sculptures  which  are  docu- 
mented and  reproduced  —  296  in  color.  The  foreword  is  by  S.  Dillon 
Ripley,  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian,  with  an  introduction  by 
Abram  Lerner,  Director  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum,  and  essays  by 
six  outstanding  art  scholars.  These  complement  the  selected  com- 
mentaries and  historical  data,  and  make  up  a  scholarly  and  stimulat- 
ing volume.  A  souvenir  booklet.  An  Introduction  to  the  Hirshhorn 
Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  is  also  in  production. 

Looking  beyond  the  Museum's  opening,  research  was  begun  on 

154  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

|li4«l''  I11IIIV  III*   »HI 

i  «  ■  Tl  T  1  1 

The  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

Head  (Elegy),  1952,  by  Dame  Barbara  Hepworth.  Mahogany  and  string, 
16%  X  11  X  7V2  inches.  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  5215. 


Waterfall,  circa  1943,  by  Arshile  Gorsky.  Oil  on  canvas,  38  x  25  inches. 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  JH64.200. 


Houses  of  Parliament,  1881,  by  Winslow  Homer.  Watercolor  on  paper, 
IzVz  X  19y2  inches.  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  JH58.6. 

Circe-Rapport  de  Contreras,  circa  1965,  by  Joseph  Cornell.  Collage,  8V2  x  IIV2  inches. 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  JH67.78.  (Photograph  by  Geoffrey  Clements) 

The  Hostess,  circa  1918,  by  Elie  Nadelman.  Painted  cherry  wood,  32V2  x  9*A  x  I3V2  inches. 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  S286.  (Photograph  by  Robert  E.  Mates) 

the  program  of  future  exhibitions.  A  series  of  research  exhibitions 
were  planned,  as  well  as  a  program  for  research  fellows.  In  fiscal  year 
1974,  too,  documentation  and  cataloguing  of  the  permanent  collec- 
tion progressed. 

During  this  period  the  staff  paused  to  mourn  the  passing  of  two 
dedicated  individuals  who  contributed  greatly  to  the  planning  and 
development  of  the  Museum's  programs:  On  March  2,  1974,  the 
staff  was  saddened  to  hear  of  the  death  of  Miss  Elisabeth  Houghton, 
a  member  of  the  Museum's  Board  of  Trustees  and  a  lifelong  cham- 
pion of  civic  causes.  She  was  one  of  the  original  members  of  the 
Board,  having  been  appointed  by  President  Nixon  in  1971.  On  Sep- 
tember 6,  1973,  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  lost 
the  invaluable  collaboration  of  Mr.  Douglas  MacAgy,  who  super- 
vised the  preliminary  design  of  our  inaugural  exhibition.  Mr.  Mac- 
Agy's  contribution  was  outstanding  and  his  previous  experience 
with  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Arts  was  of  great  help  in  our 
initial  planning. 

The  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  has  been  most  suc- 
cessful in  recruiting  qualified  and  outstanding  personnel  in  the  pro- 
fessional field  to  fill  new  positions,  and  to  replace  those  who  have 
left  our  ranks:  The  Board  of  Trustees,  at  their  April  4, 1974,  meeting, 
voted  to  appoint  Miss  Anne  d'Harnoncourt  to  the  Board  for  a  term 
expiring  in  1980.  At  this  meeting  the  Honorable  Daniel  P.  Moynihan 
was  reelected  Chairman,  and  Dr.  George  Heard  Hamilton  was  re- 
elected Vice  Chairman. 

The  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  staff  was  aug- 
mented by  the  following  appointments:  Stephen  E.  Weil,  Deputy 
Director;  Charles  W.  Millard,  Chief  Curator;  Charles  Froom,  In- 
stallation Designer;  Edward  Lawson,  Chief,  Education  Program; 
Mary  Ann  Tighe,  Education  Specialist;  and  Douglas  Robinson, 

"Inside  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,"  a  special 
series  of  lectures  on  the  Museum  and  its  collections  began  on  January 
21, 1974,  with  a  talk  by  the  Director  on  "Joseph  H.  Hirshhorn,  Col- 
lector." This  series,  begun  at  the  request  of  the  Resident  Associates 
program,  had  an  enrollment  of  thirty-eight  subscribers.  Its  nine  lec- 
tures included  a  talk  on  the  installation  of  the  Inaugural  Exhibition 
by  Charles  Froom,  Installation  Designer,  and  Cynthia  McCabe  dis- 
cussing the  content  of  the  opening  exhibition.  Other  talks  included 

History  and  Art  I  159 


^  -tfe 

Choir  Girls  by  William  Edmondson.  Limestone,  14  x  17  x  6  inches. 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  568.29. 

"A  Tour  of  the  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden"  by  Cynthia  McCabe 
and  Edward  Lawson;  "Thomas  Eakins  and  the  Painting  of  Late  19th- 
century  America"  by  PhylUs  Rosenzweig;  "Pioneers  of  Modern 
American  Art"  by  Inez  Carson;  "Aspects  of  20th-century  Sculp- 
ture" by  the  Director;  "The  New  York  School:  Pollock,  Rothko,  and 
de  Kooning"  by  Edward  Lawaon;  and  "Op,  Pop,  and  Other  Recent 
Trends"  by  Mary  Ann  Tighe. 

160  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

The  Museum  continued  to  respond  to  requests  and  inquiries  from 
scholars  and  researchers  and  maintained  its  policy  of  lending  out- 
standing works  of  art  to  national  and  international  exhibitions.  More 
than  235  requests  for  research  information  were  answered  by  the 
Department  of  Painting  and  Sculpture.  Fifty  paintings  and  sculp- 
tures were  loaned  to  25  museums,  galleries,  and  institutions. 

The  Alberto  Giacometti  Retrospective  at  the  Solomon  R.  Guggen- 
heim Museum,  New  York,  from  April  5  to  June  23,  1974,  included 
the  sculpture  "Seated  Women"  from  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  Col- 
lections. Other  artists  whose  works  have  been  borrowed  for  exhibi- 
tions in  Spring  1974  are:  Karl  Knaths  (International  Exhibitions 
Foundation,  Washington,  D.C.,  tour);  Zoltan  Kemeny  (Foundation 
Maeght,  Paris);  Horace  Pippin  (Delaware  Art  Museum,  Wilming- 
ton); Jacob  Lawrence  (Whitney  Museum  of  American  Art,  New 
York,  and  tour) ;  and  Mark  Tobey  (National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts, 
Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C. 

Among  recent  volumes  which  reproduced  paintings  and  sculpture 
from  the  Collections  are:  American  Masters:  The  Voice  and  the 
Myth  by  Brian  O'Doherty  (New  York,  Random  House),  Elie  Nadel- 
man  by  Lincoln  Kirstein  (New  York,  Eakins  Press),  Grandma  Moses 
by  Otto  Kallir  (New  York,  Harry  N.  Abrams),  and  Henry  Moore  in 
America  by  Henry  J.  Seldis  (New  York,  Praeger). 

Formal  training  sessions  for  75  volunteer  docents  were  begun  by 
the  HMSG  Education  Department  on  January  15,  1974,  to  continue 
thru  May  28,  to  be  followed  by  an  intensive  training  period  in  the 
Museum  galleries.  The  training  course  is  made  up  of  slide  lectures 
and  demonstratioins,  and  will  involve  extensive  work  in  the  galleries 
with  the  paintings  and  sculpture. 

The  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden's  Board  of  Trust- 
ees is  made  up  of  the  following  members: 

Daniel  P.  Moynihan,  Chairman  Theodore  E.  Cummings 

George  Heard  Hamilton,  Vice  Chairman       Anne  d'Harnoncourt 
H.  Harvard  Arnason  Taft  B.  Schreiber 

Leigh  B.  Block  Hal  B.  WaUis 

Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States  Warren  E.  Burger,  ex  officio 
Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  S.  Dillon  Ripley,  ex  officio 


Brian  O'Doherty       William  C.  Seitz       Joshua  C.  Taylor 

History  and  Art  I  161 

Joseph  Henry  Papers 

The  research  and  editing  for  the  second  volume  of  The  Papers  of 
Joseph  Henry  are  now  very  close  to  completion.  The  volume,  docu- 
menting Henry's  career  from  the  end  of  1832  through  1835,  will 
introduce  Henry  to  his  new  environment  at  Princeton,  follow  his 
activities  as  Professor  of  Natural  Philosophy  at  the  College  of  New 
Jersey,  and  detail  the  resumption  of  his  electrical  research,  mainly 
on  self-induction.  One  of  the  highlights  of  the  volume  will  be  an 
extensive  run  of  documents  from  the  first  of  three  laboratory  note- 
books kept  by  Henry  at  Princeton  and  the  Smithsonian,  and  now 
preserved  in  the  Smithsonian  Archives.  The  notebooks  reflect  the 
pace  and  style  of  Henry's  daily  research  as  well  as  the  evolution  of 
his  scientific  ideas  over  several  decades.  The  documents  in  the  second 
volume  also  portray  the  dramatic  expansion  of  Henry's  scientific 
role  and  associations  during  his  early  Princeton  years,  while  shed- 
ding new  light  on  scientific  centers  like  Philadelphia. 

While  the  regular  collecting  and  research  activities  of  the  project 
go  on,  preparations  are  now  being  made  for  seeing  the  second  vol- 
ume through  the  Smithsonian  Press  and  for  the  editing  of  volume 
three  of  our  series,  documenting,  among  other  events  in  Henry's 
life,  his  1837  trip  to  Europe.  His  diary  from  that  journey,  marking 
Henry's  formal  introduction  to  the  international  science  scene,  pro- 
vides an  extraordinary  record  of  transatlantic  communication  in  sci- 
ence. Plans  are  also  underway  for  the  editing  of  a  special  volume  of 
lectures  and  essays  by  Joseph  Henry,  based  upon  manuscripts  from 
throughout  his  career.  It  is  hoped  that  this  special  volume,  treating 
topics  such  as  Henry's  philosophy  of  science,  will  appeal  to  a  wide 
audience,  both  scholarly  and  popular,  and  will  perhaps  be  found 
suitable  for  classroom  use  at  the  college  and  graduate  levels. 

Significant  progress  was  also  made  in  organizing  and  cataloguing 
the  Joseph  Henry  Library,  Henry's  personal  reference  collection.  A 
wide-ranging  collection  with  numerous  rare  volumes,  the  Library  is 
an  invaluable  resource  for  appreciating  Henry's  scientific  develop- 
ment and  scientific  literature  of  the  day.  Plans  are  now  going  for- 
ward to  publish  an  annotated  catalogue  of  the  collection  for  the 
general  use  of  historians. 

The  project  continues  to  sponsor  and  participate  in  various  Smith- 

162  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

sonian  educational  activities.  Visiting  scholars  continued  to  exploit 
the  Henry  Papers'  collections  and  resources.  Nathan  Reingold's 
seminar  on  the  nineteenth  century  had  another  successful  year. 

National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board 

With  the  approval  of  the  National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory 
Board,  the  Smithsonian  Institution  entered  into  a  cooperative  agree- 
ment with  the  Department  of  the  Interior.  The  agreement  provides 
a  basis  upon  which  the  Smithsonian  may  fulfill  its  responsibilities 
under  the  Act  of  August  30,  1961  (75  Stat.  414,  20  USC  80-80d). 
Under  the  agreement  the  two  agencies  may  work  jointly  in  advanc- 
ing outdoor  museum  programs,  short  term  and  long  term,  to  illumi- 
nate historical  American  attitudes  toward  matters  of  national  defense 
and  past  contributions  by  the  Armed  Forces  to  American  society 
and  culture. 

Representatives  of  the  National  Park  Service  and  the  staff  of  the 
National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board  pursued  planning 
for  a  special  Bicentennial  program  to  dramatize  the  spirit  of  the 
American  people  in  the  struggle  for  independence.  The  program  is 
to  be  presented  to  the  public  at  Washington,  D.  C,  during  the 
summer  of  1976.  It  will  portray  the  life  of  the  citizen-soldier  of  the 
American  Revolution  through  the  medium  of  living  history.  The 
program  will  take  place  out  of  doors. 

The  National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board  at  the  close 
of  fiscal  year  1974  consisted  of  the  following  members. 

The  Honorable  John  Nicholas  Brown,  Chairman 

The  Honorable  Earl  Warren 

Secretary  of  Army 

Secretary  of  Navy 

Secretary  of  Air  Force 

Lieutenant  General  Milton  G.  Baker,  Retired 

Robert  C.  Baker 

The  Honorable  Alexander  P.  Butterfield 

William  H.  Perkins,  Jr. 

Secretary  of  Defense,  ex  officio 

Secretary,  Smithsonian  Institution,  ex  officio 

History  and  Art  1 163 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

All  of  the  activity  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  (ncfa)  is 
directed  toward  educational  goals  —  if  enjoyment  and  appreciation 
can  be  included  with  the  pursuit  and  refinement  of  knowledge  as 
part  of  artistic  education.  Although  some  1556  paintings,  sculptures, 
and  graphic  works  were  added  to  the  Collection  this  year  (the  Col- 
lection now  numbers  about  17,000),  and  study  continues  to  refine 
the  computerized  listings  and  to  improve  accessibility,  collecting  is 
only  one  aspect  of  a  complex  program.  Since  the  museum  believes 
that  the  circumstances  under  which  a  work  of  art  is  encountered 
has  much  to  do  with  an  awareness  of  its  qualities,  great  effort  has 
been  made  to  present  each  of  the  over  900  works  from  the  collection 
now  on  display  to  its  best  advantage  for  the  modern  viewer.  This 
has  required,  in  addition  to  a  continuing  conservation  and  reframing 
program,  the  careful  design  of  each  area  to  create  not  a  synthetic 
historical  past  but  a  convincing  artistic  present.  This  year  the  totally 
reorganized  Lincoln  Gallery  was  reopened,  the  Doris  M.  Magowan 
Gallery  of  Portrait  Miniatures  was  completed,  and  a  new  gallery 
was  established  for  some  of  the  museum's  other-than-American 
works,  including  a  fine  Rubens  and  a  recently  identified  Guercino. 
Including  the  Renwick  Gallery,  about  78,000  square  feet  of  gallery 
space  is  now  open  to  the  public.  Part  of  that  space  is  reserved  for 
temporary  exhibitions  which  carry  out  the  ncfa's  concern  for  the 
reexamination  of  little-known  aspects  of  American  art  as  well  as 
occasional  tribute  to  acknowledged  masters.  Of  the  21  exhibitions 
planned  and  produced  by  the  staff  this  year  (in  all,  25  were  pre- 
sented) some  were  studies  of  individual  artists  ranging  from  the  less 
well  known  including  Margarite  Zorach  and  Herman  Webster  to  the 
distinguished  ceramists  Gertrude  and  Otto  Natzler  and  the  eminent 
painter  Mark  Tobey.  Especially  popular  was  an  exhibition  of  draw- 
ings on  Smithsonian  letterhead  made  by  Saul  Steinberg  while  in 
residence  at  the  Smithsonian  in  1967.  Investigating  special  themes 
were  such  exhibitions  as  "A  Measure  of  Beauty,"  "Shaker,"  and 
"Art  of  the  Pacific  Northwest  from  the  1930s  to  the  Present."  As 
one  in  a  series  calling  attention  to  artistic  quality  in  works  from  other 
Smithsonian  Collections,  "Boxes  and  Bowls"  was  mounted  at  the 
Renwick  Gallery,  affording  'a  new  look  at  historical  works  from 
several  Northwest  Coast  Indian  groups.  Publications,  either  major 

164  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

After  having  been  closed  for  four  years  because  of  excavations  for  the  subway,  the 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts'  remodeled  main  entrance  at  Eighth  and  G  Streets 
is  now  open.  (Photograph  by  Lowell  A.  Kenyon) 

Installation  of  statues  of  Peter  Paul  Rubens  and  Esteban  Murillo  in  second  floor 
niches  on  the  outside  of  the  Renwick  Gallery  completes  restoration  of  that  building. 
The  sculptures  duplicate  originals  by  Moses  Ezekiel  that  occupied  the  niches  in  the 
late  nineteenth  century.  Professor  Renato  Luccheti  made  these  copies  by  casting  the 
originals  which  are  now  at  the  Norfolk  Botanical  Gardens. 

Card  Rack,  by  John  Frederick  Peto  (1854-1907).  Oil  on  canvas. 
Gift  of  Nathaly  Baum  in  memory  of  Harry  Baum. 

A  drawing  made  by  Saul  Steinberg  at  the  Smithsonian  in  1967. 


monographs  or  smaller  catalogues,  were  issued  in  association  with 
almost  all  exhibitions. 

Exhibitions  from  abroad  shown  at  the  Renwick  Gallery  included 
paintings  from  Pakistan  and  a  retrospective  of  two  hundred  years 
of  Royal  Copenhagen  porcelain.  Ten  exhibitions  provided  by  the 
National  Collection  were  in  circulation  to  other  countries  during  the 
year,  among  them  "Made  in  Chicago"  (works  by  Chicago  artists) 
which  traveled  through  South  America  and  "Fabric  Vibrations,"  an 
exhibition  originating  at  the  Museum  of  Contemporary  Crafts, 
which  circulated  in  Southeast  Asia,  carrying  the  modern  craft  of  tie 
dye  to  its  ancient  home. 

The  many  established  activities  for  making  the  museum  accessible 
to  a  wide  public  continued  with  an  expanded  Department  of  Educa- 
tion. Young  visitors  expressed  pleasure  with  the  new  children's 
gallery,  "Explore."  Students  continued  with  the  Discover  Graphics 
program  and  a  group  of  high-school-age  "junior  interns"  enlivened 
many  activities  of  the  museum.  Education  of  a  different  kind  was 
carried  on  by  six  doctoral  fellows  and  two  senior  fellows  engaged 
in  research  on  American  art.  To  such  scholars,  ncfa's  rapidly  ex- 
panding Bicentennial  Inventory  of  American  Painting  before  1914 
will  be  of  great  help  when  ready  for  use  in  1976.  The  National  Col- 
lection of  Fine  Arts  joined  with  the  University  of  Delaware  in  the 
spring  to  organize  a  symposium  on  late  nineteenth-century  Amer- 
ican art.  Throughout  the  museum  during  the  year  were  university 
students  learning  the  various  processes  of  museum  operation  as 
interns,  helping  to  keep  the  entire  staff  aware  that  learning  and 
teaching  go  hand  in  hand. 

Members  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  Commission  are: 

H.  Page  Cross,  Chairman 

George  B.  Tatum,  Vice  Chairman 

S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  Brook  Blake 

Thomas  S.  Buechner 

David  E.  Finley 

Lloyd  Goodrich 

Martin  Friedman 

Walker  Hancock 

Barlett  H.  Hayes,  Jr. 

August  Heckscher 

Thomas  C.  Howe 

Mrs.  Jaquelin  H.  Hume 

168  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

David  Lloyd  Kreeger 
Abram  Lerner,  ex  officio 
Henry  P.  Mcllhenny 
Ogden  M.  Pleissner 
Harold  Rosenberg 
Charles  H.  Sawyer 
Mrs.  Otto  L.  Spaeth 
Otto  Wittman 


Alexander  Wetmore 
Paul  Mellon 
Stow  Wengenroth 
Andrew  Wyeth 

Improvisational  dance  led  by  a  Decent  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

On  January  23,  1974,  the  National  Museun\  of  History  and  Tech- 
nology entered  its  second  decade.  Marking  its  tenth  anniversary. 
Chief  Justice  and  Smithsonian  Chancellor  Warren  Burger  with 
Secretary  Ripley  named  the  Museum's  auditorium  in  memory  of 
Leonard  Carmichael,  the  Secretary  whose  vision  and  determination 
had  brought  about  the  planning,  approval,  and  construction  of  this 
Museum.  At  the  Museum's  dedication  10  years  earlier.  President 
Lyndon  Johnson  had  expressed  his  belief  that  "this  Museum  will  do 
that  which  causes  us  all  to  celebrate;  it  will  excite  a  thirst  for  knowl- 
edge among  all  people."  Since  its  founding,  the  National  Museum 
of  History  and  Technology  has  welcomed  nearly  55  million  visitors. 
Yearly  attendance  has  grown  steadily,  now  reaching  7  million  per 
year.  Last  April,  visitor  attendance  topped  the  million  mark,  making 
the  highest  monthly  attendance  ever  registered  in  a  Smithsonian 
building.  Attendance  is  expected  to  be  vastly  increased  during  our 
second  decade  as  the  Nation  carries  out  its  Bicentennial  celebrations. 

On  the  first  of  October  1973,  Dr.  Daniel  J.  Boorstin  moved  from 
the  directorship  of  the  Museum  to  the  post  of  Senior  Historian  in 
the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  a  position  which 
allows  him  to  devote  more  of  his  energies  to  research  and  writing. 
In  May  1974,  Dr.  Boorstin  received  the  Pulitzer  Prize  for  History 
for  The  Americans:  The  Democratic  Experience,  the  final  volume  in 
his  trilogy  on  the  American  people.  The  writing  of  this  volume  had 
been  completed  during  the  four  years  of  his  directorship. 

Dr.  Boorstin's  successor.  Professor  Brooke  Hindle,  was  appointed 
after  nomination  by  museum  curators  and  began  his  tenure  in  Feb- 
ruary. A  faculty  member  of  the  New  York  University  since  1950, 
his  two  most  recent  posts  have  been  as  Dean  of  the  University 
College  of  Arts  and  Science  and  Head  of  the  University  Department 
of  History.  Known  for  his  distinctive  works.  The  Pursuit  of  Science 
in  Revolutionary  America  1735-1785;  David  Rittenhouse:  A  Biog- 
raphy; and  Technology  in  America:  Needs  and  Opportunities,  Dr. 
Hindle  is  presently  editing  a  volume  which  summarizes  the  confer- 
ence he  planned  for  Sleepy  Hollow  Restorations  on  "America's 
Wooden  Age."  His  present  research  assesses  the  role  of  industrial 
fairs  in  advancing  the  technology  of  their  time.  His  particular  focus 
has  been  the  Centennial  Exposition  of  1876  —  from  which  the 

170  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 



Mrs.  Nancy  Kissinger  (center)  on  a  recent  visit  to  the  National  Museum  of  History 
and  Technology  with  the  wives  of  the  foreign  ministers  from  Latin  America  is 
shown  a  collection  of  yellow-glazed  English  Earthenware  by  Paul  V.  Gardner, 
Curator,  Division  of  Ceramics  and  Glass. 

Oiling  and  cleaning  of  the  machinery  in  the  Power  and  Tool  Halls  is  an  important 
phase  of  the  daily  routine  before  volunteers  operate  equipment  for  their  lectures  and 
demonstrations.  Marjorie  Miller,  a  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 
Docent  volunteer  is  one  of  several  skilled  in  this  challenging  task,  which  always 
brings  an  interested  audience. 

Smithsonian    Institution    drew    its    first    significant    holdings    of 
machinery  and  technological  artifacts,  now  housed  in  this  Museum. 

Several  series  of  public  lectures  were  continued  from  last  year 
with  considerable  success  as  an  important  form  of  contact  with  thes 
visiting  public  and  outreach  to  the  Washington  community.  The 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  in  its  second  series  of 
Frank  Nelson  Doubleday  Lectures  considered  "Creativity  and  Col- 
laboration," looking  at  the  special  opportunities  and  pressures  of 
our  age  to  collaborate,  and  asking  how  particular  collaborations  — 
in  industry,  scientific  research,  the  media,  city  planning,  and  govern- 
ment —  had  affected  creativity  and  brought  about  growth  and 
change.  Speakers  were  Japanese  industrialist  Akio  Morita,  President 
and  co-founder  of  Sony  Corporation;  Nobel  Prize- winning  biologist 
James  Dewey  Watson,  whose  collaboration  with  Francis  Crick 
resulting  in  an  understanding  of  DNA  was  heralded  as  one  of  the 
most  dramatic  research  breakthroughs  of  modern  times;  British 
Broadcasting  Corporation's  Managing  Director  of  Television  Huw 
Wheldon;  Israeli-born  Canadian  architect  Moshe  Safdie,  designer 
of  Habitat;  and  Secretary  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare  Caspar 
W.  Weinberger.  Each  lecturer  also  took  part  in  a  luncheon  seminar, 
allowing  for  an  open  exchange  of  ideas  among  curators,  the  lecturer, 
and  special  guests.  Doubleday  and  Company  has  renewed  its  grant 
for  a  third  year  of  lectures  in  "The  Frontiers  of  Knowledge"  series. 

The  Museum  also  continued  a  series  of  lectures  with  the  U.S. 
Postal  Service  relating  to  new  postage  stamp  issues.  Extremely 
popular  lectures  included  "The  Continental  Congresses"  and  "Rise 
of  the  Spirit  of  Independence."  First  Day  ceremonies  were  held  for 
the  block  of  eight  10-cent  stamps  commemorating  the  Universal 
Postal  Union  Centennial. 

In  addition  to  these  evening  lectures,  the  Museum  has  provided, 
since  last  January,  weekly  daytime  Museum  Talks  by  curators  and 
qualified  museum  aides,  technicians,  and  specialists.  When  moved 
from  Saturdays  to  Tuesdays  at  lunchtime,  these  slide  talks  have 
drawn  large  audiences  both  of  Museum  visitors,  neighboring  gov- 
ernment employees,  and  Museum  staff.  The  lectures  reflect  both  the 
Museum's  varied  collections  and  current  staff  research  projects. 
Some  of  the  most  exciting  presentations  have  included  demonstra- 
tions of  historic  objects  front  our  collections,  from  the  early  sound- 
amplifying  devices  of  inventor  Elisha  Gray,  a  contemporary  of 

172  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Alexander  Graham  Bell,  to  the  operation  of  the  common  printing 

The  primary  efforts  of  all  staff  during  the  past  year  have  been 
spent  in  readying  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology's 
five  major  exhibitions  for  the  Bicentennial  period.  The  first,  opening 
this  coming  September  20th  on  the  lower  level,  is  an  exhibition  on 
the  two-hundred-year  history  of  American  clothing.  "Suiting  Every- 
one," the  story  of  America's  transition  from  homespun  or  tailor- 
made  garments  to  ready-to-wear,  is  an  interdisciplinary  exhibit, 
bringing  together  the  Division  of  Costume  and  Furnishings,  whose 
costume  collection  was  greatly  enriched  by  a  massive  clothing  appeal 
this  year;  the  Division  of  Textiles,  which  offers  the  machines  and 
textiles  of  manufacture;  and  the  Division  of  Military  History,  which 
has  supplied  examples  of  early  mass-produced  clothing  —  soldiers' 
imiforms.  A  major  new  installment  of  the  National  Museum  of 
History  and  Technology's  political  history  wing  is  scheduled  for 
opening  the  middle  of  next  year.  The  theme  of  "A  Nation  of  Na- 
tions," pluralism  in  American  life,  is  particularly  suited  to  this 
Museum,  which  has  become  the  repository  for  many  thousands  of 
artifacts  which  were  family  heirlooms,  treasured  possessions,  and 
creations  of  American  people  of  every  ethnic,  racial,  and  religious 

Considerable  staff  attention  was  directed  to  restoration  work  on 
the  exhibition  "1876  —  A  Centennial,"  an  exciting  project  which 
will  transform  a  portion  of  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building  into  a 
microcosm  of  the  Philadelphia  Exposition  of  1876  capturing  the 
festive  and  optimistic  spirit  of  America  on  its  one-hundredth  birth- 
day. This  exhibit  will  manifest  the  exuberance  of  a  Victorian  extrav- 
aganza, an  atmosphere  of  organized  chaos,  with  all  spaces  dominated 
by  an  enormous  variety  of  material  objects.  Finally,  Vladimir  and 
Elvira  Clain-Stefanelli,  Curators  of  the  Division  of  Numismatics,  are 
preparing  a  special  exhibition  on  the  history  of  American  banks  and 
banking,  supported  by  the  American  Bankers  Association,  to  open 
in  September  of  1975. 

This  year  the  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  Institute  for  Historical 
Research,  a  study  and  conference  center  which  will  make  important 
contributions  to  national  study  and  evaluation  of  the  Armed  Forces, 
their  importance  in  war  and  in  maintaining  peace,  was  brought  to 
full  realization  with  the  appointment  of  Dr.  Forrest  C.  Pogue,  Direc- 

History  and  Art  1 173 

tor  of  the  George  C.  Marshall  Research  Library  in  Lexington, 
Virginia,  and  widely  known  biographer  of  George  Marshall,  to  the 
directorship  of  the  new  Institute. 

As  part  of  the  Institution's  overall  decentralization  program,  the 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  assumed  the  admin- 
istration of  its  own  Office  of  Exhibits  and  Building  Management 
Division.  From  the  Smithsonian's  decentralization  of  the  Office  of 
Primary  and  Secondary  Education  has  come  a  new  approach  to  the 
Museum's  education  responsibilities,  which  have  been  formalized 
in  a  new  Division  of  Public  Information  and  Education.  In  addition 
to  conducting  tours  and  developing  visitor  programs,  the  Office  will 
establish  a  visitor  center  on  the  Museum's  first  floor  to  orient  the 
visitor  and  answer  pubHc  inquiries.  This  past  year  a  staff  associate 
was  hired  to  adapt  museum  exhibits  and  activities  to  the  needs  of 
the  handicapped.  The  staff  associate,  being  herself  handicapped, 
concentrated  her  efforts  on  developing  tours  for  the  blind  and  deaf 
with  great  success.  Experiments  were  conducted  with  Braille  labels 
and  subtitled  films,  and  the  results  will  be  incorporated  into  future 
exhibit  planning.  Alice  Reno  joined  the  staff  in  late  spring  as  Super- 
visor of  the  Division. 

And  on  a  playful  note,  the  National  Museum  of  History  and 
Technology  displayed  in  each  public  restroom  an  exhibit  panel 
tracing  with  graphics  the  history  of  "Bathrooms  in  America."  It 
leaves  visitors  contemplating  the  chamber  pot  and  closestool  of 
earlier  days,  with  a  sense  of  the  full  impact  of  technology  on  the 
American  way  of  life. 

Locating  and  collecting  objects  and  memorabilia  for  Bicentennial 
exhibitions  was  by  far  the  dominating  activity  of  the  Museum's  staff 
this  past  year  as  progress  continues  simultaneously  on  four  major 
subject  exhibitions. 

The  Division  of  Costume  and  Furnishings  initiated  an  unusual 
collecting  effort  for  the  exhibit,  "Suiting  Everyone,"  utilizing  a  news 
release  and  list  of  items  needed  for  display.  The  response  was  over- 
whelming, resulting  in  the  acquisition  of  a  large  number  of  items  of 
clothing  from  1920  to  1970  that  ranged  from  representative  clothing 
worn  by  the  majority  of  Americans  to  examples  produced  by  the 
industry's  greatest  designers. 

The  preparation  of  the  exhi-bition  has  benefited  enormously  from 
the  valuable  assistance  provided  by  a  panel  of  advisors  from  the 

174  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Rearrangement  of  the  reference  collections  of  the  Division  of  Textiles  has  resulted 
in  more  adequate  storage  of  the  Division's  extensive  collections  of  quilts,  sam- 
plers, and  rugs,  making  them  more  accessible  to  the  staff  and  visiting  students 
and  scholars. 

Indigo  blue  glazed  wool  quilted  counterpane  made  by  Esther  Wheat  of  Conway, 
Massachusetts,  for  her  dower  chest.  Late  eighteenth  century.  Division  of  Textiles, 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

fashion  community.  Given  the  incredible  breadth  of  the  Smithsonian 
collections  and  the  interdisciplinary  perspective  gained  from  the 
participating  Museum  staff,  the  exhibit  promises  to  have  a  profound 
impact  on  the  future  study  of  American  clothing  and  its  industry. 

The  full  staff  of  the  Division  of  Political  History  devoted  its 
major  effort  to  the  forthcoming  exhibition  hall  to  be  entitled  "We, 
the  People."  They  have  been  engrossed  in  the  challenging  task  of 
selecting  and  acquiring  objects  illustrating  the  role  of  American 
government  in  the  lives  of  the  American  people.  Objects  have  been 
collected  from  resources  within  the  Museum  as  well  as  from  other 
Smithsonian  and  Federal  agencies.  Conservation  of  the  First  Ladies' 
Gowns  also  continued,  bringing  the  total  number  of  First  Lady 
patterns  now  completed  to  twenty.  In  cooperation  with  the  Division 
of  Textiles,  the  skirt  of  the  dress  of  Martha  Washington  was 
restored  as  the  first  project  in  a  long-term  program  for  the  conserva- 
tion and  restoration  of  the  First  Ladies'  Gowns.  As  part  of  this 
program,  Barbara  Coffee,  Museum  Specialist  in  this  Division,  re- 
ceived a  grant  from  the  Secretary's  fund  to  explore  costume  preser- 
vation and  restoration  being  done  in  museums  in  England,  The 
Netherlands,  and  in  Sweden. 

The  new  Henry  R.  Luce  Hall  of  News  Reporting  continued  to 
draw  enthusiastic  crowds,  and  plans  are  now  underway  by  the 
Smithsonian  to  produce  a  film  and  a  traveling  exhibit  based  on  the 
Hall.  Two  exhibitions  have  been  shown  in  the  Hall's  Print  Gallery: 
"Prang's  American  Chromos,"  showing  the  step-by-step  production 
of  a  twenty-six  color  lithograph;  and  "Anatomy  of  a  Gallop,"  a 
comparison  between  the  lithographs  by  Currier  and  Ives  of  racing 
horses  and  the  contemporary  photographs  by  Muybridge  of  the 
same  subject. 

The  Division  of  Medical  Sciences  devoted  considerable  effort  to 
the  preparation  of  the  exhibit  "Triumph  Over  Disability"  in  the 
Hall  of  Health.  The  exhibit  was  made  possible  by  a  grant  from  the 
American  Congress  of  Rehabilitation  Medicine.  Each  Friday,  films 
and  lectures  on  the  subject  are  offered  in  the  Leonard  Carmichael 

Several  major  exhibits  were  closed  and  dismantled  this  past  year 
in  preparation  for  Bicentennial  activities.  This  necessitated  the  re- 
moval and  temporary  storage  of  thousands  of  valuable  objects,  a 
project  that  required  the  involvement  of  more  than  half  the  Mu- 

176  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


•■f  -, ,; 







An  important  acquisition  by  the  Division  of  Political  History,  National  Museum  of 
History  and  Technology,  this  past  year  was  a  fine  watercolor  portrait  of  Benjamin 
Franklin  by  Rembrandt  Peale. 

scum's  divisions  and  staff.  The  "Growth  of  the  United  States/'  "Art 
and  Spirit  of  a  People,"  "American  Costume/'  and  "Historic  Ameri- 
cans" were  among  the  halls  closed,  as  well  as  the  special  exhibits 
"Music  Machines"  and  "A  Children's  World/' 

Several  large  objects  were  removed  to  other  more  visible  areas, 
including  the  relocation  of  the  John  Bull  locomotive.  Granite  blocks, 
especially  cut  for  the  purpose,  support  pieces  of  the  original  rail 
used  in  1831  under  the  engine. 

The  main  focus  of  attention  for  "1876:  A  Centennial  Exhibit"  is 
upon  the  restoration  of  objects  and  cases  of  the  period  that  will  be 
utilized  within  the  displays.  The  restoration  and  refurbishing  of 
those  objects  that  were  displayed  nearly  one  hundred  years  ago,  for 
which  a  unique  restoration  task  force  has  been  organized  within  the 
Museum,  are  proceeding  on  a  scale  unprecedented  in  the  history  of 
the  Institution. 

Since  that  facet  of  the  Centennial  which  had  the  largest  public 
impact  was  the  overwhelming  array  of  machinery  and  power  equip- 
ment, the  Division  of  Mechanical  and  Civil  Engineering  has  a  pri- 
mary involvement  in  it.  Robert  M.  Vogel,  Curator  of  Heavy  Ma- 
chinery and  Civil  Engineering,  is  co-curator  in  charge,  and  Edwin  A. 
Battison,  Curator  of  Light  Machinery,  has  responsibility  for  the 
machine-tool  exhibits. 

The  practicality  of  the  exhibition  was  founded  primarily  upon  the 
vast  collection  of  Centennial  memorabilia  carefully  preserved  and 
housed  in  many  parts  of  the  Institution.  The  machinery  and  models 
will  form  the  nucleus  of  the  exhibition,  supplemented  by  other  fine 
examples  of  the  types  exhibited  at  the  Philadelphia  Exposition. 

For  many  months,  members  of  the  staff  have  traveled  to  record 
centers,  archives,  and  libraries,  conducting  research,  recording  and 
photographing  available  documentary  evidence  in  support  of  the 
present  restoration.  Factories  and  industrial  firms  on  the  verge  of 
demolition  have  been  contacted  in  an  effort  to  locate  furnishings  and 
fittings  so  very  vital  to  achieving  the  atmosphere  of  1876. 

Restoration  of  this  equipment  is  being  performed  in  three  separate 
shops  created  for  this  purpose  under  the  general  supervision  of 
William  K.  Henson,  Supervisor  of  the  Science  and  Technology  De- 
partment's Technical  Laboratory. 

The  main  facility,  headed  by  Museum  Specialist  Charles  E.  Den- 
nison,  is  responsible  for  the  restoration  of  machinery  such  as  ma- 

178  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 








Objects  exhibited  at  the  International  Exhibition  of  1876  held  in  Philadelphia  are 
being  restored  to  original  appearance  and  condition  in  the  Technical  Laboratories 
of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  as  part  of  the  preparation  for 
the  Bicentennial  exhibit. 

Specialist  at  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  Silver  Hill  restoration 
facility  clean  the  colorful  artwork  uncovered  during  cleaning  of  a  huge  steam- 
powered  refrigeration  compressor  for  the  Bicentennial  exhibit  "1876 — A  Centennial." 

chine  tools,  fittings,  and  steam  engines  of  sizes  that  can  be  accommo- 
dated in  the  basement  shops  of  the  Museum.  Here,  objects  are  first 
disassembled,  marked,  chemically  cleaned,  and  restored  to  original 
condition  with  close  adherence  to  all  available  published  references 
and  illustrations.  All  broken  parts  are  repaired,  and  missing  parts 
are  duplicated  to  permit  each  object  to  not  only  look  but  perform 
as  new. 

Machines  and  tools  too  large  and  cumbersome  for  the  in-house 
shop  are  restored  at  a  newly  created  second  facility  at  Silver  Hill 
under  the  supervision  of  Museum  Technician  William  T.  Tearman. 

A  shop  on  the  fifth  floor  of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and 
Technology  serves  as  the  third  restoration  facility  for  relatively 
small  objects,  at  present  principally  a  selection  of  the  hundreds  of 
patent  models  exhibited  at  the  Philadelphia  Fair,  and  the  cutting  and 
sewing  of  small  intricate  sails  for  many  of  the  ship  models. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  phases  of  the  work  that  has  spread 
excitement  throughout  the  entire  staff  has  been  that  concerned  with 
the  stripping  of  layers  of  decorative  paint  and  the  detective  work 
necessary  to  repaint  and  decorate  the  finished  items.  An  example  is 
the  Linde-Wolk  steam  engine  recently  acquired  by  the  Institution 
from  the  American  Brewery  in  Baltimore,  Maryland.  When  the  Tech- 
nical Laboratory  personnel  commenced  their  routine  documentation 
of  the  colors  and  designs  applied  to  the  engine  over  the  years  — 
stripping  away  each  successive  coat  of  paint,  taking  record  photo- 
graphs, and  tracing  the  decorative  patterns — they  discovered  among 
its  dozen  discrete  layers  of  paint  an  intricate  panorama  of  delicately 
shaded  flowers  and  exquisite  filigrees.  While  the  notion  of  such 
painstaking  art  work  on  a  huge  industrial  engine  may  now  seem 
anomalous,  in  an  earlier  era  it  clearly  was  considered  a  proper  ad- 
junct. When  completed,  the  engine  will  be  repainted  and  decorated 
as  it  was  many  years  ago. 

To  assist  with  the  unprecedented  workload  imposed  by  the  res- 
toration program  for  "1876,"  six  additions  were  made  to  the  crew; 
each  new  man  boasts  some  specialized  aptitude  or  skill  essential  to 
the  successful  consummation  of  the  program.  Among  other  individ- 
ual projects  are  the  refurbishment  of  a  42-foot  span  from  a  Howe 
truss  bridge  and  a  group  of  components  salvaged  from  the  Girard 
Avenue  Bridge  in  Philadelphia  —  a  bridge  built  at  the  time  of  the 
Centennial  and  dismantled  a  few  years  ago. 

180  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Research  and  work  on  furnishings  and  other  phases  of  the  exhibi- 
tion are  proceeding  under  the  direction  of  Cultural  History  Curator 
Rodris  Roth  and  Museum  Technician  Susan  Myers.  William  Miner 
of  the  Office  of  Exhibits  is  overall  coordinator  of  the  project. 

Highlighting  the  activities  of  the  Division  of  Musical  Instruments 
was  a  program  produced  for  the  Renwick  Gallery  entitled  "Ameri- 
can Music  and  Ballroom  Dance,  1840-1860,"  utilizing  wind  instru- 
ments and  a  Chickering  piano  of  the  period.  Cynthia  Hoover,  James 
Weaver,  and  Robert  Sheldon  edited  the  music.  Restoration  projects 
completed  included  the  production  of  measured  drawings  for  the 
1760  Stehlin  harpsichord,  preparation  of  wind  instruments  for  the 
"American  Music"  performance,  and  work  on  a  1794  Broadwood 
grand  piano.  Thomas  Wolf,  keyboard  instrument  maker,  joined  the 
staff  as  the  first  participant  in  a  two-year  program  for  training  of  con- 
servators of  musical  instruments,  a  service  offered  for  the  first  time 
by  the  Institution  and  the  only  program  of  its  kind  in  the  country. 

The  Division  of  Numismatics  was  joint  host,  with  the  American 
Numismatic  Society,  of  the  1973  International  Numismatic  Con- 
gress which  met  for  the  first  time  in  the  United  States  in  September 
1973,  Opening  in  New  York  City,  the  Congress  moved  to  Washing- 
ton, where  numerous  papers  were  presented  in  the  Museum  to  an 
attendance  of  329  numismatists  and  guests  representing  32  coun- 
tries. A  special  exhibition  of  medals  commemorating  the  battles  of 
the  American  Revolution  was  produced  by  the  Division  with  an 
interpretative  publication.  A  derivative  of  the  Congress  was  a  three- 
volume  Survey  of  Numismatic  Research,  of  which  Mrs.  Elvira  Clain- 
Stefanelli  was  the  editor  of  the  section  on  medals. 

In  November,  the  Division  of  Naval  History  co-sponsored  the 
American  Meeting  of  the  Society  for  the  History  of  Discoveries  in 
concert  with  the  Library  of  Congress  and  the  U.S.  National  Archives. 
Featured  were  sessions  on  the  exploration  of  the  Americas  and  on 
cartographic  resources  from  the  era  of  the  American  Revolution. 

On  May  30,  the  Secretary  presented  to  Dr.  Vladimir  Clain- 
Stefanelli  and  to  Mrs.  Elvira  Clain-Stefanelli  the  Exceptional  Service 
Gold  Medal  Award  "in  recognition  of  the  successful  acquisition  and 
display  of  the  Josiah  K.  Lilly  Collection  of  gold  coins  and  their  many 
other  achievements  and  accomplishments  in  the  numismatic  world 
and  for  their  tireless  devotion  to  the  development  of  one  of  the 

History  and  Art  I  181 

world's  finest  numismatic  collections."  In  September,  Dr.  and  Mrs. 
Clain-Stefanelli  were  awarded  the  1973  Leonard  Forrer  Medal  by 
the  International  Association  of  Professional  Numismatists  "for 
their  work  for  the  increase  and  diffusion  of  knowledge  in  the  field 
of  numismatics." 

Peter  C.  Marzio,  Associate  Curator  of  the  Division  of  Graphic 
Arts,  received  a  Fulbright  Research  Grant  which  enabled  him  to 
study  nineteenth-century  American  artists  in  Rome  during  most  of 
the  past  year.  Bernard  S.  Finn,  Curator  of  Electricity,  spent  a  sab- 
batical leave  in  London  where  he  helped  prepare  a  special  exhibition 
and  booklet  on  submarine  telegraphy  at  The  Science  Museum,  en- 
titled "Leave  It  to  the  Mermaids,"  in  which  technical  developments 
were  placed  in  their  social  context.  The  exhibit  included  objects  from 
a  number  of  museums,  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  corporations 
and  individuals  in  the  United  States  as  well  as  in  Great  Britain.  Jon 
B.  Eklund,  Curator  of  Chemistry,  was  on  a  year's  leave  of  absence, 
during  which  he  was  Visiting  Professor  of  Chemistry  at  the  New 
York  Historical  Association  at  Cooperstown. 

Another  recipient  of  an  award  was  Harold  D.  Langley,  Curator  of 
Naval  History,  who  received  a  research  grant  for  work  in  the  col- 
lections of  the  American  Antiquarian  Society  on  early  American 
flags  and  newspaper  sources  for  American  reaction  to  the  Peace  of 
Ghent  in  1815.  Robert  M.  Vogel,  Curator  of  Mechanical  and  Civil 
Engineering,  conducted  a  week-long  seminar  at  Cooperstown  deal- 
ing with  the  techniques  of  field  recording,  photography,  map  inter- 
pretation, and  site  analysis  relating  to  historic  and  industrial  arche- 
ology. He  also  assisted  in  organizing  a  symposium  celebrating  the 
250th  Anniversary  of  the  Carpenters'  Company  of  Philadelphia, 
"Building  Early  America,"  presenting  a  paper  on  materials  handling 
and  steam  excavation.  Senior  Scientific  Scholar  Robert  P.  Multhauf 
also  participated  in  the  conference  as  well  as  in  a  colloquium  at  the 
Burndy  Library  in  Connecticut  on  the  relationship  between  science 
and  technology. 

In  December  1973,  William  Seale  joined  the  staff  as  Curator  in 
the  Division  of  Ethnic  and  Western  Cultural  History.  His  fields  of 
activity  include  the  history  of  American  architecture  and  the  mate- 
rial culture  of  the  south-central  and  southeastern  United  States  dur- 
ing the  nineteenth  and  twentieth  centuries.  He  was  co-author  of  a 
survey  of  the  state  capitol  buildings  of  the  United  States.  During  the 
year,  three  new  chairmen  were  appointed  to  the  Museum's  depart- 

182  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Chair  used  by  Henry  Clay  in  the  Senate  of  the  United  States.  Acquired  by  the 
Division  of  Political  History,  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Portion  of  the  payroll  of  the  Continental  Gondola  Philadelphia  donated  by  the 
Trustees  of  the  Fort  Concho  Museum  of  San  Angelo,  Texas.  The  discovery  of  the 
payroll  of  Captain  Benjamin  Rue  and  his  43-man  crew  now  opens  the  entire 
human  dimension  of  this  remarkable  vessel  from  1776. 

i.-^  .a 

/■•  i?..  •  I-  —  -< — '-<  ■ 

t|2r:;S2  :f-:-:si.- jn^-i^  if-p-s 

-  r- 


ments:  Dr.  Vladimir  Clain-Stefanelli  became  Chairman  of  the  De- 
partment of  Applied  Arts;  John  T.  Schlebecker,  Jr.,  was  designated! 
Chairman  of  the  Department  of  Industries;  and  Richard  E.  Ahlborn 
became  Acting  Chairman  of  the  Department  of  Cultural  History. 
Another  staff  appointment  was  that  of  Donald  H.  Berkebile,  who 
was  promoted  to  the  position  of  Assistant  Curator  in  the  Division 
of  Transportation. 

Sami  K.  Hamarneh,  specialist  in  medieval  Arabic  medicine  and 
pharmacy,  lectured  on  a  variety  of  subjects  in  India,  Pakistan,  and 
Japan.  Hamarneh  also  visited  museums  throughout  the  northeastern 
United  States  and  participated  in  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Ameri- 
can Institute  of  the  History  of  Pharmacy.  During  April  and  May 
1974,  he  visited  Jordan  and  participated  in  a  conference  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Jordan.  Later,  he  visited  Cairo,  where  he  completed  re- 
search on  his  book.  The  Physician,  Therapist  and  Surgeon  Ihn  al- 
Quff,  which  has  since  been  published  in  Cairo. 

Cooperation  with  organizations  concerned  with  preservation  and 
history  continued  this  year,  with  the  Division  of  Mechanical  and 
Civil  Engineering  as  corporate  and  editorial  headquarters  of  the 
Society  for  Industrial  Archeology.  Curator  Robert  M.  Vogel  serves 
as  editor  of  the  Newsletter,  the  only  international  publication  in  the 
field.  John  H.  White,  Jr.,  Curator  of  Transportation,  is  editor  of  the 
semiannual  Railroad  History;  and  John  T.  Schlebecker,  Jr.,  Curator 
of  Agriculture,  and  G.  Terry  Sharrer,  Curator  of  Manufacturing, 
jointly  edit  the  quarterly  Living  Historical  Farms  Bulletin.  Robert  P. 
Multhauf  continues  as  editor  of  ISIS  and  as  advisory  editor  for  the 
Dictionary  of  Scientific  Biography  and  the  Dictionary  of  American 
History.  He  was  recently  appointed  a  member  of  the  Historical 
Advisory  Committee  of  nasa. 

The  collections  were  enriched  with  a  variety  of  objects  ranging 
in  size  from  a  1926  Huber  steam  traction  engine  to  an  extremely 
rare  case  bottle  dated  1788  made  at  the  Amelung  Glass  Factory  of 
Frederick,  Maryland.  An  interesting  collection  of  over  200  mill- 
stones dating  from  1748  to  1920  was  acquired,  including  stones  for 
grinding  materials  ranging  from  grain  to  paint  pigments.  Collec- 
tively, they  represent  an  industry  that  no  longer  exists  except  as  a 
historical  curiosity. 

The  robe  worn  by  Chief  Justice  John  Jay  and  the  Senate  chair 
used  by  Henry  Clay  became  part  of  the  collections  of  the  Division 

184  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

1926  Huber  Steam  Traction  Engine.  Division  of  Agriculture  and  Mining,  National 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  This  late  model  steamer,  distinguished  by  its 
return  flue  boiler,  was  added  to  the  Museum's  holdings  of  full-size  original  farm 
machines,  completing  the  collection  of  major  tractor  types  in  the  United  States. 

Renovation  of  exhibit  space  for  Bicentennial  exhibits  required  the  relocation  of  a 
number  of  national  treasures,  such  as  the  John  Bull  locomotive. 




of  Political  History,  together  with  several  hundred  political  campaign 
objects  presented  by  Ralph  E.  Becker.  A  large  and  important  collec- 
tion of  early  photographic  materials  relating  to  the  scientific  investi- 
gations of  Professor  John  W.  Draper,  one  of  the  first  American  re- 
searchers to  use  photography  as  an  investigative  tool  in  scientific 
investigations,  was  also  acquired. 

A  particularly  valuable  document,  the  original  payroll  of  the  Con 
tinental  gondola  Philadelphia,  was  received  through  the  generosity! 
of  the  Trustees  of  the  Fort  Concho  Museum  at  San  Angelo,  Texas. 
This  provides  a  new  and  human  dimension  to  the  history  of  this 
national  treasure.  Also  received  was  a  specialized  group  of  East 
Asian  paper  currencies  containing  several  thousand  Chinese  notes. 
Combined  with  the  Oriental  coins  already  owned  by  the  Division  of 
Numismatics,  these  materials  form  one  of  the  most  important  refer- 
ence collections  for  the  student  of  Oriental  monetary  history. 

Among  other  significant  items  received  were  a  rare  eighteenth- 
century  indigo  blue  glazed  wool  counterpane  and  a  number  of  horse- 
drawn  vehicles  required  to  complete  portions  of  the  tranportation 
collection,  including  a  1900  truck,  an  1890  laundry  wagon,  a  1929 
Cunningham  touring  car,  and  two  horse-drawn  cotton  pickers.  A 
fine  collection  of  scales  and  balances  was  received  from  the  City  of 
Baltimore,  together  with  instruments  from  the  National  Weather 

Baseball  and  archery  collections,  which  were  acquired  this  past 
year,  have  developed  a  relatively  new  area  of  collection  activity. 

Daguerreotype  copy  by  Professor  J.  W. 
Draper  from  an  original  he  made  about 
1840.  The  original  is  one  of  the  earliest 
photographic  portraits  made  in  America. 
Division  of  Political  History,  National 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

186  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

National  Portrait  Gallery 

The  year  began  with  the  opening  on  the  Fourth  of  July  of  a  major 
exhibition  entitled  "The  Black  Presence  in  the  Era  of  the  American 
Revolution,  1770-1800,"  which  consisted  of  more  than  250  items: 
paintings,  prints,  broadsides  and  books,  documents  and  letters, 
and  three-dimensional  objects.  Professor  Sidney  Kaplan  of  the 
University  of  Massachusetts  prepared  both  the  exhibition  and  its 
catalogue,  a  270-page  volume  containing  100  black  and  white 
illustrations  and  8  in  color,  published  for  the  National  Portrait 
Gallery  (npg)  by  the  New  York  Graphic  Society  in  association 
with  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press.  Professor  Kaplan,  who 
took  a  year's  leave  of  absence  from  his  post  at  Amherst  College 
to  come  to  Washington,  was  the  first  of  many  scholars,  experts 
in  their  fields,  whom  we  hope  to  call  upon  in  connection  with 
special  exhibitions  and  publications.  "The  Black  Presence,"  like 
all  the  Gallery's  major  exhibitions,  also  was  accompanied  by  an 
illustrated  booklet  and  a  teacher's  guide,  prepared  especially  for 
the  secondary-school  level.  This  publication,  72  pages  in  length 
and  illustrated  with  50  reproductions,  was  written  by  the  Associate 
Curator  of  Education,  Mrs.  Lisa  W.  Strick. 

A  two-gallery  exhibition,  mounted  to  commemorate  the  150th 
anniversary  of  the  Monroe  Doctrine  on  December  3,  was  orga- 
nized by  a  member  of  the  staff  of  the  Catalog  of  American  Por- 
traits, Gerald  Z.  Levin,  who  also  prepared  its  128-page  catalogue. 
The  installations  of  this  and  "The  Black  Presence"  exhibition  were 
designed  by  Joseph  Michael  Carrigan,  Chief  of  Exhibit  Design  and 

A  small  exhibition  dealing  with  the  presidential  portraiture  of 
Abraham  Lincoln,  centering  on  a  full-length  portrait  of  Lincoln 
by  William  F.  Cogswell,  lent  by  the  White  House,  was  prepared 
by  two  NPG  interns,  Richard  Beard  and  Kenneth  Yellis,  who  spent 
a  year  with  us  under  a  grant  from  the  National  Endowment  for 
the  Humanities.  Beard  and  Yellis,  who  received  their  Master's 
Degrees  in  History  from  Emory  University  and  the  University  of 
Rochester,  respectively,  were  selected  from  nearly  100  candidates 
who  applied  for  these  internships  designed  to  acquaint  the  recipi- 
ents with  various  phases  of  work  encountered  in  a  history  museum. 

Several  special  portrait  presentations  also  took  place  during  the 

History  and  Art  I  187 



Cole  Porter  by  Soss  Melik.  National  Portrait  Gallery  (NPG.74.32). 


Merriwether  Lewis,  engraving  by  Saint  Memin.  One 
of  761  rare  eighteenth-  and  nineteenth-century  en- 
graved portraits  given  by  Paul  Mellon  to  the  National 
Portrait  Gallery. 

Bust  of  President   Lyndon   B.   Johnson  by   Jimilu   Mason.    Mrs.    Lyndon  B. 
Johnson  and  Senator  Hubert  Humphrey  spoke  at  the  presentation  ceremony. 

year.  The  most  notable  of  these  was  of  a  bust  of  President  Lyndon 
B.  Johnson  by  Jimilu  Mason,  an  event  at  which  Mrs.  Johnson  and 
Senator  Hubert  Humphrey  spoke. 

In  the  past  twelve  months,  more  than  33,000  adults  and  young 
people  were  served  in  the  Gallery  and  in  schoolrooms  by  our  Edu- 
cation Department — an  increase  of  300  percent  over  last  year. 

The  Historian's  Office  and  the  Curatorial  Department  were 
mainly  involved  in  the  preparation  of  the  first  two  in  a  series  of 
the  Gallery's  three  Bicentennial  exhibitions,  "In  the  Minds  and 
Hearts  of  the  People:  Prologue  to  the  American  Revolution,  1760- 
1774,"  and  "The  Dye  is  Now  Cast,  1774-1776."  The  former,  which 
opened  on  June  14,  will  be  discussed  in  greater  detail  in  next  year's 

History  and  Art  I  189 

That  this  was  a  banner  year  for  the  Gallery  in  terms  of  acquisi- 
tions to  the  permanent  collection  is  evidenced  by  the  addition  of 
817  portraits,  761  of  which  were  engravings  by  Charles  Balthazar 
Julien  Fevret  de  Saint-Memin.  Presented  by  Paul  Mellon,  this  col- 
lection represents  the  most  munificent  benefaction  received  by  the 
National  Portrait  Gallery  since  its  inception.  Originally  owned  by 
Saint-Memin  himself,  these  portraits,  executed  between  1796  and 
1814,  constitute  a  remarkably  diverse  representation  of  major 
figures  of  the  early  Federal  Republic,  including  Presidents  Wash- 
ington, Jefferson,  and  Madison;  Paul  Revere;  Aaron  Burr;  Ben- 
jamin Rush;  John  Marshall;  Charles  Willson  Peale;  Stephen  De- 
catur; Mother  Seton;  Meriwether  Lewis;  and  William  Clark.  An- 
other important  gift  was  a  portrait  of  Richard  Henry  Lee  by 
Charles  Willson  Peale,  presented  by  Duncan  C.  Lee  and  his  son 
Gavin  Dunbar  Lee.  Most  notable  among  the  year's  acquisitions  by 
purchase  were  the  only  known  life  portrait  of  the  first  Speaker 
of  the  House  of  Representatives  Frederick  Muhlenberg  by  Joseph 
Wright,  Dolley  Madison  (at  the  age  of  83)  by  William  S.  Elwell, 
a  bust  of  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson  by  Daniel  Chester  French,  a  bronze 
relief  of  President  Theodore  Roosevelt  executed  from  life  in  1906 
by  Sally  James  Farnham,  and  a  group  of  drawings  by  Soss  Melik 
including  likenesses  of  Sherwood  Anderson,  Cole  Porter,  and 
Thomas  Wolfe. 

The  National  Portrait  Gallery  Commission  is  composed  of  the 
following  members : 

John  Nicholas  Brown,  Chairman 

Whitfield  J.  Bell,  Jr. 

Ralph  Ellison 

David  E.  Finley 

Wilmarth  Sheldon  Lewis 

Robert  L.  McNeil,  Jr. 

Andrew  Oliver 

Jules  D.  Frown 

E.  P.  Richardson 

Robert  Hilton  Smith 

Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  ex  officio 

Secretary,  Smithsonian  Institution,  ex  officio 

Director,  National  Gallery  of  Art,  ex  officio 

190  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Office  of  Academic  Studies 

The  Office  of  Academic  Studies,  under  the  direction  of  the  Board 
of  Academic  Studies,  conducts  Smithsonian  programs  in  higher 
education  and  research  training.  The  foremost  objective  of  the 
programs  is  to  provide  the  framework  within  which  each  visiting 
student  and  investigator  can  confront  individually  the  opportunities 
for  the  pursuit  of  knowledge  represented  in  the  Smithsonian's 
collections  and  its  research  and  technical  staff.  In  the  arts,  humani- 
ties, and  sciences,  students  at  all  postsecondary  levels  study  under 
the  guidance  of  the  Smithsonian's  professional  research  faculty. 

Predoctoral  and  postdoctoral  fellows  undertake  research  train- 
ing in  their  specialties,  bringing  in  their  inquiries  great  intellectual 
stimulation  and  adding  immeasurably  to  the  vitality  of  the  research 
climate.  Predoctoral  fellows  generally  consult  Smithsonian  re- 
sources necessary  to  their  dissertations  but  not  available  at  their 
universities.  Postdoctoral  fellows,  usually  recent  recipients  of  the 
doctorate,  seek  advanced  research  training  and  the  opportunity  to 
expand  studies  begun  at  the  university.  During  the  academic  year 
1973-1974,  21  predoctoral  and  24  postdoctoral  fellowships  were 
awarded  to  support  these  activities  in  most  of  the  museums,  labora- 
tories, and  field  stations  of  the  Institution. 

Five  students,  in  an  earlier  stage  of  graduate  study  than  the 
predoctoral  fellows,  have  received  fellowships  supported  jointly 
by  their  home  universities  and  the  Smithsonian's  National  Air 
and  Space  Museum  to  study  aspects  of  the  social  and  technological 
impact  of  space  exploration.  Although  pursuing  degrees  in  different 
disciplines  at  different  Washington-area  universities,  the  students 
worked  with  each  other  as  well  as  their  Smithsonian  advisor  in 
the  development  of  their  individual  projects. 

Fellowship  appointments  for  directed  research  are  provided  for 
two  to  three  months  to  graduate  and  undergraduate  students,  to 
offer  them  new  perspectives  on  the  purposes  of  research  and  to 
provide  them  access  to  sources  and  materials  not  encountered  by 
them  in  their  university-based  studies.  Some  students  pursue  in- 
terests previously  developed,  but  many  explore  areas  of  knowledge 
wholly  new.  For  example,  a  summer  spent  at  the  Smithsonian 
might  allow  a  first-year  graduate  student  to  reflect  on  the  full 
range  of  alternatives  in  his  chosen  field  of  knowledge,  and  to  de- 

History  and  Art  1 191 

fine  his  future  graduate  course  of  study  based  on  a  better  under- 
standing of  what  he  finds  both  practical  and  interesting.  During 
1973-1974  such  awards  were  made  to  21  graduate  and  under- 
graduate students;  4  of  the  undergraduates  were  supported  under 
a  grant  from  the  National  Science  Foundation. 

Other  students,  often  undergraduates,  by  preference  undertake 
studies  at  the  Smithsonian  which  provide  broader  exposure  than 
research  training.  They  are  participants  in  a  program  for  museum 
study,  a  program  offering  them  a  chance  to  learn  in  the  working 
museum  or  laboratory  or  field  environment  rather  than  the  tradi- 
tional classroom  atmosphere,  to  take  part  in  the  ongoing  work, 
of  the  Institution  while  pursuing  a  project  that  interests  and  I 
challenges  them.  Most  students  in  the  program  are  awarded  aca- 
demic credit  by  their  home  universities,  where  the  student's  per- 
formance meets  the  educational  standards  set  by  the  Smithsonian 
and  the  standards  and  requirements  imposed  by  the  university. 
During  the  past  year,  13  participated  in  museum-study  projects 
under  the  close  supervision  of  Smithsonian  staff  members. 

In  other  undergraduate  programs,  two  members  of  the  Smith- 
sonian staff  taught  regular  courses  in  their  specialties  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Maryland's  program  in  the  history  of  science  and  tech- 

Seeking  other  ways  to  encourage  the  interchange  of  ideas  and 
the  exchange  of  information.  Academic  Studies  supports  visitors 
to  the  Institution  for  very  brief  periods  of  study,  research,  and 
consultation  with  the  staff.  The  range  of  purposes  and  levels  of 
accomplishment  of  these  visitors  reflect  the  diversity  of  the  Smith- 
sonian itself,  for  they  may  be  graduate  students  or  distinguished 
senior  scholars  and  scientists,  from  the  United  States  or  abroad, 
and  their  interests  lead  them  to  all  areas  of  the  Smithsonian.  They 
come  here  for  their  individual  purposes,  as  short-term  visitors,  or 
as  participants  in  specialized  seminars.  This  year  support  was  pro- 
vided for  32  short-term  visitors,  and  for  one  seminar,  conducted 
by  Dr.  William  Fitzhugh  of  the  Smithsonian's  Department  of 
Anthropology,  on  the  topic  of  the  Maritime  and  Moorehead 
Archaic  cultures  of  northeastern  North  America. 

192  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

,       Office  of  American  Studies 

The  Office  of  American  Studies  conducts  a  formal  graduate  pro- 
gram in  material  culture  of  the  United  States  which  is  directed  to 
the  original  Smithsonian  purpose:  "the  increase  and  diffusion  of 
knowledge."  Graduate  students  from  area  universities  participated 
in  the  program,  gaining  academic  credit  toward  advanced  degrees 
at  those  universities. 

The  course  in  "Material  Aspects  of  American  Civilization"  was 
taught  by  Dr.  Washburn  (with  the  assistance  of  curators  and  others 
inside  and  outside  the  Smithsonian).  A  seminar  in  Museum  Visitor 
Behavior  was  conducted  by  Robert  A.  Lakota  and  the  staff  of  the 
Psychological  and  Sociological  Studies  Program  of  the  Office  of 
Museum  Programs.  A  seminar  in  the  decorative  arts  was  conducted 
by  Patrick  Butler  III,  Honorary  Smithsonian  Research  Associate. 
Arthur  C.  Townsend,  Executive  Secretary,  Maryland  Historical 
Trust  and  Honorary  Smithsonian  Research  Associate,  repeated  his 
seminar  in  Great  Plains  history.  A  Work-Study  Program  in  His- 
torical Archeology,  offered  by  the  St.  Mary's  City  Commission 
in  cooperation  with  the  American  Studies  Program  of  the  Smith- 
sonian, George  Washington  University,  and  St.  Mary's  College 
of  Maryland,  was  held  from  June  17  to  August  23,  1974,  with 
participation  by  graduate  students  and  Smithsonian  staff  members. 
In  addition  to  these  formal  seminars,  supervision  of  individual 
reading  and  research  projects,  thesis  direction,  and  preparation  of 
comprehensive  examinations  were  undertaken  by  the  director  and 
cooperating  Smithsonian  staff  members. 

Staff  publications  for  1973-1974  are  listed  in  Appendix  8. 

History  and  Art  1 193 

^-^L^'"""  ■yn-- 

Sbj^"        %ii4il>.' 


The  western  towers  of  the  Smithsonian's  castle,  looking  toward  the  Potomac  River. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  7^74 

Preservation,  study,  and  interpretation  are  key  functions  in  any 
museum  or  museum  system.  The  care  with  which  objects  are 
registered,  examined,  and  treated;  the  thoroughness  with  which 
they  are  studied  and  the  clarity  with  which  they  are  presented  and 
interpreted  to  the  pubHc  are  gauges  to  a  museum's  ultimate  ex- 
cellence. Yet,  many  of  these  functions  take  place  away  from  public 
view,  with  the  attendant  consequence  that  they  are  often  funded 
with  inadequate  resources  or  carried  out  in  inadequate  spaces.  This 
has  intermittently  occurred  at  the  Smithsonian.  The  enormous 
growth  of  activities  which  has  developed  in  the  last  decade,  the 
acquisition  of  new  collections,  the  founding  and  construction  of 
new  museums  as  well  as  new  fields  of  research  which  have  opened 
could  well  have  justified,  in  the  eyes  of  some,  a  slackening  of  efforts 
and  a  shifting  of  resources  to  some  immediately  more  glamorous 
result.  It  is  a  measure  of  the  historical  commitment  of  the  Institu- 
tion to  the  search  of  excellence  that  this  has  not  been  the  case. 

The  last  few  years  have  seen  increased  emphasis  given  to  de- 
veloping the  infrastructure  in  the  fields  of  conservation,  libraries, 
archives,  and  more  recently  in  registration.  In  these  key  areas  major 
progress  was  made  in  fiscal  year  1974, 

The  Smithsonian  Library,  which  is  as  old  as  the  Institution 
itself,  has  undergone  careful  in-house  examination  and  assessment 
of  its  program  and  activities,  aimed  at  refining  its  processes,  maxi- 
mizing its  resources  and  responding  more  promptly  to  the  needs 
of  the  Institution  and  of  the  scholarly  fraternity.  Cooperation  with 
other  libraries  —  federal,  state,  and  private  —  has  led  to  a  pilot 
program  in  computerized  cataloguing  which  will  vastly  improve 
the  rate  of  processing  as  well  as  its  quality.  The  needs  of  the  rare 
book  collections,  the  ferreting  out  of  uncatalogued  rare  materials. 


and  developing  procedures  for  their  conservation  and  restoration 
have  all  made  major  strides.  Greater  attention  has  been  paid  to 
the  needs  of  Bureau  libraries  and  to  assisting  them  in  responding 
more  promptly  and  fully  to  the  requirements  of  their  constituency. 
Steps  were  taken  which  will  lead  to  the  complete  cataloguing  of 
the  important  library  of  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  by 
the  dedication  of  its  new  building  in  July  1976. 

The  Archives  of  the  Institution,  concerned  primarily  with  its 
history  and  the  history  of  scholarship  within  it,  have  been  brought 
to  virtually  full  intellectual  control.  Inventorying  of  archival  re- 
sources has  progressed  and  computer  systems  have  been  developed 
for  their  cataloguing  in  close  cooperation  with  curatorial  depart- 
ments and  the  central  and  bureau  libraries. 

Conservation,  an  ever  present,  indeed  a  growing  concern  to  all 
museums,  has  been  further  strengthened  by  enlarging  the  amount 
of  space  allotted  to  the  Conservation  Analytical  Laboratory,  by 
the  purchase  of  more  sensitive  and  highly  specialized  equipment, 
and  by  the  active  recruitment  of  additional  staff  members.  In  spite 
of  the  progress  made,  far  more  needs  to  be  done.  The  present 
capacity  is  hardly  able  to  keep  up  with  immediate,  emergency 
needs,  let  alone  allow  for  the  constant  review  required  by  such 
varied  collections  as  those  possessed  by  the  Institution.  To  maxi- 
mize resources,  avoid  the  possibilities  of  duplication,  and  to  focus 
more  clearly  on  the  needs,  a  Conservation  Council  was  created 
which  regularly  will  assemble  key  conservators  of  all  Smithsonian 
museums.  In  addition,  the  staff  of  the  Conservation  Analytical 
Laboratory  has  been  active  in  assisting  training  organizations  in 
developing,  as  rapidly  as  possible,  the  additional  professionals 
which  are  urgently  needed  not  only  by  the  Institution  but  by 
museums  throughout  the  country.  Conservation  is  more  than  the 
monitoring  of  conditions  and  finding  palliative  methods  to  remedy 
the  desecrations  of  time  or  of  man.  It  is  also  basic  research  in  the 
properties  of  materials  and  in  the  manners  in  which  these  materials 
have  been  assembled  by  nature  or  by  man.  The  Conservation 
Analytical  Laboratory  has  been  under  increasingly  steady  pressure 
to  provide  technical  data  to  bolster  the  hypotheses  of  historical  re- 
search or  stylistic  development. 

The  processing  of  objects  .either  belonging  to  the  Institution  or 
sent  to  the  Institution  for  study  or  exhibition  has  been  thoroughly 

196  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

reorganized.  A  registration  capability  is  being  developed  in  each 
of  the  Smithsonian  museums  that  did  not  have  it  so  that  each  can 
achieve  more  expeditious  and  accurate  control  on  the  whereabouts 
of  their  holdings  and,  perhaps  more  important,  monitor  their  con- 
ditions in  more  efficient  ways.  A  Registrarial  Council  has  been 
created  to  develop  the  required  parameters. 

The  foundations  have  been  laid  for  the  development  of  a  Cen- 
tral Registrar's  Office  that  will  help  coordinate  the  growth  of  the 
registrarial  department  in  each  of  the  museums,  avoid  duplications, 
attain  coherence  in  methods,  and  help  develop  basic  retrieval  sys- 
tems which,  eventually,  may  be  coordinated  with  regional,  national, 
or,  indeed,  international  data  networks.  The  collections  of  the 
Institution  represent  a  data  bank  unequaled  anywhere.  The  poten- 
tial of  mastering  a  substantial  portion  of  this  wealth  by  the  means 
of  computers  has  already  been  demonstrated  in  discrete  areas. 

Museums  which  are  essential  for  the  transmittal  to  the  future 
of  the  heritage  of  the  past  must,  however,  be  of  service  to  the 
present.  There  is  no  contradiction  in  these  terms  as  long  as  there 
is  a  clear  understanding  of  goals  and  integrity  in  their  pursuit. 

Exhibition  is  a  key  function  for  a  museum.  In  this  area,  also  a 
major  reorganization  has  brought  to  each  museum  intellectual  and 
physical  control  over  the  resources  with  which  it  can  interpret 
its  holdings.  Certain  museums  and  bureaus,  either  too  small  to  have 
an  exhibition  resource  of  their  own  or  that  have  too  infrequent 
need  for  such  specialized  capabilities,  are  served  by  the  recently 
developed  Office  of  Exhibits  Central.  Some  of  its  specialized  shops, 
virtually  unmatched  for  their  abilities,  particularly  in  the  area 
of  modeling  and  plastics,  serve  the  entire  family  of  Smithsonian 
museums.  This  office  also  has  more  general  workshops  which  pro- 
vide design  and  construction  capabilities  to  those  units  that  do  not 
have  exhibit  departments.  The  reorganization  of  the  Office  of 
Exhibits  has  led  to  closer  cooperation  between  design  and  cura- 
torial staffs. 

The  Office  of  Exhibits  Central  and  the  exhibit  offices  in  various 
museums  are  contributing  and  participating  in  the  psychological 
studies  conducted  by  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs.  These  stud- 
ies are  specifically  designed  to  acquire  more  information  about 
museums  as  a  learning  environment  and  to  developing  more  re- 
sponsive methods  for  orientation  of  the  museum  visitor.   These 

Museum  Programs  1 197 

studies,  which  are  now  coming  to  fruition,  will  undoubtedly  result 
in  new  exhibit  concepts  and  forms  of  presentation.  Their  timeliness 
is  evident  since  the  Institution  is  gearing  toward  an  unprecedented 
efflorescence  of  exhibition  activities  which  will  culminate  in  the 
Bicentennial  Year. 

For  the  past  decade,  the  Institution  has  recognized  that  it  had  a 
duty  to  assist  those  less  wealthy  institutions  around  the  country 
in  presenting  to  their  public  a  richer  fare.  This  concern  took  on 
concrete  and  permanent  form  with  the  development  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service.  This  has  made 
available  hundreds  of  exhibitions  of  high  quality,  at  modest  cost, 
to  museums,  historical  societies,  colleges,  universities,  and  cultural 
centers.  The  efficacy  of  sites  had,  in  the  last  few  years,  been 
increasingly  jeopardized  as  costs  increased  and  borrowing  organi- 
zations were  unable  to  assume  the  rental  fees  which  were  neces- 
sary for  a  break-even  program.  Federal  funding  of  sites,  for  the 
first  time  in  fiscal  year  1974,  has  helped  to  maintain  a  balance. 
Between  now  and  the  end  of  the  Bicentennial  Year,  approximately 
250  new  exhibitions  will  be  developed  on  various  subjects  con- 
cerned with  history,  art,  and  science.  Major  emphasis  has  and  will 
be  given  to  incorporating  into  traveling  exhibitions  Smithsonian 
concepts  and,  where  appropriate,  objects  so  that  the  Institution's 
resources  on  the  Mall  can  be  shared  more  broadly  with  the  Nation 
at  large.  Many  of  these  new  exhibitions  will  be  built  by  the  Office 
of  Exhibits  Central,  to  concepts  and  specifications  provided  by 
SITES.  To  increase  the  educational  usefulness  of  these  exhibitions, 
kits  of  educational  materials,  designed  for  schools,  will  be  pre- 
pared and  an  increasingly  large  number  of  sites  exhibitions  will 
be  accompanied  by  didactic  materials  which  will  be  geared  to  vari- 
ous levels  so  that  the  broadest  benefit  can  be  derived  by  their 

Assisting  museums  in  developing  the  expertise  of  their  staff 
or  in  solving  special  problems  has  been  another  historic  service  of 
the  Institution.  In  the  last  few  years,  it  has  been  rationalized  by 
the  Office  of  Museum  Programs  through  the  presentation  of  work- 
shops, available  free  of  charge  to  museum  personnel  from  across 
the  country.  This  program,  increased  in  effectiveness  in  1974,  will 
be  broadened  in  the  years  ahead.  Disseminating  knowledge  on 
conservation  through  expertly  prepared  series  of  slide  lectures  is 

198  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

another  service  recently  developed.  This  will  be  supplemented  by 
upward  of  40  video-taped  programs  on  the  basic  principles  of  con- 
servation and  conservation  practice.  These  programs  will  be  avail- 
able to  museums,  historical  societies,  and  other  interested  groups. 

The  study  of  the  museum  as  a  learning  environment,  referred  to 
above,  has  led  to  staff  participation  in  several  seminars,  and  a 
series  of  short  articles  were  published  in  Museum  News.  A  major 
monograph  by  Dr.  Chandler  Screven,  The  Measurement  and  Facili- 
tation of  Learning  in  the  Museum  Environment:  An  Experimental 
Analysis,  is  under  preparation  for  publication  by  the  Office  of  Mu- 
seum Programs. 

The  National  Museum  Act,  first  funded  in  fiscal  year  1972, 
continued  to  be  administered  by  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs 
and  chaired  by  the  Assistant  Secretary.  The  contribution  of  the 
Act  to  professional  enhancement  has  been  universally  recognized 
and  has  been  most  visible  in  the  number  of  workshops,  funded 
under  the  Act,  that  have  been  held  around  the  country  under  the 
auspices  of  the  American  Association  of  Museums,  the  American 
Association  for  State  and  Local  History,  or  other  organizations. 
Developing  new  training  programs  and  attracting  talented  new 
minds  to  the  profession  are  challenges  which  museums  must  meet. 
The  Act  has  provided  a  mechanism  to  assist  in  these  developments 
and  in  carrying  out  special  research  on  museum  problems  and 

Renovation  and  restoration  of  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building, 
in  preparation  for  the  Bicentennial  Year,  is  another  major  respon- 
sibility of  the  Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs.  This 
building,  the  second  structure  on  the  Mall  built  for  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution,  was  opened  to  the  public  in  1881.  It  was  erected 
to  house  the  vast  collections  which  were  acquired  after  the  closing 
of  the  centennial  exhibit  of  1876  at  Philadelphia. 

Appropriately,  the  first  major  exhibition  to  be  shown  in  the 
renovated  Arts  and  Industries  Building  will  be  devoted  to  the 
recreation,  in  capsule  form,  of  the  Philadelphia  Centennial  Exhibit. 
That  summary  of  the  Industrial  Revolution's  accomplishments 
and  the  Western  Hemisphere's  no  doubt  will  be  the  cause  of  much 
nostalgia  and  pride. 

The  Assistant  Secretary  has  continued  to  represent  the  Secre- 
tary on  the  Advisory  Council  for  Historic  Preservation  and  on  its 

Museum  Programs  1 199 

International  Centre  Committee.  He  participated  actively  in  a  num- 
ber of  professional  organizations  notably  as  Vice-President  of  the 
American  Association  of  Museums,  Vice-Chairman  of  the  Inter- 
national Council  of  Museums  Committee  of  the  aam,  and  Chairman 
of  the  AAM  Professional  Relations'  Committee. 

He  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Council  of  the  International 
Centre  for  the  Preservation  and  Restoration  of  Cultural  Property, 
Rome,  and  Vice-President  of  the  International  Council  of  Museums, 

Conservation- Analytical  Laboratory 

The  activities  of  the  Conservation-Analytical  Laboratory  (cal) 
support  researches  in  many  areas  of  the  Smithsonian  —  some  30 
Divisions  in  any  one  year.  It  would  not  be  proper  to  reveal  some 
of  these  in  advance  of  publication  by  the  principal  investigator. 
Others  follow. 

CAL  has  investigated  the  use  of  neutron-activation  and  electron- 
microprobe  analysis  of  various  panes  of  glass  in  a  medieval  window 
for  the  purpose  of  detecting  replacements,  investigating  early  tech- 
nology, and  with  a  view  to  attributing  panes  to  particular  work- 

An  analysis  has  been  recently  published  on  the  ink  of  the  Vin- 
land  Map.  Another  interpretation  of  the  results  appeared  possible. 
The  possibility  has  been  investigated,  using  microchemical,  micro- 
scopic and  X-ray  diffraction  techniques. 

Elemental  analyses  of  majolica  ware  have  revealed  the  possibility 
of  distinguishing  between  Spanish  and  Colonial-Mexican  origins 
for  particular  specimens. 

New  X-ray  fluorescence  equipment  for  the  rapid  analysis  of 
objects  has  been  installed  and  is  being  brought  into  service.  Some 
early  results  in  the  difficult  field  of  analyzing  liquid  measures  made 
of  pewter  have  indicated  distinct  differences  in  composition  for 
measures  of  English  and  Scottish  origin. 

An  iron  ball,  golf-ball  size,  that  sounded  musically  when  it  was 
struck,  was  submitted  for  suggestions  about  its  nature.  X-radiog- 
raphy  discovered  a  sounding  spiral-wire  and  loose  ball  inside. 

200  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

A  view  of  the  X-ray  Laboratory,  Conservation-Analytical  Laboratory,  Smith- 
sonian Institution.  On  the  left  a  pewter  vessel  is  exposed  to  a  beam  of 
X-radiation  and  gives  out  secondary  radiation  characteristic  of  the  elements 
present  within  it.  This  secondary  radiation  is  received  by  a  solid-state  detector 
kept  cold  by  a  Dewar  vessel  of  liquid  nitrogen.  The  energy-dispersed  spectrum 
is  displayed  on  a  monitor  screen  (on  the  right  hand  side  of  the  picture)  above 
a  control  panel.  The  spectra  from  two  different  samples  can  be  stored  in 
separate  memories  and  displayed  together  for  comparison  by  using  the  control 
panel,  which  can  also  superimpose  markers  on  the  screen  representative  of 
various  elements.  The  operator  is  seated  at  a  Telex  keyboard,  which  is  used 
to  communicate  with  the  mini-computer  behind  it.  Results  of  computations 
made  upon  data  obtained  from  the  display  screen  are.  printed  out  on  paper 
from  the  roll. 

Examination  of  samples  provided  from  Eastern  gongs  has  re- 
vealed a  metallurgical  structure  that  has  received  very  little  notice 
in  the  literature. 

A  Peale  drawing  submitted  for  treatment  was  found  by  exami- 
nation in  infrared  light  to  contain  an  earlier  version.  Careful  pho- 
tography using  infrared  light  has  now  enabled  exhibit  of  both 
versions,  possibly  drawn  by  father  and  son. 

An  important  payroll  had  been  written  in  iron-gall  ink  on  paper 
so  very  acid  that  washing  was  desirable.  Tests  of  the  ink-line  re- 
vealed that  it  could  be  damaged  by  water,  so  a  safer  washing  pro- 
cedure was  devised. 

A  series  of  elaborate  Western  saddles  in  decaying  condition, 
embellished  with  silver  and  other  threads  and  metallic  plaques, 
have  presented  numerous  technical  problems  of  identification  and 
treatment  in  the  course  of  cleaning  and  repair  for  exhibition. 

Close  examination  of  an  eighteenth-century  harpsichord-stand 
preliminary  to  restoration  revealed  several  phases  of  earlier 

National  Museum  Act  Program 

The  National  Museum  Act,  authorized  in  1966,  received  an  appro- 
priation of  $901,000  in  fiscal  year  1974.  In  accordance  with  the 
legislation,  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Arts  and  the  National 
Endowment  for  the  Humanities  each  received  $100,000  from  the 
above  sum.  Under  the  legislation,  the  Smithsonian  may  grant  funds 
to  specific  projects  that  advance  the  museum  profession  at  large, 
either  through  research,  training,  or  publication.  Every  proposal 
funded  must  clearly  describe  how  it  will  upgrade  the  museum 
profession  —  its  techniques,  approaches,  and  methods. 

A  total  of  182  applications  were  received  and  reviewed  by  the 
Advisory  Council  who  recommended  funding  for  64  projects.  The 
Advisory  Council  consists  of  museum  professionals  representing 
different  aspects  and  areas  of  the  museum  field  —  art,  science, 
history,  education,  conservation,  and  exhibition.  The  Council  mem- 
bers in  1974  were:  William  T.  Alderson,  Director,  American  Asso- 
ciation of  State  and  Local  History;  Charles  E.  Buckley,  Director, 

202  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

St.  Louis  Museum  of  Art  and  President,  American  Association  of 
Museums;  W.  D.  Frankforter,  Director,  Grand  Rapids  Public 
Museum;  Lloyd  Hezekiah,  Director,  Brooklyn  Children's  Museum; 
Lawrence  J.  Majewski,  Chairman,  Conservation  Center,  Institute 
of  Fine  Arts,  New  York  University;  Giles  W.  Mead,  Director,  Los 
Angeles  County  Museum  of  Natural  History;  T.  Miake,  Director 
of  Programs,  Ontario  Science  Museum;  Arminta  Neal,  Curator 
of  Graphics  Design,  Denver  Museum  of  Natural  History;  Barnes 
Riznik,  Vice  President,  Old  Sturbridge  Village;  Frank  Taylor, 
Research  Associate,  Smithsonian  Institution;  Vernal  T.  Yadon, 
Director,  Pacific  Grove  Museum  of  Natural  History;  and  Paul  N. 
Perrot,  Chairman,  and  Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs, 
Smithsonian  Institution. 

In  1974,  the  Advisory  Council  added  a  new  program  —  Travel 
Grants  for  Beginning  Professionals.  Persons  who  have  been  gain- 
fully employed  by  the  profession  for  not  more  than  four  consecu- 
tive years  and  not  less  than  one  year  are  eligible  for  grant  con- 
sideration under  this  program.  The  objective  of  this  program  is 
to  provide  individuals  with  the  opportunity  to  broaden  their  knowl- 
edge and  acquaint  themselves  with  specific  operations  in  other 
museums  and  institutions.  Twenty-seven  grants  were  awarded  in 
this  area. 

Special  attention  was  given  to  Research  in  Conservation  Tech- 
niques and  Materials.  Six  projects  were  funded  in  this  category 
including.  Dating  by  Thermoluminescence,  the  Use  of  Trialkoxy- 
alkylsilanes  for  the  Conservation  of  Stone,  and  Control  of  Shock 
and  Vibration  of  Objects  in  Transit. 

The  National  Museum  Act  continues  its  strong  support  for  publi- 
cations to  distribute  technical  information  on  a  broad  scale.  In 
addition  to  support  for  technical  articles  as  a  supplement  to  Museum 
News,  two  books.  Museum  Trustees  Handbook  and  Rene  d'  Harnon- 
court:  His  Art  of  Installation,  and  a  monograph.  Collective  Bargain- 
ing in  Museums  were  funded. 

Seminars,  especially  those  providing  in-service  training  to  mem- 
bers of  the  profession,  received  special  emphasis.  Eighteen  work- 
shops covering  such  topics  as  museum  education,  fund  raising, 
registration  methods,  zoo  management,  administration,  publication 
programs,  docent  programs,  museum  architecture,  and  Bicentennial 
program  planning  were  a  part  of  the  seminar  program. 

Museum  Programs  I  203 

Office  of  Exhibits  Central 

The  newly  established  Office  of  Exhibits  Central  (oec)  assisted 
almost  every  office  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  during  its  first 
full  year  of  operation.  The  Special  Exhibit  Resources  Group  — 
which  includes  the  Models,  Plastics,  and  Restoration  Shops  and 
Freeze  Dry  Laboratory,  the  Motion  Picture  Unit,  Museum  Light- 
ing Office,  Audio  Visual  Unit,  and  Exhibits  Editor's  Office  — 
provided  service  and  consultation  in  their  specializations  on  a  wide 
variety  of  projects  to  each  Smithsonian  Museum  on  the  Mall.  The 
Central  Design  and  Production  Group  greatly  increased  the  sup- 
port of  programs  for  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Ex- 
hibition Service,  the  National  Zoological  Park,  and  the  Division 
of  Performing  Arts'  Festival  of  American  Folklife.  Both  groups 
with  the  administrative  staff  of  the  oec  developed  shop  facilities 
and  procedures  during  this  period  and  continued  to  refine  operations 
to  meet  the  increasing  needs  of  Smithsonian  bureaus  and  offices. 

The  Twenty-fourth  Street  facility  was  activated  for  fabrication 
and  graphic  production  and  is  now  fully  operational.  The  Adminis- 
trative, Design,  and  Editor's  offices  are  located  in  the  Arts  and 
Industries  Building  and  the  Special  Resources  shops  and  labora- 
tories continue  to  function  in  their  former  locations  at  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History,  and  the  National  Museum  of  History 
and  Technology. 

The  Office  of  Exhibits  Central  recorded  156  project  requests  in 
its  first  year  and  completed  95  of  these.  Of  the  balance,  several 
are  long-range  or  Bicentennial  programs  of  the  Institution.  Main- 
taining a  philosophy  of  operational  flexibility  and  improving  an 
ability  to  perform  unique  tasks  wherever  needed,  the  oec  is  devel- 
oping plans  and  activities  with  its  client  organizations  within  the 
Institution  for  both  long-range  and  specialized  exhibition  services. 

Office  of  Museum  Programs 

The  Office  of  Museum  Programs,  as  part  of  the  Office  of  the 
Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs,  is  an  aggregate  of 
programs  responsible  for  coordinating  activities  related  to  training 

204  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

in  muscology  and  museography,  and  the  development  of  new  tech- 
niques relating  to  museum  administration  and  practices.  Presently, 
the  office  maintains  three  major  programs  —  the  Museum  Work- 
shop Program,  the  Conservation  Information  Program,  and  the 
Psychological  Studies  Program. 

The  Museum  Workshop  Program  offers  workshops,  seminars, 
and  training  courses  to  any  individual  gainfully  employed  by  a 
museum.  Each  workshop,  taught  by  Smithsonian  staff,  is  devoted 
to  specific  methods  or  problems.  Enrollment  is  limited,  and  instruc- 
tors try  to  concentrate  on  the  particular  needs  of  each  participant. 
Special  attention  is  usually  given  to  the  problems  of  the  small 
museum's  budget,  services,  and  facilities.  Workshops  offered  this 
year  featured:  exhibit  design,  graphics  techniques,  silk  screening, 
label  writing,  editing  and  production,  fabrication  and  installation 
methods,  model-making,  freeze-drying,  membership  programs, 
traveling  exhibitions,  development  and  financial  planning,  and 
psychological  methods. 

The  Conservation  Information  Program  is  another  service  de- 
signed to  make  the  knowledge  and  facilities  of  the  Smithsonian 
accessible  to  as  large  an  audience  as  possible.  The  program 
acquaints  small  museums,  interested  organizations,  and  individuals 
with  selected  theoretical  and  practical  principles  currently  practiced 
in  the  field  of  museum  conservation.  This  information  —  in  the 
form  of  video-taped  programs  and  slide  lectures  accompanied  by 
tape  commentaries  —  is  lent,  free  of  charge,  to  all  who  request  it. 
To  date,  the  Conservation  Information  Program,  in  cooperation 
with  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Conservation-Analytical  Labora- 
tory, has  produced  4  slide  presentations  on  the  curatorial  care  of 
objects  and  10  more  are  being  prepared  during  the  next  year.  Some 
selected  subjects  include:  dry  methods  in  the  cleaning  of  prints, 
drawings,  and  manuscripts;  proper  mounting  and  matting  of 
drawings,  and  manuscripts;  proper  mounting  and  matting  of  paper; 
the  protective  lining  of  a  wooden  storage  drawer  for  textiles  and 
costumes;  and  the  wet  cleaning  of  antique  cotton,  linen  and  wool. 

The  Psychological  Studies  Program  provides  both  direct  and 
evaluative  services  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  engages  in 
applied  behavior  research  for  broader  application  to  museum  pro- 
fessional practices.  The  staff  designs  and  tests  museum  behavior 
studies  which  aid  (1)  the  study  of  the  museum  as  an  institution  for 

Museum  Programs  I  205 

the  preservation,  interpretation,  and  exhibition  of  objects,  and  (2) 
the  construction  of  several  practical  and  effective  visitor-behavior 
projects  employing  some  of  the  methods  of  social  science  that  the 
museum  professional  can  undertake  in  his  own  museum  or  gallery. 
The  Psychological  Studies  Program  analyzes  visitor  behavior, 
especially  that  of  communication.  Investigations  gauge  the  educa- 
tional effectiveness  of  exhibits  and  exhibit  techniques.  The  Program 
is  also  concerned  with  the  problem  of  visitor  orientation,  that  is, 
how  to  initiate  the  visitor  into  the  museum  experience  for  optimum 
use  of  his  time  and  interests.  The  primary  testing  grounds  for 
research  activities  have  been  the  National  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  and  the 
Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  Subjects 
examined  in  nmnh  were:  the  relative  effectiveness  of  different  ex- 
hibit halls;  visitor  characteristics  most  likely  to  determine  visitor 
behavior;  and  the  relationship  between  the  physical  layout,  famil- 
iarity and  attractiveness  of  exhibit  halls,  and  the  visitors'  behavior 
within  them.  At  nmht,  the  staff  analyzed  traffic  flow,  crowding, 
attraction  and  holding  power  of  exhibits,  orientation  within  the 
gallery,  the  effectiveness  of  different  kinds  of  labels,  use  of  facili- 
ties, and  causes  of  visitor  fatigue.  Visitor  learning  and  ways  of 
facilitating  it  were  tested  for  two  years  at  the  Renwick. 

Office  of  the  Registrar 

The  Smithsonian  is  evaluating  and  improving  its  registration  sys- 
tem. The  Office  of  the  Registrar,  which  dates  back  at  least  to  the 
1880s  once  kept  records  on  all  specimens  and  administered  all 
shipping  for  the  Smithsonian.  New  museums,  increases  in  curatorial 
staff,  and  increased  accession  rates  have  outpaced  the  development 
of  the  Central  Registrar's  office.  Presently  actions  are  underway  to 
break  with  old  traditions.  During  1973,  the  Council  of  Registrars, 
which  represents  most  museums  in  the  Smithsonian  complex,  made 
thorough  studies  of  several  registration  problems  and  made  exten- 
sive reports  to  the  Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs. 
These  recommendations  are  the  initial  steps  toward  beneficial 
change  in  the  Institution's  registration  system. 

206  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Although  yet  a  vision  rather  than  a  reaUty,  the  new  order  of 
registration  at  the  Smithsonian  is  discernible,  and  it  is  the  goal 
toward  which  present  activities  are  directed.  Each  museum  will 
have  a  registration  staff  adequate  to  ensure  proper  documentation 
of  all  acquisitions  and  to  work  with  curators  and  conservators  to 
ensure  the  security  and  availability  of  specimens.  The  Central 
Registrar  will  have  several  functions.  As  the  senior  registrar,  he 
will  assist  museums  with  their  registration  problems  and  he  will 
develop  new  registration  techniques  as  required  by  the  complexities 
of  the  national  collections.  Most  important  of  all,  the  Central 
Registrar  will  take  an  Institution-wide  view  of  the  national  collec- 
tions and  the  systems  which  protect  and  service  these  resources. 

Thus,  the  primary  achievement  of  fiscal  year  1974  was  careful 
development  of  goals. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Archives 

During  fiscal  1974  the  Smithsonian  Archives  continued  its  efforts 
to  gain  intellectual  control  of  Archives  throughout  the  Institution. 
Work  continued  on  records  of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  His- 
tory, where  an  intensive  survey  revealed  that  some  6.5  million  docu- 
ments remain  unprocessed  and  in  need  of  archival  preservation. 

The  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  presents  an 
archival  challenge  unique  among  Smithsonian  bureaus,  because  it 
is  the  only  bureau  which  maintains  a  major  manuscript  collecting 
program  in  addition  to  creating  its  own  administrative  records. 
During  1974  the  Archives  staff  began  a  major  effort  to  aid  in  the 
care  and  preservation  of  those  materials.  A  consultant  employed  by 
the  Archives  surveyed  the  records  and  manuscript  holdings  of  the 
Science  and  Technology  Department,  and  submitted  a  report  to  the 
Director  of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology, 
which  will  serve  as  the  basis  for  policy  decisions  defining  the  role 
of  the  Archives  in  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

The  Archives  made  provisions  to  care  for  the  records  of  the 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  and  the  National  Portrait  Gallery, 
as  well  as  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum. 

Museum  Programs  I  207 

Many  other  ongoing  programs  continued,  with  emphasis  on  mi- 
crofilming and  efforts  to  develop  computerized  finding  aids  to  the 
Archives'  holdings.  Arrangement  and  microfilming  of  the  accession 
records  continued  and  the  specimen  catalogues  of  several  divisions 
in  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  were  filmed. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Libraries 

Nineteen  seventy-four  was  a  year  of  staff  participation  and  a  year 
of  experimentation  in  new  forms  of  operations  and  services.  During 
the  first  half  of  the  year  the  Libraries'  staff  took  part  in  a  study  of 
the  Libraries'  management.  A  report  was  submitted  to  the  Director 
of  Libraries  in  January  1974,  and  after  discussions  with  the  staff, 
the  Director  of  Libraries  accepted  more  than  fifty  of  the  study's 
recommendations.  The  recommendations  are  being  implemented  by 
the  Libraries'  administrators.  An  Implementation  Assessment 
Group,  appointed  to  monitor  the  progress  of  implementation,  is  to 
make  periodic  reports  to  the  Director  of  Libraries  and  to  the  staff. 
This  management  study  introduced  an  atmosphere  of  staff  partici- 
pation in  decision  making. 

The  most  promising  technical  development  was  the  Libraries' 
experiment  with  the  Ohio  College  Library  Center  (oclc)  on-line 
cataloguing  system.  This  system  produces  catalogue  cards  for- 
matted to  Smithsonian  specifications  faster  and  more  efficiently 
than  the  previously  used  manual  procedures.  Furthermore,  the  oclc 
system,  which  provides  on-line  access  to  a  large  and  growing 
bibliographic  data  base,  has  facilitated  the  process  of  ordering 
library  materials.  The  introduction  of  this  system  has  effected  some 
experiments  in  workflow  and  staffing  patterns  to  permit  more 
efficient  use  of  personnel.  The  staff  is  now  assessing  the  effective- 
ness of  the  OCLC  system  and  is  planning  for  expansion  of  automated 

Throughout  the  year,  bureau  and  branch  librarians  met  to  dis- 
cuss common  problems.  For  the  first  time,  librarians  responsible  for 
the  development  and  maintenance  of  library  collections  in  various 
bureaus  and  departments  participated  in  the  allocation  of  book  and 
binding  funds  for  the  Libraries.  The  Deputy  Assistant  Director  for 

208  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Bureau  Services  has  initiated  cooperative  efforts  to  formulate  a 
library  collection  development  policy  for  the  Institution. 

Services  to  users  have  been  augmented.  For  example,  the 
National  Air  and  Space  Museum  Library  produces  a  current  aware- 
ness list;  users  in  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  and 
Radiation  Biology  Laboratory  Libraries  are  provided  with  individ- 
ually profiled  current  awareness  services;  librarians  at  the  National 
Zoological  Park  and  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute  index 
relevant  literature  for  their  users. 

Librarians  serving  bureaus  and  departments  of  the  Institution 
have  been  attempting  to  become  more  closely  involved  with  pro- 
grams and  plans  of  the  bureaus  which  they  serve.  The  National 
Air  and  Space  Museum  librarian  serves  as  Chairperson  of  the 
NASM  Collection  Development  Committee;  both  the  National  Air 
and  Space  Museum  and  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts/National 
Portrait  Gallery  librarians  attend  staff  meetings  held  by  their 
bureau  directors;  at  the  request  of  the  National  Museum  of  History 
and  Technology  librarian,  a  library  committee  of  curators  has  been 
formed  to  advise  the  bureau  librarian. 

In  spite  of  a  limited  budget  for  the  purchase  of  books  and 
journals,  the  Libraries  continued  to  acquire  many  of  the  materials 
required  to  support  Smithsonian  Institution  programs.  To  a  large 
extent,  important  gifts  and  the  Libraries'  well-established  exchange 
program  made  this  possible.  The  year  saw  exchange  programs 
initiated  with  the  People's  Republic  of  China  and  with  the  Museums 
and  Monuments  Office  in  Ghana. 

The  binding  and  preservation  program  of  the  Libraries  has  been 
hampered  for  a  number  of  years  by  lack  of  adequate  funds.  In 
anticipation  of  increased  support,  binding  and  preservation  needs 
have  been  assessed.  The  program  to  identify  and  preserve  rare 
books  in  the  Institution  continued. 

One  area  of  concern  expressed  in  the  Libraries'  management 
study  was  the  personnel  program.  As  a  result,  some  changes  in 
personnel  policies  and  staffing  are  being  tested  and  a  Staff  Develop- 
ment Committee  has  been  appointed. 

The  Libraries  supported  staff  participation  in  continuing  educa- 
tion and  professional  activities  such  as  seminars,  conferences, 
meetings,  and  training  courses.  Twenty-six  Libraries'  staff  members 

Museum  Programs  I  209 

attended  training  courses  funded  by  the  Libraries.  Several  staff 
members  have  received  outstanding  professional  recognition. 
Catherine  Scott,  nasm  bureau  librarian,  is  a  member  of  the  Board 
of  Visitors  of  Catholic  University  of  America  Library  and  a  member 
of  the  National  Commission  on  Libraries  and  Information  Science. 
William  Walker,  ncfa/npg  librarian,  is  Vice  Chairman  Elect  of 
the  Art  Libraries  Society  of  North  America  (arlis/na).  Elaine  Sloan, 
Assistant  to  the  Director  for  Planning  and  Research,  received  a 
Ph.D.  in  Library  and  Information  Services  from  the  University  of 
Maryland.  Dr.  Russell  Shank,  Director  of  Libraries,  completed  his 
term  as  President  of  the  Association  of  College  and  Research  1 
Libraries  and  was  elected  Vice  President,  President  Elect  of  the 
United  States  Book  Exchange.  Dr.  Shank  was  the  recipient  of  a 
fellowship  from  the  Council  of  Library  Resources  and  was  granted 
sabbatical  leave  by  the  Smithsonian  from  February  to  September, 
1974,  to  study  the  implications  of  telecommunications  policy  for 
libraries  and  information  resources.  Jean  Chandler  Smith,  Assistant 
Director  for  Bureau  Services,  was  appointed  Acting  Director  of 

Among  the  many  distinguished  visitors  to  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  Libraries  was  a  delegation  of  heads  of  libraries  from 
the  People's  Republic  of  China.  The  Libraries  provided  graduate 
library  school  students  opportunities  for  study  and  field  work.  As 
part  of  a  training  program,  two  American  Indians  from  Navajo 
Community  College  Library  worked  in  the  Anthropology,  nmht, 
and  NASM  Libraries. 

Major  Purchases  by  Smithsonian  Institution 
Libraries,  Fiscal  Year  1974 

Audubon,  John  James.  The  Birds  of  America;  from  original  drawings,  by 
John  James  Audubon.  London,  1827-1838.  New  York,  Amsterdam, 
Johnson  Reprint  Corporation,  Theatrum  Orbis  Terrarum,  1971-1974. 
Facsimile  edition.  4  volumes. 

City  Directories  of  the  United  States.  Segment  I.  City  Directories  of  the 
U.S.,  through  1860.  (microfiche) 

Segment  II.  City  Directories  of  the  U.S.,  1861-1881.  Parts  I-IV.  (micro- 

Author  and  Classified  Catalogues  of  the  Royal  Botanic  Gardens  Library. 
Kew,  England,  1973. 

210  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

The  beautiful  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  /  National  Portrait  Gallery  Library. 

Rare  Books  Purchased  by  Smithsonian  Institution 
Libraries,  Fiscal  Year  1974 

Aldrovandi,  Ulysses.  De  quadrupedibus  solidipedibus.  Bologna,  1639. 
Aldrovandi,  Ulysses.  Quadrupedum  omnium  historia.  Bologna,  1621. 
Bauhin,  Johann.   Historia  plantarum   universalis.   Ebrovdni,  1650-51.   3 

Belidor,  Bernard  Forest  de.  Nouveau  cours  de  mathematique  a  I'usage  de 

I'artillerie  et  du  genie.  Paris,  1757. 
Bell,  William  A.  New  Tracks  in  North  America.  London,  1869.  2  volumes. 
Benkard,  Ernst.  Das  Selbstbildnis  vom  15.  bis  zum  Beginn  des  18.  Jahr- 

hunderts.  Berlin,  1927. 
Bien  and  Sterner.  New  rail  road  map.  New  York,  1855. 
Boulter,  Daniel.  Museum  Boulteranium.  A  catalogue  of  the  curious  and 

valuable  collection  of  natural  and  artificial  curiosities  in  the  extensive 

museum  of  Daniel  Boulter.  Yarmouth  .  . .  London,  [1910]. 
Bruff,  J.  Goldsborough.  Cold  rush.   The  journals,  drawings  and  other 

papers  of  J.  Goldsborough  Bruff  .  .  .  April  2,  1849-July  20,  1851.  New 

York,  1944. 
Caesius,  Bernardo.  Mineralogia  sive  naturalis  philosophiae  thesauri.  Lug- 

duni,  1637. 
Clap,  Thomas.  The  annals  or  history  of  Yale-College  in  New  Haven.  New 

Haven,  1766. 
Delius,  Christoph  Traugott.  Anleitung  zu  der  Bergbaukunst  nach  ihrer 

Theorie  und  Ausubung.  2d.  edition.  Vienna,  1806.  2  volumes  of  text,  1 

volume  of  plates. 
Ehrenberg,  Christian  Gottfried.  Uber  noch  zalreich  jetz  lebenden  thier- 

arten  der  kreidebildung.  Berlin,  1840. 
Euler,  Leonard.   Introduction  a   I'analyse  infinitesimale.   Paris,  1796.   2 

Findley,  William.  History  of  the  insurrection  in  the  four  western  counties 

of  Pennsylvania.  Philadelphia,  1796. 
Forbes,  James.  Hortus  Woburnensis.  London,  1833. 
Foullon,  Abel.  Descrittione,  et  uso  dell'holmetro.  Venice,  1564. 
Fregoso,  Battista.  De  dictis  factisque  memorabilibus  collecteana.  Milan, 

Fremont,  John  Charles.  Memoirs  of  my  life.  Chicago,  1867.  Volume  1. 
Galucci,  Giovanni  Paolo.   Theatrum  Mundi  et  Temporis.  Venice,  1589. 
Grant,  Mrs.  Anne  McV.  Memoirs  of  an  American  lady.  London,  1808.  2 

Ingen  Housz,  Johann.  Versuche  mit  pflanzen.  Vienna,  1786.  2  volumes  in 

Instruction  sur  les  mesures  deduites  de  la  grandeur  de  la  terre.  .  .  .  Paris, 

[1794].  (An  II  de  la  Republique,  une  et  indivisible). 
Klein,  Jacob  Theod.  Naturalis  dispositio  echinodermatum.  Danzig,  1734. 

212  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Leonicenus  (Nicolaus).  De  serpentibus  opus  singulare  ac  exactissimum. 

Bologna,  1518. 
Le  Vaillant,  Fran<;;ois.   Voyage  de  M.   he  Vaillant  dans  I'interieure  de 

I'Afrique.  .  .  .  Paris,  1790.  2  volumes. 
Lunel,  Godefroy.  Histoire  naturelle  des  poissons  du  bassin  du  Leman. 

Geneva,  1874. 
McCrady,  Edward.  The  history  of  South  Carolina  in  the  Revolution,  1775- 

1780.  New  York,  1902. 
.  The  History  of  South  Carolina  in  the  Revolution,  1780-1783.  New 

York,  1902. 
.  The  history  of  South  Carolina  under  the  Proprietary  Government, 

1670-1719.  New  York,  1901. 

The  history  of  South  Carolina  under  the  Royal  Government,  1719- 

1776.  New  York,  1899. 

Mahan,  Alfred  Thayer.  Sea  power  in  its  relations  to  the  War  of  1812. 
Boston,  1905.  2  volumes. 

[Massachusetts  Colony].  The  votes  and  proceedings  of  the  freeholders  and 
other  inhabitants  of  the  town  of  Boston,  in  town  meeting  assembled. 
.  .  .  Boston,  [1772]. 

Morison,  Robert.  Plantarum  umbelliferarum  distributio  nova.  Oxford, 

Muller,  Otho  Friderich.  Zoologia  danica  seu  animalium  Dabiae  et  Nor- 
wegiae.  .  . .  Copenhagen,  1788.  4  volumes. 

Musschenbroek,  Pierre  Van.  Essai  de  physique.  Leyden,  1751.  Volumes 
1  &  2. 

Paris,  Edmond.  Le  Musee  de  Marine  du  Louvre.  Paris,  1883. 

Paris,  Museum  d'Histoire  Naturelle.  Instruction  pour  les  voyageurs  et 
pour  les  employees  dans  les  colonies  sur  la  maniere  de  recuellir,  de  con- 
server  et  d'envoyer  les  objets  d'histoire  naturelle.  Paris,  1818. 

Pinset,  R.,  &  D'Auriac,  Jules.  Histoire  du  portrait  en  Prance.  Paris,  1884. 

Porta,  Giambattista.  Phytognomonica.  Frankfurt,  1591. 

Portis,  L.  De  sestertio  ponderibus  et  mensuris  antiquis  libri  duo.  Venice, 

Stuart,  James.  Three  years  in  North  America.  Edinburgh,  1833.  2  volumes. 

Veth,  J.  Portretstudies  en  silhouetten.  Amsterdam,  1914. 

Voet,  Joannes.  Catalogues  systematicus  coleoptorem.  The  Hague,  [1804]- 
1806.  2  volumes. 

Woodward,  John.  An  essay  toward  a  natural  history  of  the  earth  and  ter- 
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Zonca,  Vittorio.  Novo  teatro  di  machine  et  edificii.  Padua,  1656. 

Museum  Programs  I  213 

Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service 

The  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service  (sites)  cir- 
culates more  shows  on  more  subjects  to  more  people  than  anyone 
else.  It  is  unique  in  that  it  circulates  exhibitions  of  history,  science, 
and  technology  in  addition  to  exhibitions  on  art. 

This  past  year,  several  new  initiatives  were  undertaken  as  a  re- 
sponse to  the  needs  of  sites'  customers.  Each  new  effort  had  to  be 
oriented  philosophically  and  financially  to  the  Smithsonian's  effort 
to  increase  as  well  as  diffuse  knowledge. 

This  year,  sites  received  its  first  direct  federal  appropriation.  Ful- 
filling a  promise  to  Congress,  appropriated  funds  were  directed 
toward  keeping  rental  fees  within  the  range  of  medium  and  small 
institutions  that  count  on  the  Smithsonian  for  high  quality  exhibi- 
tions. Further,  federal  funds  were  used  to  improve  exhibition  quality 
by  expanding  programming  and  educational  activities  suggestions 
to  more  effectively  use  the  circulating  shows. 

The  primary  responsibility  for  the  development  of  these  materials 
is  being  pursued  by  a  Program  Coordinator,  a  new  position  on  the 
Traveling  Exhibition  Service  staff.  It  has  been  determined  that  there 
are  far  too  many  projects  for  one  such  position  and  plans  have  been 
made  to  add  more  persons  in  the  future. 

sites  representatives  were  present  at  each  of  the  six  regional  meet- 
ings of  the  American  Association  of  Museums  this  year.  Inquiries 
about  sites'  program  and  consultation  to  others  on  the  travel  of 
shows  were  provided.  A  significant  amount  of  foreign  as  well  as 
domestic  travel  was  undertaken  to  assure  that  sites  standards  were 
upheld  in  the  preparation  of  shows  for  travel.  In  addition  to  many  of 
the  50  states  and  Puerto  Rico,  sites  staff  worked  with  exhibition 
sources  in  Sweden,  Belgium,  Denmark,  Austria,  Great  Britain,  Nor- 
way, Israel,  Australia,  and  New  Zealand.  Four  members  of  the  sites 
staff  attended  the  American  Association  of  Museums  national  meet- 
ing in  Fort  Worth,  Texas,  and  a  delegate  was  sent  to  the  International 
Council  of  Museums  meeting  in  Copenhagen. 

A  Bicentennial  Exhibitions  effort  was  launched  this  year  with  the 
assignment  of  two  full-time  -staff  members  to  this  program.  Two 
exhibitions  especially  mounted  for  the  Bicentennial  began  their  tours. 

A  major  program  to  improve  sites'  exhibition  offerings  in  science 

214  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

was  begun.  A  National  Science  Foundation  grant  to  develop  a  series 
of  exhibitions  with  the  topic  of  "Understanding  the  Environment" 
provided  the  major  impetus  for  the  program. 

A  week-long  workshop  on  the  travel  of  exhibitions  was  held  at 
SITES  headquarters  in  April  1974,  Nine  representatives  from  mu- 
seums in  the  United  States,  one  from  Puerto  Rico,  and  two  from 
Canada  participated. 

SITES  concluded  the  year  having  booked  over  600  exhibitions 
viewed  by  an  estimated  4,800,000  persons.  There  are  now  2,600 
institutions  on  sites  mailing  lists.  At  the  end  of  the  year,  109  exhibi- 
tions were  in  circulation.  During  the  twelve-month  period,  28  exhi- 
bitions were  produced  for  tour  and  3  were  refurbished  for  extended 

In  fiscal  year  1974,  approximately  $250,000  in  grants,  gifts,  and 
contracts  were  received  to  develop  exhibitions  and  educational  pro- 
grams. With  the  federal  appropriation,  these  funds  had  the  effect  of 
making  sites  exhibitions  more  accessible  than  ever  before. 

Exhibitions  Beginning  Tours  in  Fiscal  Year  1974 

Civil  Engineering  in  Switzerland 

Huddinge  Hospital :  A  Public  Environment 

Below  Man's  Vision 

Antwerp's  Golden  Age 

Children  in  Bondage 

Manuscripts  of  the  American  Revolution 

American  Coverlets  (two  versions) 

Our  Only  World  (six  copies) 

Witness  To  Our  Time 

Kurt  Kranz :  Bauhaus  and  Today 

In  Beauty  It  Is  Begun 

Mary  Bruce  Sharon:  An  American  Primitive 

200  Years  of  Royal  Copenhagen  Porcelain 

Chinese  Export  Porcelain 

Folk  Paintings  from  Dalarna 

Next  Door,  Down  the  Road,  Around  the  Corner  (two  copies) 

Objects  for  Preparing  Food 

Eighth  Dulin  Print  and  Drawing  Competition 

The  Five  Sense  Store:  An  Aesthetic  Design  for  Education 

Permutations:  Earth,  Sea,  Sky  (30  works  on  paper,  by  Lawrence  Calcagno) 

Exhibitions  Refurbished  for  Extended  Tours 

Alvar  Aalto 

Handicrafts  of  the  Southeast 

Shout  in  Silence 

Museum  Programs  I  215 

^:  I 


Valerie  Lee  Sedano,  a  handicapped  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 
Staff  Associate  for  Education,  employs  sign  language  to  describe  for  deaf  children 
the  Museum's  largest  "touch-it"  object,  the  280-ton  "1401"  locomotive. 

Smithsonian  Year  '1974 

During  the  past  12  months  an  exciting  fermentation  has  begun  in 
the  area  of  Public  Service.  This  activity  is  in  response  to  the  impact 
of  a  larger  public  interest  in  a  more  extensive  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion, and,  in  equal  measure,  to  a  notably  more  discerning  public 
interest  in  the  educational  potential  of  the  Smithsonian  museums 
and  galleries,  and  their  programs.  In  building  the  resources  and  the 
organization  to  meet  these  challenges,  the  Public  Service  divisions 
are  helping  to  bring  into  balance  the  Institution's  fulfillment  of  Mr. 
Smithson's  mandate  for  the  diffusion  of  knowledge  as  well  as  its 

For,  basically,  the  role  of  Public  Service  is  education,  and  Smith- 
sonian educational  activity  has  been  mushrooming  as  the  desire  of 
the  American  public  of  all  ages  to  be  educated  has  burgeoned  in  one 
of  the  liveliest  social  phenomena  of  our  time.  During  the  year,  21 
Smithsonian  bureaus  conducted  specifically  educational  programs 
which  reached  a  total  of  close  to  300,000  people.  These  were  by  no 
means  all  Public  Service  functions,  but  all  complemented  the  direct 
educational  role  of  the  Office  of  Public  Service.  Our  view,  in  fact,  is 
that  our  major  museum  and  gallery  directors  are  the  best  qualified 
to  develop  education  programs  related  to  their  collections  or  re- 
searches. In  consequence,  we  decentralized  the  Office  of  Elementary 
and  Secondary  Education  and  thereby  made  people  and  money  avail- 
able for  the  establishment  of  education  speciahst  positions  and  sup- 
porting sections  in  all  of  the  principal  museums  and  galleries.  A 
comparable  reorganization  is  being  considered  for  the  Office  of 
Public  Affairs;  in  addition,  the  funds  formerly  allotted  to  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  Press  and  divided  by  the  Director  of  the  Press 
among  interested  bureaus  will  henceforth  be  distributed  directly  to 


bureau  chiefs  so  that  each  may  determine  his  own  publishing  priori- 
ties. Such  changes  permit  us  to  reorganize  the  central  offices  of  the 
Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education  and  ultimately  of 
the  Office  of  PubHc  Affairs  so  that  their  efforts  can  be  focused  on 
Institution-wide  requirements. 

The  twin  challenges  posed  by  Smithsonian  growth  and  by  the  ap- 
proach of  the  Bicentennial  have  stimulated  every  one  of  the  Public 
Service  divisions,  as  will  be  evident  in  the  following  accounts.  At 
the  end  of  fiscal  1974  Smithsonian  (magazine)  circulation  and  Na- 
tional Associate  membership  exceeded  600,000  and  was  steadily 
climbing;  Resident  Associate  membership  topped  20,000;  Division 
of  Performing  Arts-produced  Smithsonian  Collection  of  Classic  Jazz 
had  sold  30,000  copies;  and  a  striking  further  demonstration  of 
public  enthusiasm  for  Office  of  Public  Service  programs  was  evident 
in  the  long  queues  which  formed  before  each  of  the  7  daily  show- 
ings of  the  Ascent  of  Man  film  series,  arranged  by  the  Office  of 
PubUc  Service  Free  Film  Theatre.  In  addition,  not  only  the  Public 
Service  bureaus  but  the  entire  Institution  is  preparing  for  the  antici- 
pated results  of  the  Smithsonian  television  series  which  will  begin  in 
the  fall  of  1974  and  will  bring  Smithsonian  treasures  and  Smith- 
sonian interests  to  20  to  40  million  television  viewers  across  the 
Nation.  Every  increase  in  public  interest  in  the  Smithsonian  gener- 
ates a  requirement  for  service  to  that  public,  whether  it  be  the 
development  of  new  educational  facilities  or  simply  the  organization 
and  staffing  of  an  office  to  reply  to  the  increase  in  letters  of  inquiry 
or  suggestion  addressed  to  the  Smithsonian. 

Fiscal  year  1974  did  bring  one  reduction  in  the  organizational 
makeup  of  the  Office  of  Public  Service  with  the  very  appropriate 
transfer  of  the  Office  of  International  Activities  to  the  Office  of  the 
Secretary  for  Science. 

Finally,  the  Office  of  Public  Services  wishes  to  express  its  warm 
appreciation  to  the  1120  dedicated  members  of  the  Smithsonian  vol- 
unteers and  the  530  Smithsonian  volunteer  docents  who  gave  so 
much  of  their  time  and  service  to  the  Institution  during  1974,  and 
without  whose  help  "Smithsonian  Public  Service"  would  have  a  far 
more  limited  connotation. 

218  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


r  ^ 

A  contemplative  visitor  to  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum's  exhibit,  "Africa: 
Three  Out  of  Many  —  Ethiopia,  Ghana,  Nigeria." 

Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 

The  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  now  in  its  sixth  year  has 
continued  to  enrich  the  experience  of  museum  visitors  with  a 
variety  of  exhibits  and  educational  programs. 

The  year  was  highhghted  by  a  series  of  major  exhibitions.  "The 
Evolution  of  a  Community,  Part  11"  communicated  areas  of  con- 
cern that  were  relevant  to  all  urban  communities.  It  represented  the 
shared  feelings  of  the  people  of  Anacostia  concerning  housing, 
unemployment,  education,  drug  abuse,  and  crime.  "Africa:  Three 
Out  of  Many"  represented  the  African  language  of  art  in  its  three- 
dimensional  forms  of  sculpture  and  masks.  The  art,  the  religious 
inspirations,  history,  and  culture  depicted  the  people  of  Ethiopia, 
Ghana,  and  Nigeria  —  the  three  countries  selected  from  many 
African  nations. 

The  Barnett-Aden  collection  of  paintings,  sculptures,  and  prints 
was  shown.  The  collection  reflected  the  talents  and  concerns  of  an 
exciting  group  of  American  arid  Afro- American  artists  who  emerged 
from  the  period  which  historians  call  the  "Harlem  Renaissance." 

220  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Exhibits  at  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum,  "Africa:  Three  Out  of 
Many  —  Ethiopia,  Ghana,  Nigeria"  (opposite  page)  and  "The  Barnett-Aden 
Collection"  held  January  20  to  May  6,  1974,  attracted  many  visitors.  The  latter 
proved  to  be  an  important  art  event  in  the  Metropolitan  area. 

A  variety  of  educational  programs  and  films  of  popular  interest 
were  given  during  each  exhibit  and  throughout  the  year.  Over 
40,000  children  and  teenagers  participated  in  these  activities. 

The  Mobile  Division  continues  to  take  the  museum  to  the 
people.  Portable  exhibits,  teaching  aids,  demonstrations,  and  a 
Speakers'  Bureau  are  all  included  in  its  outreach  program. 

The  history  of  the  Anacostia  community  is  presently  being 
researched  for  a  publication  entitled  Anacostia  Story,  which  is 
being  prepared  for  the  Bicentennial.  Anacostia  Neighborhood 
Museum  is  also  looking  forward  to  completion  in  1974  of  the 
construction  of  an  Exhibits  Design  and  Production  Laboratory 
where,  in  addition  to  the  preparation  and  production  of  exhibits 
for  the  Museum,  an  exhibits  training  program  will  train  minority 
members  in  the  arts  and  crafts  of  museum  design  and  production. 
This  laboratory,  when  in  operation,  will  provide  improved  facilities 
for  experimentation  in  exhibit  design  and  production,  which  has 
been  a  goal  of  the  Museum  since  its  inception. 

Public  Service  I  221 

Division  of  Performing  Arts 

Expanding  the  Institution's  role  as  conservator  and  preserver  of  the 
Nation's  creative  forces,  the  Division  of  Performing  Arts  presented 
the  Seventh  consecutive  Festival  of  American  FolkHfe,  which  has 
become  the  largest  summertime  event  in  the  Nation's  Capital,  and 
six  different  series  and  numerous  individual  events  during  the 
winter  programs. 

During  the  1973-1974  season,  15,000  people  attended  concerts 
offering  a  range  of  creative  musical  expressions  from  baroque  to 
bluegrass,  as  well  as  the  second  season  of  Jazz  Heritage  Concerts. 
Such  artists  as  Leon  Fleisher  and  the  Theater  Chamber  Players, 
Bill  Monroe  and  the  Blue  Grass  Boys,  Earl  Brown,  Earl  Hines,  and 
Carmen  McRae  were  presented.  Most  concerts  were  preceded  by 
free  public  workshops.  To  cope  with  capacity  audiences,  work- 
shops had  to  be  moved  from  the  Hall  of  Musical  Instruments  to 
the  Baird  Auditorium  midway  through  the  season. 

A  new  recording  program  instituted  by  the  Division  issued  a 
historic  first,  the  Smithsonian  Collection  of  Classic  Jazz,  a  boxed, 
six-record  set  including  85  selections  from  17  record  companies. 
The  set  was  produced  by  Martin  Williams,  Director  of  the  Jazz 
Program.  Receiving  critical  acclaim  and  an  unprecedented  number 
of  orders,  the  Collection  is  now  in  its  third  printing. 

The  Smithsonian  Resident  Puppet  Theater,  one  of  two  con- 
tinuously operated  puppet  theaters  in  the  country,  attracted  3000 
visitors  each  week  to  three  different  shows:  Patchwork,  an  impro- 
visational  series  with  music,  Pinocchio,  a  new  version  of  the  classic,  1 
and  What  If?...,a  puppet  science-fiction  fantasy.  The  Perform- 
ing Arts  Division  contributes  to  a  "lively  mall"  area  through  the 
operation  of  the  carousel  and  the  original  old-time  popcorn 

Performing  Arts  shares  the  American  experience  in  its  many 
creative  forms  with  museum  visitors  and  people  across  the  Nation 
through  the  Smithsonian  Touring  Performance  Service,  offering 
performances  not  available  through  commercial  management  to 
museums,  colleges,  universities,  and  cultural  centers.  The  1973- 
1974  season  saw  51  performances  sent  to  23  states,  by  the  Smith- 
sonian Puppet  Theater,  The  American  Folklife  Company,  High- 

222  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

The  50-acre  expanse  between  the  Lincoln  Memorial  and  the  Washington  Monument  is 
the  site  of  the  Festival  of  American  Folklife,  July  3-14.  Called  the  "Axis  of  the  Nation" 
by  Pierre  L'Enfant,  the  greensward  will  see  700  participants  and  draw  a  projected  1.5 
million  visitors  to  the  "Festival  of  the  Common  Man"  in  1976.  Below:  Visitors  join  in 
singing  and  dancing  in  the  Tribute  to  Tamburashi.  The  1973  Festival  marked  the  first 
participation  by  a  foreign  government  —  Yugoslavia. 

tyO^,.&.<:2^      ^^^^2^.      •^^^'3i5rj^^ 


Letter  to  a  Docent  from  an  elementary  school  student. 

Students  from  Devonshire  Elementary  School  in  Fairfax  County 
participate  in  Museum  Education  Day  1974. 

woods  String  Band,  Horace  Silver,  Jean  Ritchie,  and  others.  A  post- 
Festival  tour  of  Serbo-Croatian  musicians  traveling  to  ethnic 
comnrunities  in  6  cities  became  a  pilot  project  which  will  service 
increased  requests  from  state  and  local  communities  for  Smith- 
sonian aid  in  booking  Bicentennial  programs. 

The  Seventh  Festival  of  American  Folklife  featured  a  new  site,  an 
expanded  schedule,  and  new  themes  leading  to  a  season-long  Bicen- 
tennial Festival  in  1976.  The  1973  presentation  focused  on  four 
theme  areas  that  would  be  expanded  for  the  Bicentennial:  Old 
Ways  in  the  New  World,  Working  Americans,  Native  Americans, 
and  Regional  America.  The  Smithsonian  was  joined  by  the  National 
Park  Service  as  a  co-sponsor.  Called  the  "great  national  family 
reunion,"  the  Festival  attracted  1.3  million  visitors,  who  came  to 
learn  more  about  themselves  and  about  others  from  the  United 
States  and  around  the  world. 

Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education 

Fiscal  year  1974  has  brought  new  directions  and  new  challenges  to 
the  Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education.  As  recently 
redefined,  the  Office  is  now  a  service  unit,  charged  with  giving 
assistance,  upon  request,  to  the  Bureau  education  offices  of  all  of 
the  Smithsonian  museums,  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environ- 
mental Studies,  and  the  National  Zoo. 

A  primary  responsibility  of  the  Office  of  Elementary  and 
Secondary  Education  (oese)  is  to  encourage  cooperation  and  ex- 
change of  information  among  the  Smithsonian  education  offices 
and  between  those  offices  and  the  District  of  Columbia  area 
schools.  Toward  this  end,  a  number  of  efforts  are  underway.  Two 
publications  —  a  monthly  newsletter.  Let's  Go,  and  an  annual 
brochure.  Learning  Opportunities  for  Schools  —  inform  teachers  of 
Smithsonian  programs  and  other  activities  of  particular  interest  to 
young  people  and  contain  suggestions  for  using  museums  as 
educational  resources.  The  publications  are  sent  free  of  charge  to 
over  1300  area  schools.  In  addition,  an  annual  Museum  Education 
Day  is  held  for  teachers,  school  administrators,  and  museum  educa- 
tors. This  year's  event,  which  took  place  at  the  National  Portrait 
Gallery  and   the  National   Collection   of   Fine  Arts,   presented  a 

Public  Service  I  225 

selection  of  art,  history,  and  science  programs  offered  to  school 
groups  by  the  various  education  offices.  A  folk-music  workshop,  a 
Japanese  tea  ceremony,  and  a  reenactment  of  the  trial  of  aboli- 
tionist John  Brown  were  among  the  programs  demonstrated.  A 
highlight  of  the  day  was  a  live  animal  demonstration  by  special 
guests  from  the  Boston  Museum  of  Science.  Portions  of  Museum 
Education  Day  were  filmed  by  wtop-tv  and  shown  on  "Eye- 
witness News." 

Teachers  are  reached  also  by  a  summer  workshop  program,  now 
in  its  third  year,  which  drew  34  participants  from  Montgomery 
County  and  the  District  of  Columbia  in  1973.  The  workshops 
enable  teachers  to  develop  curriculum  units  to  be  used  in  conjunc- 
tion with  museum  visits.  One  manifestation  of  the  workshops  is 
presently  in  evidence  in  a  Montgomery  County  fourth-grade  class- 
room, where  students  have  created  an  exhibit  of  American  Indian 
crafts  and  are  learning  traditional  methods  of  pottery-making  and 
weaving  in  connection  with  visits  to  the  National  Museum  of 
Natural  History.  Altogether,  an  estimated  1500  students  have  been 
engaged  in  art,  history,  and  science  projects  during  the  1973-1974 
school  year  as  a  result  of  the  summer  workshops. 

In  1973-1974,  the  energy  crisis  brought  a  disappointing  26  per- 
cent decrease  in  the  number  of  school  tours  scheduled  by  this 
office  for  the  Mall  museums.  The  decline  was  represented  by  2187 
tours  given  to  50,865  children.  Nonetheless,  classes  came  from  as 
far  away  as  Cherry  Hill,  New  Jersey,  and  Athens,  Georgia,  for  the 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History's  Early  Man  tour;  and  the 
number  of  outreach  programs  given  in  area  classrooms  jumped  an 
encouraging  18  percent,  serving  a  total  of  9,438  children  through 
357  presentations. 

An  expanding  force  of  volunteer  docents,  now  numbering  326, 
has  been  recruited  and  trained  by  oese.  To  augment  their  regular 
training,  the  docents  were  able  to  attend  two  seminar  lecture  series 
in  1973  —  one  in  American  studies  and  the  other  in  the  natural 
sciences.  Good  indicators  of  the  success  of  the  docents  in  inspiring 
young  visitors  to  think  about  the  exhibits  and  draw  conclusions 
from  what  they  see  are  the  comments  the  students  make  in  the 
course  of  their  guided  tours.  The  following  are  a  few  of  the 
comments  recently  overheard  on  a  Colonial  Life  tour  in  the 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology : 

226  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Fourth-grade  boy:  "Suppose  you  couldn't  learn  how  to  do  all 
those  things  that  needed  to  be  done.  What  would  have  happened 
to  you?" 

Third-grade  girl:  "There's  one  reason  I'd  sooner  have  lived  back 
in  those  days  than  now,  and  that's  because  back  in  those  days  you 
could  be  proud  of  what  you  did." 

Fourth-grade  girl :  "When  so  much  is  up  to  you,  I  guess  you  sort 
of  want  to  work  hard  at  it  because  it  makes  you  feel  good  to  do  it 

For  the  past  4  years,  a  learning /service  experience  for  teenager 
volunteers  has  been  provided  through  oese's  summer  "Info"  pro- 
gram. In  June,  July,  and  August  of  1973,  more  than  100  high 
school  students,  selected  and  trained  by  oese,  conducted  visitors 
through  the  Mall  museums. 

Several  new  programs  are  now  in  the  planning  stages.  An 
audiovisual  presentation  orienting  teachers  to  Smithsonian  educa- 
tion service  is  being  considered,  as  are  continuing  teacher  work- 
shops beginning  with  the  1974-1975  school  year.  Through  work- 
shops, publications,  and  related  activities  the  Office  of  Elementary 
and  Secondary  Education  will  continue  to  serve  the  Smithsonian's 
education  offices  and  Washington  area  schools. 

Office  of  Public  Affairs 

In  this  technological  age  Americans  receive  more  and  more  of  their 
information  and  education  from  various  forms  of  the  electronic 
media.  This  fact  alone  poses  new  challenges  to  the  museum 
community  as  well  as  to  a  diverse  academic  institution  such  as  the 
Smithsonian,  which  has  a  charter  to  disseminate,  as  well  as  to 
increase,  knowledge  among  mankind. 

Audio  and  film  recordings  are  the  staples  of  the  electronic 
media,  but  they  require  time,  energy,  imagination,  skill,  and  heavy 
budgetary  commitments  to  produce  in  a  professional  and  meaning- 
ful manner.  Yet,  in  the  years  to  come,  they  will  be  as  significant 
and  lasting,  perhaps,  in  the  Smithsonian's  archives  as  many  editions 
of  the  printed  word. 

Public  Service  I  1T7 

An  upcoming  series  of  major  prime-time  television  specials, 
based  upon  the  activities  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  thrust  a 
significant  new  role  on  the  Office  of  Public  Affairs  in  fiscal  1974. 
The  Office  became  the  coordinator  of  an  allied  effort  of  scientists, 
administrators,  historians,  and  other  Smithsonian  professionals 
and  the  writers,  producers,  and  other  creative  talents  of  the 
David  L.  Wolper  organization.  The  goal  of  this  joint  effort  is  to 
bring  home  the  richness  and  variety  of  the  Institution's  knowledge 
to  millions  of  Americans  who  might  not  otherwise  have  had  an 
opportunity  to  become  aware  of  the  Smithsonian's  interests. 

In  addition  to  preparations  for  this  1974-1975  Smithsonian 
series,  to  be  broadcast  on  the  cbs  television  network  as  a  presenta- 
tion of  the  DuPont  Cavalcade  of  television,  the  growth  of  the 
Smithsonian  during  the  year  placed  other  new  demands  on  the 
Office  of  Public  Affairs  to  provide  a  wide  range  of  public  informa- 
tion activities.  The  Office  was  heavily  involved  in  preparations  for 
the  expanded  Festival  of  American  Folklife  on  the  Mall,  the  new 
product  development  program,  the  planned  opening  of  the  Hirsh- 
horn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  in  the  fall  of  1974,  and  the 
Bicentennial,  as  well  as  in  providing  services  to  the  ongoing 
Smithsonian  programs  of  research,  collections,  and  exhibits. 

A  telecommunications  coordinator  was  selected  from  more  than 
300  applicants  to  oversee  preparations  for  the  Smithsonian's  new 
television  series  and  the  Institution's  other  public  efforts  in  the 
audiovisual  media.  The  telecommunications  staff  of  the  Office  of 
Public  Affairs  cooperated  with  numerous  television,  film,  and  radio 
producers  planning  programs  based  on  Smithsonian  activities,  in 
addition  to  working  with  a  producer  who  expects  to  air  three 
significant  television  specials  on  the  Smithsonian  during  the  1974- 
1975  season.  Several  documentary  films  on  various  aspects  of  the 
Smithsonian  were  also  developed.  "Radio  Smithsonian"  continued 
to  produce  a  weekly  half-hour  radio  program  which  during  the 
past  year  was  carried  by  some  95  radio  stations  Nationwide. 

During  the  past  year  the  News  Bureau  of  the  Office  of  Public 
Affairs  wrote  and  distributed  311  news  releases  and  responded  to 
hundreds  of  requests  from  the  wire  services,  newspapers,  maga- 
zines, and  the  public  for  information  on  Smithsonian  activities.  A 
sampler  of  press  clippings  reflecting  representative  press  interest 

228  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

"Radio  Smithsonian"  with  Radio  Production  Specialist  Paul  Johnson  at  the  controls. 

The  Old  Patent  Office  Building  was  commemorated  as  a  National  Historic  Landmark  in 
a  ceremony  held  April  3,  1974,  in  the  courtyard  of  that  building,  which  houses  the 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  and  the  National  Portrait  Gallery.  Shown  affixing  the 
plaque  are  Harry  Jordan,  Assistant  to  the  Director  of  NCFA;  Mrs.  Richard  Nixon;  and 
Secretary  Ripley.  Others  present  for  the  ceremony  included,  from  left,  Meredith 
Johnson,  Office  of  Public  Affairs;  Mrs.  David  E.  Finley;  Ronald  Walker,  Director  of  the 
National  Park  Service;  David  E.  Finley,  Commissioner  of  NCFA  and  NPG;  Charles 
Blitzer,  Assistant  Secretary  for  History  and  Art;  Joshua  Taylor,  Director  of  NCFA; 
Mrs.  Ripley;  and  Marvin  Sadik,  Director  of  NPG. 

in  the  Smithsonian  was  initiated.  Some  2.5  milUon  building  guides 
and  brochures  were  also  produced  by  the  Office. 

The  Office  continued  to  produce  the  Smithsonian  Torch,  a  news- 
paper for  the  Institution's  employees,  the  widely  circulated  monthly 
Smithsonian  Calendar  of  Events,  and  the  quarterly  Smithsonian  Re- 
search Reports  which  has  been  requested  by  the  scientific  communi- 
ties of  a  number  of  other  nations.  The  publication.  Increase  and 
Diffusion,  was  revised  and  brought  up  to  date. 

Current  information  on  daily  events  and  exhibits  was  provided 
by  the  recorded  telephone  service  Dial-a-Museum.  From  informa- 
tion furnished  by  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory, 
Dial-a-Phenomenon  service  provided  information  enabling  callers 
to  locate  and  observe  artificial  satellites  as  well  as  to  identify 
celestial  bodies. 

The  Special  Events  staff  assisted  in  the  planning,  preparation,  and 
coordination  of  approximately  600  events  during  fiscal  1974, 
including  lectures,  conferences,  symposia,  openings  of  exhibitions, 
press  previews,  concerts,  luncheons,  dinners,  and  receptions. 

The  staff  participated  in  arrangements  for  tours  for  the  new  wife 
of  the  Secretary  of  State;  the  wives  of  visiting  Latin  American 
foreign  ministers;  the  Empress  of  Iran  and  her  three  children;  Prime 
Minister  Tanaka  of  Japan;  and,  during  the  Festival  of  American 
Folklife,  the  Secretary  of  Labor,  President  of  the  afl-cio,  and  the 
mainland  China  mission  to  Washington. 

Other  events  in  which  the  staff  participated  were  Mrs.  Nixon's 
installation  of  the  Department  of  the  Interior's  historic  site  plaque 
at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  National  Portrait  Gallery 
building's  courtyard.  Speaker  Carl  Albert's  presentation  of  a  portrait 
of  himself,  and  Mrs.  Johnson's  presentation  of  a  bust  of  President 

The  Special  Events  staff  was  also  responsible  for  arrangements 
when  a  group  of  Congressional  wives  honored  Mrs.  Gerald  Ford 
in  the  Commons,  with  an  evening  of  entertainment  by  the  British 
Players.  The  Secretaries  of  Commerce  and  Treasury  and  the  Direc- 
tor of  the  Environmental  Protection  Agency  hosted  parties  and 
tours  for  several  Soviet  Union  delegations;  and  the  Secretary  held 
the  biennial  Diplomatic  Dinner  at  the  Renwick  Gallery  for  the  heads 
of  18  foreign  missions  and  a  Fourth  of  July  party  for  other  diplo- 
mats on  the  terrace  of  the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  to 
watch  the  Monument  fireworks. 

Public  Service  I  231 

Office  of  Smithsonian  Symposia  and  Seminars 

Improving  public  understanding  of  the  work  of  academic  special- 
ists continued  to  serve  as  the  goal  of  educational  experiments  of 
the  Office  of  Seminars  in  1974.  Its  privately  supported  programs 
reflect  the  spirit  of  the  classic  series  Smithsonian  Contributions 
to  Knowledge,  initiated  by  Secretary  Joseph  Henry  in  1847. 
("Knowledge  should  not  be  viewed  as  existing  in  isolated  parts 
but  as  a  whole,  each  portion  of  which  throws  light  on  all  the 
other  .  .  .")  Mainly,  the  office  prepares  for  publication  —  and  other- 
wise helps  disseminate,  through  seminars,  symposia,  television,  and 
radio  —  the  fruits  of  scholarly  investigations  and  insights  about 
the  ideas,  customs,  skills,  and  art  of  various  cultures  and  civiliza- 
tions. It  calls  upon  the  Smithsonian's  own  talents  and  combines 
these  with  resources  of  other  museums,  the  government,  corpora- 
tions, foundations,  universities,  research  institutions,  and  profes- 
sional societies. 

The  Cultural  Drama,  for  example,  was  published  in  1974.  An 
illustrated  collection  of  essays  on  modern  identities  and  social  fer- 
ment, the  volume  features  an  introduction  by  Secretary  S.  Dillon 
Ripley  and  a  prologue  calling  for  use  of  the  American  Bicentennial 
observance  to  celebrate  cultural  diversity  and  find  a  new  national 
metaphor  to  replace  "the  melting  pot."  The  Charles  F.  Kettering 
Foundation  and  the  Rockefeller  Brothers  Fund  provided  support 
for  the  1970  symposium  out  of  which  the  book  developed. 

Also  linked  to  the  Bicentennial  are  plans  started  in  1974  for  a 
symposium,  "Kin  and  Communities:  The  Peopling  of  America," 
scheduled  for  May  1976  as  a  scholarly  prelude  to  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  National  Park  Service  Festival  of  American  Folklife. 
The  symposium  is  being  organized  in  liaison  with  other  units  of 
the  Smithsonian  and  in  cooperation  with  the  Department  of  His- 
tory, American  University,  among  other  external  organizations. 
Consultants  include  Dr.  Robert  Coles,  psychiatrist.  Harvard  Uni- 
versity; Eli  Evans,  author  of  The  Provincials;  Dr.  Albert  Gollin, 
Bureau  of  Social  Science  Research,  Inc.;  Dr.  David  Goslin,  sociolo- 
gist. National  Academy  of  Sciences;  Dr.  Margaret  Mead,  American 
Museum  of  Natural  History  ;"and  Allon  Schoener,  author  of  Portal  to 
America:  The  Lower  East  Side,  1870-1925. 

232  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Margaret  Mead,  distinguished  anthropologist  and  curator  emeritus,  American  Museum 
of  Natural  History,  discusses  "New  Initiatives  in  Environmental  Renewal"  at  the 
Smithsonian's  sixth  seminar  in  its  series  on  Voluntarism  and  the  Public  Interest  in 
American  Society  as  John  Milton,  Director,  threshold  International  Center  for  Environ- 
mental Renewal  (left)  and  Lee  Talbot,  Senior  Scientist,  Council  on  Environmental 
Quality,  listen. 

William  H.  Crocker,  Associate  Curator,  Latin  American  Anthropology  (left)  and  Wilton 
S.  Dillon,  Director  of  Seminars  (right)  receive  artifacts  presented  to  the  Smithsonian  by 
the  Choco  Indian  Tribe,  brought  to  the  Institution  by  H.  Morgan  Smith,  Arctic  Desert 
Communications,  Maxwell  Air  Force  Base  (center),  who  coordinates  tribal  participation 
in  Air  Force  survival  training  programs. 

Secretary  Ripley's  suggestion  that  the  Smithsonian  sponsor  a 
Museum  of  the  Family  of  Man  to  complete  a  chain  of  museums 
or  exhibition  centers  on  the  Mall  prompted  a  cooperative  educa- 
tional project  involving  the  Smithsonian  and  the  College  of  Archi- 
tecture, Virginia  Polytechnic  Institute  and  State  University,  Blacks- 
burg,  Virginia.  Seminars  and  interviews  were  organized  for  faculty 
and  students  to  improve  their  knowledge  of  the  workings  of  mu- 
seums as  preparation  for  their  conceptualizing  and  designing  a 
museum  of  mankind  as  a  classroom  exercise.  Students'  reports, 
sketches,  construction  models,  videotapes,  and  other  materials  will 
be  given  to  the  Smithsonian. 

"Voluntarism  and  the  Public  Interest  in  American  Society,"  an 
invitational  seminar  series,  continued  into  1974  with  future  pro- 
grams being  planned  in  cooperation  with  the  National  Commis- 
sion on  Private  Philanthropy  and  Public  Needs  headed  by  John 
Filer,  chairman,  Aetna  Life  and  Casualty  Company.  Sponsored 
jointly  with  the  Office  of  Development,  the  series  spanned  two 
years  of  twelve  programs  involving  foundation  officers,  tax  lawyers, 
government  officials,  scholars,  and  leaders  of  voluntary  associa- 
tions. The  Non-Profit  Report,  Museum  News,  and  Foundation  News 
have  published  reports  of  the  series.  David  L.  Sills,  editor  of  the 
International  Encyclopedia  of  Social  Sciences,  serves  as  editorial 
consultant  in  planning  an  eventual  volume  of  the  papers  and  dis- 
cussions. Speakers  in  1974  included  Margaret  Mead  leading  a 
discussion  on  "New  Initiatives  in  Environmental  Renewal,"  Barry 
Commoner  speaking  on  "The  Scientist's  Responsibility  Toward 
a  Society  in  Crisis,"  and  participants  in  an  all-day  workshop  on 
"What  Can  Be  Done  About  the  African  Drought?" 

"Innovation  in  Technology"  is  the  theme  of  a  two-part  video 
taped  seminar  produced  in  1974  by  the  Office  of  Seminars  in  co- 
operation with  the  National  Academy  of  Engineering  and  the 
Exxon  Corporation.  Intended  to  stimulate  classroom  discussions 
in  schools  of  management  and  engineering,  as  well  as  those  in  the 
humanities,  the  taped  program  included  materials  from  engineers' 
presentations  during  the  Copernicus  symposium  and  subsequent 
commentaries  by  such  interpreters  of  technology  as  Stephen 
Schwartz,  Claire  Nader,  Don  Walsh,  Frank  Piasecki,  Robert 
Multhauf,  and  T.  Dixon  Long. 

234  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

The  office  also  continued  to  work  closely  with  seminar  and 
symposium  planning  of  the  Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center 
for  Scholars,  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  and 
the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum. 

The  celebration  of  the  quincentennial  of  the  birth  of  Nicolaus 
Copernicus  continued  with  the  Office  of  Seminars  assisting  Pro- 
fessor Owen  Gingerich  in  his  editing  of  the  forthcoming  Smith- 
sonian Press  book  The  Nature  of  Scientific  Discovery,  based  on  the 
1973  symposium;  laying  the  groundwork  in  Warsaw  for  an  even- 
tual Polish-language  edition  to  be  published  in  cooperation  with 
the  Polish  Academy  of  Sciences;  cosponsoring  with  the  Smith- 
sonian's Division  of  Performing  Arts  a  presentation  at  the  Institu- 
tion of  Jerzy  Grotowski,  Poland's  avant-garde  actor-director;  and 
distributing  to  science  attaches  in  American  embassies  copies  of 
the  prize-winning  Leonard  Baskin  Copernicus  poster  designed  by 
Stephen  Kraft.  The  London  periodical  Encounter  and  The  Bulletin 
of  Atomic  Scientists  have  published  essays  contributed  to  the 
Gingerich  volume  by  Werner  Heisenberg  and  Gerald  Holton.  The 
Folger  Shakespeare  Library,  in  planning  its  1974  Petrarch  cele- 
bration, drew  upon  the  Smithsonian's  experience  with  Copernicus, 
and  the  office  continued  to  work  closely  with  the  Copernicus  So- 
ciety of  America  in  responding  to  numerous  inquiries  of  scholarly 
and  ethnic  communities  seeking  information  on  Copernicus  and 
Renaissance  culture.  Moreover,  the  office  helped  to  facilitate  new 
showings  of  Jacob  Bronowski's  BBC-Time-Life  documentary  film 
series  The  Ascent  of  Man,  originally  premiered  in  Washington 
during  the  Smithsonian-National  Academy  of  Sciences  observance 
of  Copernicus  Week. 

Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc. 

A  new  year  and  a  new  president  began  concurrently  as  Dr.  Sidney 
Nelson  assumed  the  presidency  of  Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc.,  in 
August  1973. 

By  May  1,  1974,  the  number  of  active  Reading  Is  Fundamental 
(rif)  programs  (162)  and  developing  programs  (68)  totaled  230. 
At  the  same  time  in  1973,  this  total  was  139,  of  which  111  were 
active  programs.  These  programs  are  all  voluntary  regional  efforts 

Public  Service  I  235 

which  call  on  rif  Headquarters  for  program  guidance,  but  depend 
on  their  own  resources  for  staffing  funds.  As  a  result  of  endorse- 
ment by  their  national  organizations,  American  Association  of 
University  Women  (aauw)  chapters  now  sponsor  24  local  pro- 
grams, and  the  Jaycees,  8.  Without  such  a  national  imprimatur,  local 
Junior  Leagues  sponsor  9  rif  programs  —  a  marked  increase  over 
last  year.  Junior  Women's  Clubs  sponsor  11  local  rif  programs. 

During  fiscal  1974,  a  growing  number  of  interracial  and  black 
service  organizations  took  local  rif  programs  as  their  principal 
cause.  These  include  the  Alpha  Kappa  Alpha  Sorority;  Jack  &  Jill, 
Inc.;  Negro  Business  and  Professional  Women;  National  Council  of 
Negro  Women;  links;  the  Urban  League  and  Urban  League  Guilds. 

Endorsement  from  the  Office  of  Education  has  led  to  the  support 
of  50  local  programs  —  25  under  Title  I  and  25  Right-to-Read  pro- 
grams. The  largest  single  program  supported  by  federal  funds 
(Emergency  School  Assistance  Act)  was  the  Brooklyn,  New  York, 
program  involving  50,000  children  in  100  schools  in  kindergarten 
through  the  third  grade.  Over  10,000  requests  for  rif's  services 
were  received  from  throughout  the  United  States  as  a  result  of  an 
article  which  appeared  in  the  February  1974  Reader's  Digest,  en- 
titled "A  Reading  Program  That  Works." 

Major  activities  of  rif's  central  office  involved  the  preparation 
of  a  RIF  handbook  on  starting  and  conducting  a  local  rif  program 
in  the  field,  a  national  workshop  which  brought  together  56  project 
directors  and  staff  from  15  states  to  share  experiences  and  ideas, 
a  broad  gauge  assessment  of  the  number  and  character  of  local  rif 
programs,  public  education  through  a  national  public  service  adver- 
tising campaign,  and  the  publication  and  distribution  of  a  newsletter. 

The  major  source  of  rif's  current  support,  a  three  year  grant  of 
$1,150,000  from  the  Edna  McConnell  Clark  Foundation,  will  termi- 
nate in  1975.  With  this  in  view,  the  Board  of  Directors  under  the 
able  leadership  of  Mrs.  Robert  S.  McNamara,  initiated  a  four-year 
campaign  to  solicit  funds  from  foundations,  corporations,  and 
interested  individuals. 

The  Carnegie  Corporation  of  New  York  agreed  to  fund  a  national 
evaluation  of  the  impact  of  the  Reading  Is  Fundamental  program. 
The  sum  of  $106,655  was  appropriated  to  the  Graduate  School  and 
University  Center  of  the  City  University  of  New  York  for  this 

236  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 




Linda  Johnson  Robb  (left)  and  Julie  Nixon  Eisenhower  examine  some  printed  materials 
shown  them  by  Dr.  Sidney  Nelson,  President  of  Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc. 

Covers  of  three  recent  issues  of  Smithsonian. 

Smithsonian        fl 

A  new  expanded  rif  program  for  the  Capital  was  launched  under 
the  leadership  of  Mrs.  Elliott  L.  Richardson  and  Mrs.  Joseph  J. 
Sisco.  Funds  for  the  program  which  will  serve  30,000  children  dur- 
ing the  next  three  years  have  been  provided  by  the  Morris  and 
Gwendolyn  Cafritz  Foundation,  the  Eugene  and  Agnes  E,  Meyer 
Foundation,  the  National  Home  Library  Foundation,  and  the  Hattie 
M.  Strong  Foundation. 

Smithsonian  Magazine 

It  has  been  the  aim  of  the  magazine,  Smithsonian,  over  the  past 
4  fiscal  years  to  provide  a  publication  —  as  a  benefit  for  National 
and  Resident  members  of  Smithsonian  Associates  —  which  would 
be  attractive  to  readers  with  a  high  educational  level  and  to  adver- 
tisers who  deal  in  quality  products.  Everything  seemed  to  come 
together  in  fiscal  1974. 

When  the  magazine  reached  600,000  net  paid  circulation,  it 
found  itself  in  an  eminent  position  among  the  traditional  "class" 
magazines,  double  the  circulation  of  American  Heritage,  Natural 
History,  Harper's,  and  Atlantic  Monthly,  and  larger  than  Scientific 
American  and  the  New  Yorker. 

During  the  year,  the  magazine  was  recognized  as  an  important 
national  publication  by  two  major  newsweeklies.  Time  and  News- 
week, which  took  note  of  the  magazine's  success  and  heralded  it  for 
its  editorial  excellence.  Most  critics,  in  print  and  by  word  of  mouth, 
praised  the  magazine  for  its  variety,  its  writing,  and  the  beauty  of 
its  illustrations. 

Smithsonian's  circulation  increased  33  percent  and  its  advertising 
revenue  85  percent  in  fiscal  1974  despite  a  softening  of  the  econ- 
omy. The  magazine  has  carried  a  rich  and  varied  selection  of 
advertisements  from  major  companies  in  the  United  States,  as 
well  as  numerous  travel  and  consumer  goods  offerings.  A  random 
sampling  from  one  issue,  for  example,  shows,  among  others,  adver- 
tisements from  Kodak,  General  Electric,  General  Motors,  Bergstrom 
Paper,  Hueblein,  General  Telephone  and  Electronics,  Alcoa,  Na- 
tional Distillers,  Atlantic  Richfield,  Smith-Corona,  Western  Electric, 
Guerlain,  Bethlehem  Steel,  Exxon,  DeBeers,  and  Franklin  Mint. 

Public  Service  I  239 


The  editorial  content  itself  dealt  with  the  subjects  of  previous 
years:  stronger  and  stronger  articles  on  conservation  and  energy; 
treatments  of  museum  spectaculars  around  the  world  in-depth  — 
for  example,  the  tapestry  treasures  at  the  Metropolitan  and  the 
beauty  of  Chinese  art  at  the  Musee  du  Petit  Palais;  stimulating 
articles  on  natural  and  hard  sciences  such  as  the  mystery  of  the 
"black  holes"  in  space,  articles  on  Smithsonian  gems  and  model 
planes,  Japanese  traditions,  and  the  ivory-billed  woodpecker.  .  ,  . 

The  magazine  also  continued  to  give  candid  and  intimate  views 
of  history,  especially  American  history.  The  series  "America  Two 
Hundred  Years  Ago,"  a  month-by-month  narrative  of  the  events 
preceding  the  American  Revolution,  became  a  nationwide  favorite. 

In  Smithsonian  Year  1969  it  was  predicted  that  the  magazine 
would  pay  its  way  in  the  third  year  of  publication.  The  prophecy 
was  correct  —  so  accurate  that  in  1974  the  magazine  will  make  a 
significant  contribution  to  the  general  operating  funds  of  the 
private  sector  of  the  Institution. 

At  any  given  time  it  is,  of  course,  impractical  to  predict  future 
degrees  of  inflation  and  possible  recessions,  which  will  have  to  be 
faced.  Certainly,  production  costs  have  been  going  up.  However, 
one  can  predict  confidently  that,  both  with  regard  to  the  Institution 
and  to  the  areas  in  which  the  Institution  is  interested,  the  editorial 
challenges  will  be  met  and  the  quality  will  continue  to  improve. 
And  it  is  the  policy  of  Smithsonian's  management,  both  editorially 
and  in  the  business  areas,  to  remain  flexible  and  resourceful. 

Smithsonian  Associates 

The  Smithsonian  Associates  experienced  an  extraordinary  growth 
this  year  in  membership  numbers  and  in  program  activities.  Na- 
tional membership  increased  from  450,000  to  600,000.  Resident 
membership  grew  from  15,000  at  the  end  of  fiscal  year  1973  to 
22,000  at  the  end  of  fiscal  year  1974,  representing  44,000  individ- 
uals in  the  Washington  metropolitan  area. 

Heightened  interest  in  Associate  membership  can  be  attributed 
to  a  number  of  factors,  not  the  least  of  which  is  greater  program 
visibility  through  the  Smithsonian   (magazine),  the  monthly  As- 

240  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974^ 

Robert  Tuck  shows  a  young  student  a  live  snake  in  Associates'  amphibian 
and  reptile  course.  Below:  Charles  Handley,  Curator  of  the  Division  of 
Mammals,  leads  a  workshop  for  students  who  learn  how  to  dissect,  stuff,  and 
mount  museum  specimens. 

jHfi'-i.  /. 












Creative  weaving  on  portable  free  looms  constructed  in  class  is  demonstrated  on 
the  lawn  outside  the  Castle  by  Ronald  Goodman.  Below:  An  attentive  Associate  rigs 
a  sailboat  he  constructed  in  a  Young  Associates  model  sailboat  class.  Instructor 
Bertholdt  Schmutzhart  is  at  right. 

sociate  newsletter,  the  Smithsonian  Calendar  of  Events,  and  con- 
tinuous media  coverage. 

The  pubhcation  of  an  all-purpose  brochure  describing  the  Na- 
tional and  the  Resident  Associate  programs  has  proved  to  be  a 
useful  tool  to  clarify  the  opportunities  of  each  type  of  membership. 

Cultural  and  educational  programs  of  the  Resident  program 
include  four  semesters  of  classes  a  year,  family  events,  symposia  on 
provocative  subjects,  films,  lectures,  field  trips,  behind-the-scenes 
tours,  and  activities  for  young  people.  This  year  emphasis  has 
switched  from  a  few  lecture  classes  in  the  arts,  sciences,  and  hu- 
manities, with  a  multitude  of  crafts  classes,  to  a  balanced  class  pro- 
gram of  over  65  classes  per  semester,  with  an  average  of  22  lecture 
classes  for  adults  taught  by  Smithsonian  and  visiting  scholars,  studio 
classes,  and  children's  classes.  Average  enrollment  for  these  classes 
was  2300  per  semester. 

Children's  activities  and  classes  have  expanded  and  participation 
has  been  stressed.  The  scholarship  program  that  enables  inner-city 
children  to  attend  Young  Associate  classes  reached  a  new  high  of 
307  enrollees.  This  project  was  begun  and  funded  by  the  Women's 
Committee  of  the  Associates.  Implementation  of  a  "Family  Events" 
page  in  the  monthly  newsletter  expresses  concern  for  and  interest 
in  family  activities. 

The  number  of  day  tours  and  overnight  tours  quadrupled. 
Special  events  increased  from  45  to  86.  Free  events  rose  from  30  to 
43  with  attendance  of  23,500. 

Cooperation  with  divisions  and  bureaus  within  the  Institution, 
and  other  cultural,  educational,  and  civic  organizations  increased. 
For  the  first  time  the  Resident  Associate  program  conducted  a 
Membership  Workshop,  attended  by  representatives  of  23  museums 
from  all  over  the  country.  Two  programs  received  support  from  the 
National  Endowment  for  the  Arts.  The  scope  of  the  film  series 
and  festivals  increased.  Four  major  film  series  and  two  festivals  of 
prize-winning  noncommercial  films  were  held.  Poetry  readings  by 
distinguished  poets  were  added  to  the  long  Hst  of  program  activities 
and  many  distinguished  guests  from  outside  the  family  of  Smithso- 
nian scholars  and  performers  who  gave  lectures  or  led  discussions. 

The  Resident  program  contributed  over  $27,000  to  the  unre- 
stricted private  funds  of  the  Institution  without  increasing  dues 
or  the  prices  of  events.  Especially  popular  this  year  were  the  Giants 

Public  Service  I  243 

of  Contemporary  Architecture  class  in  which  architects  and  archi- 
tectural historians  discussed  outstanding  masterpieces;  Yehudi 
Menuhin's  lecture  on  "Creativity"  where  Associates  sat  spellbound; 
Judith  Crist's  films  of  the  seventies;  Don  a  Hardhat,  a  tour  of  the 
Washington  Metro  subway  system  now  under  construction;  and 
Shroeder  loves  Beethoven,  a  special  Christmas  party  for  Young 

More  than  750  Associates  participated  in  20  Domestic  and 
Foreign  Study  Tours  to  such  places  as  Georgia  to  study  the  culture 
of  Indian  moundbuilders;  to  Big  Cypress  Swamp  in  the  Florida 
Everglades  to  study  flora  and  fauna;  and  to  Ethiopia  and  Kenya  to 
study  ancient  and  contemporary  cultures.  One  particularly  success- 
ful and  exciting  trip  was  a  cruise  to  the  lagoons  and  coast  of  Baja 
California  in  search  of  whales,  sea  elephants,  and  sea  lions. 

The  Contributing  membership,  for  individuals  who  donate  $50 
or  more  annually,  grew  from  200  to  380  contributors.  Added 
benefits  for  contributing  members  included  a  selection  of  exhibition 
catalogues  and  a  reception  to  meet  Brooke  Hindle,  new  director  of 
the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

At  Christmas,  the  Women's  Committee  of  the  Smithsonian 
Associates  sponsored  their  third  successful  Christmas  Dance.  The 
dance  was  staged  around  the  African  bush  elephant  in  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History.  Proceeds  were  given  to  the  Insect  Zoo, 
an  exhibition  of  live  insects,  which  the  Committee  has  supported 
for  3  years,  and  to  the  scholarship  fund  of  the  Resident  program.  A 
larger  portion  of  this  year's  proceeds  will  establish  an  experimental 
exhibit  for  handicapped  visitors  to  the  National  Museum  of  Natural . 

The  National   Board  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates,   a   group 
composed  of  26  industrial  and  citizen  leaders,  met  in  October  19731 
and  adopted  a  set  of  bylaws.  The  Board  was  largely  responsible  for; 
stimulating    corporate    support    to    the    Institution   in    excess    of: 
$100,000  for  fiscal  year  1974.  I 

One  of  the  greatest  services  to  the  Institution  is  performed  byj 
the  Associates  Reception  Center.   Serving  as   the  central  visitor 
information  office  for  Associates  and  for  the  public,  the  Center  has! 
greatly  strengthened  its  ability  to  respond  to  increasing  demands 
for  informational  assistance.  Over  13,000  pieces  of  mail  requesting 

244  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Kite  Day,  co-sponsored  by  the  Resident  Associate  Program  and  the  National  Park 
Service,  an  annual  happening  on  the  Mall  climaxes  a  three-session  Kite  Carnival 
including  a  lecture  and  workshop.  Paul  E.  Garber  (left).  Historian  Emeritus  of  the 
National  Air  and  Space  Museum,  is  the  originator  and  beloved  major  domo  of  the 
event.  (Photograph  by  Paul  Feinberg) 

Display  featuring  Smithsonian  titles  in  the  window  of  Brentano's 
Fifth  Avenue  store  in  New  York. 

everything  from  general  information  for  visiting  purposes  to 
specific  technical  data  were  answered;  125,000  phone  inquiries 
representing  a  100-percent  increase  in  traffic  over  the  previous 
12-month  period  were  also  channeled  through  the  Center.  Over 
5000  Associate  families  from  across  the  country  registered  in  the 
Center's  guest  book  —  a  figure  which  reflects  only  one-third  of  all 
the  Associates  actually  seeking  the  Center's  assistance. 

Ninety  additional  information  volunteers  were  recruited,  trained, 
and  scheduled  by  the  Center,  enabling  double  coverage  at  several 
information  desks  and  the  assumption  of  the  additional  responsi- 
bility of  maintaining  an  information  desk  at  the  Renwick  Gallery. 
The  significance  of  voluntarism  as  an  important  Smithsonian  re- 
source was  more  widely  recognized  this  year  through  an  Institution- 
wide  survey  conducted  by  the  Center.  The  survey  found  that  1120 
volunteers  contributed  105,000  hours  of  service,  an  equivalent  of  77 
man-years  of  labor  worth  $914,000. 

For  the  National  membership,  a  comprehensive  Guide  to  the 
Nation's  Capital  and  the  Smithsonian  Institution  was  produced  in 
cooperation  with  Smithsonian  and  appeared  in  the  April  issue  as 
the  magazine's  first  supplement. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Press 

I  As  the  official  publications  arm  of  the  Smithsonian,  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  Press  is  responsible  for  the  editing,  design,  pro- 
duction, and  distribution  of  more  than  oae  hundred  scholarly 
monographs,  scientific  reports,  definitive  art  catalogues,  and  infor- 
mational brochures  each  year.  Although,  in  most  cases,  the  Press 
staff  does  not  do  the  actual  writing,  it  does  professionally  assist  its 
authors  in  all  the  necessary  steps  in  editorial  and  design  consulta- 
tion while  the  manuscript  is  in  preparation,  in  review  of  the  final 
draft  (including  all  illustrative  material),  in  substantive  editing, 
copy  preparation  for  the  printer,  design,  layout,  paste-up,  produc- 
tion supervision,  and  in  delivery  of  the  finished  product  to  the 
author  and  to  thousands  of  libraries,  scholars,  and  members  of  an 
interested  audience  here  in  Washington  and  throughout  the  world. 

The  Press  staff  has  taken  satisfaction  from  its  behind-the-scenes 
share  in  the  laudatory  reviews  which  have  appeared  in  respected 

Public  Service  I  2^7 

journals,  together  with  praise  from  the  academic  community,  for 
Smithsonian  pubhcations  issued  during  the  year  —  notable  among 
which  were  Continental  Drift,  by  Ursula  Marvin  of  the  Smithsonian 
Astrophysical  Observatory,  and  The  Papers  of  Joseph  Henry, 
edited  by  Nathan  Reingold. 

There  are  times,  too,  when  honors  redound  more  directly  to  the 
work  of  the  Press  staff.  This  has  been  such  a  year.  At  the  eleventh 
annual  blue  pencil  awards  presentation  of  the  Federal  Editors 
Association  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press  won  6  editorial 
awards  —  more  than  any  agency  or  department  of  the  United 
States  Government.  The  awards  were  presented  to  Louise  Heskett 
for  the  Black  Presence  in  the  Era  of  the  American  Revolution 
1770-1800  by  Sidney  Kaplan  (National  Portrait  Gallery);  Nancy  L. 
Powars  for  Windows  in  the  Sea  by  Marion  Clayton  Link  (Fort 
Pierce  Bureau);  Joan  B.  Horn  for  Report  of  the  Mohawk-Hudson 
Area  Survey  edited  by  Robert  M.  Vogel  (National  Museum  of 
History  and  Technology);  Louise  Heskett  for  Air  Traffic  Control: 
The  Uncrowded  Sky  by  Glen  A.  Gilbert  (National  Air  and  Space 
Museum);  Ernest  E.  Biebighauser  for  Continental  Drift:  The  Evolu- 
tion of  a  Concept  by  Ursula  B.  Marvin  (Smithsonian  Astrophysical 
Observatory);  and  to  John  S.  Lea  for  Form  and  Tire:  Natzler  Ceram- 
ics 1939-1972  by  Otto  Natzler  (National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts- 
Renwick  Gallery). 

Louise  Heskett  was  the  recipient  of  the  first  Editor-of-the-Year 
award  made  by  the  Federal  Editors  Association. 

Careful  editing  must  be  wedded  to  good  design  before  a  manu- 
script can  be  sent  to  the  printer,  and  the  Press'  dedicated  design 
staff  has  also  been  honored  during  the  year.  In  the  1974  annual 
exhibit  of  the  Art  Directors  Club  of  Metropolitan  Washington, 
which  embraces  both  governmental  and  commercial  graphic  design, 
Stephen  J.  Kraft  was  awarded  the  Gold  Medal  for  Steinberg  at  the 
Smithsonian  (National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts),  and  also  received 
Awards  of  Merit  for  President  Monroe's  Message  (National  Portrait 
Gallery)  and  Nicholas  Copernicus  (Office  of  Seminars).  Shaker 
(National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts-Renwick  Gallery),  designed  by 
Crimilda  Pontes,  has  been  chosen  by  the  Association  of  American 
University  Presses  for  excellence  of  design  and  production.  It  will  be 
on  display  at  major  universities  throughout  this  country  and,  under ' 

248  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

the  sponsorship  of  the  United  States  Information  Agency,  in  26 
countries  abroad. 

The  Press'  major  effort  in  fiscal  1974  has  been  in  marketing  and 
distribution,  where  exciting  new  programs  for  reaching  a  much 
broader  audience  for  Smithsonian  pubhcations  —  both  Federal  and 
private  —  have  been  developed.  Cooperating  in  these  efforts  are  the 
American  Library  Association,  Xerox  University  Microfilm,  Micro- 
filming Corporation  of  America,  the  Superintendent  of  Documents, 
and  some  of  the  country's  leading  bookstore  chains. 

During  the  year,  production  costs  of  124  publications  were 
funded  by  Federal  appropriations  in  the  amount  of  $358,000; 
7  trade  publications  were  supported  wholly  by  Smithsonian  private 
funds  in  the  amount  of  $105,700.  The  Press  and  the  Superintendent 
of  Documents  shipped,  on  order  and  subscriptions,  a  total  of 
157,410  publications  and  386  records.  In  addition,  1,506,972  art 
catalogues,  brochures,  leaflets,  and  miscellaneous  items  were 

A  full  list  of  Smithsonian  Institution  Press  publications  for  fiscal 
year  1974  may  be  found  in  Appendix  7. 

Public  Service  I  249 

Secretary  Ripley  and  David  L.  Wolper  sign  contract  for  cooperative  production  of  an 
upcoming  series  of  major  prime-time  television  specials,  based  upon  the  activities  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution. 

Smithsonian  Year  *  1974 


The  smooth  operation  of  a  vast  institution  such  as  the  Smithsonian 
depends  in  large  measure  on  its  administrative  management.  The 
IjSmithsonian  Institution  —  so  viable  in  the  civilizing  process  —  must 
rlhave  a  firm  basic  administrative  structure  that  is  far-seeing  yet  effi- 
cient and  reliable,  if  it  is  to  fulfill  its  well-known  mandate  not  only 
to  disseminate  knowledge  but  to  increase  knowledge.  The  reports 
which  follow  concerning  the  Smithsonian's  Support  Activities, 
Financial  Services,  Office  of  Audits,  and  International  Exchange 
Service  recount  an  impressive  array  of  activities  in  fiscal  year  1974. 

Support  Activities 

To  augment  his  immediate  staff  of  one  Administrative  Officer,  the 
Director  of  Support  Activities  filled  two  other  positions  during  the 
/ear,  a  Special  Assistant  for  programming  and  budgeting  activities, 
and  a  Programs  Manager  for  special  projects  such  as  Smithsonian- 
wide  programs  in  energy  conservation,  environmental  protection, 
and  employee/visitor  parking. 

The  Smithsonian's  justification  in  the  fiscal  year  1975  budget 
request  for  additional  support  resources  was  well  received.  This  im- 
portant recognition  stems  from  the  program  and  priorities  approach 
developed  during  the  conference  at  Belmont  in  February  of  last 
year.  Support  activities  across  the  Institution  are  moving  forward 
in  terms  of  obtaining  more  resources  as  well  as  in  terms  of  rede- 
fining responsibilities  of  bureau  directors  for  various  support  serv- 
ices provided  in  their  respective  buildings.  Though  this  is  encourag- 
ing, it  is  realized  that  the  Institution  still  has  some  distamce  to  go  in 


achieving  its  objective  to  provide  quality  support  for  all  programs. 

Many  plans  for  Bicentennial  requirements  were  completed  during 
the  year,  and  support  was  given  to  some  programs  already  under 
way.  Essential  additional  resources  will  be  sought  in  the  next 
budget  cycle,  the  last  opportunity  to  obtain  adequate  logistical 
support  to  carry  through  the  Bicentennial  programs. 

Brief  summaries  of  the  major  activities  of  the  organizations  in 
the  central  support  group  are  given  below. 


Information  Systems  Division  develops  and  coordinates  the  use  of 
automatic  data  processing  support  throughout  the  Institution. 
Advances  continued  to  be  made  through  computer  utilization  in  the 
areas  of  administration,  management  of  the  national  collections, 
and  scientific  research.  Research  was  conducted  in  optical  character 
recognition  for  entering  data  directly  from  a  printed  page,  terminal 
devices  to  enable  telephone  communication  with  the  computer,  and 
computer  output  to  microfilm  and  microfiche,  as  well  as  plotted 
maps  and  other  graphic  presentations. 

Individual  research  assistance  to  curators  and  scientists  expanded 
and  broadened  in  scope  as  the  Division  made  available  additional 
mathematical  techniques  and  software  packages.  New  develop- 
ments and  refinements  enhanced  support  for  the  management  of 
the  national  collections  in  history,  art,  and  science.  A  recently 
developed,  but  not  yet  completed,  generalized  information  man- 
agement package  called  selgem  has  aroused  much  attention  within 
and  outside  the  Institution  because  of  its  potential  as  a  standard  for 
the  computerized  management  of  collections.  The  Division  pub- 
lishes information  about  the  selgem  system  in  its  technical  bulletin, 
Smithsonian  Institution  Information  Systems  Innovations.  The  "In- 
novations" series  acquaints  the  reader  with  automated  systems  and 
procedures  specifically  designed  to  solve  collection  and  research 
problems  in  museums  and  herbaria. 


The  three  major  responsibilities  of  the  Management  Analysis  Office 
(mao)  are:  providing  management  advisory  and  analysis  services; 
making  comprehensive  reviews  of  proposed  management  issuances 

252  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

and  coordinating  their  publication;  and  administering  a  forms  man- 
agement program. 

In  the  first  three  quarters  of  the  year,  over  75  individual  staff 
analyses  and  studies  were  completed,  the  majority  of  which  cul- 
minated in  management  issuances  covering  new  or  revised  policies 
and  procedures  on  a  variety  of  subjects. 

In  this  same  period,  the  Forms  Management  Section  provided 
service  to  over  84  units  of  the  Smithsonian.  Unavoidable  delays 
occurred  in  the  implementation  of  the  adp  program  developed  to 
support  the  management  and  control  of  Smithsonian  forms.  It  is 
hoped  that  this  program  will  be  in  successful  operation  by  the  third 
quarter  of  the  forthcoming  fiscal  year. 

In  March,  mao  acquired  Videotype  (word  processing)  equipment 
with  which  Smithsonian's  management  issuances  and  other  admin- 
istrative documents  can  be  prepared  more  efficiently  and  faster. 
This  new  technological  development  in  the  field  of  automatic  typ- 
ing can  enhance  not  only  mao's  productivity  but  also  that  of  the 
Institution  as  a  whole. 


Progress  in  the  Smithsonian  Institution's  Equal  Employment  Op- 
portunity Program  continued.  Compliance  with  the  complaints  pro- 
gram was  outstanding  as  complaints  were  processed  without  delay. 
The  precomplaint  counseling  program,  established  in  late  1972, 
functioned  effectively.  Of  the  more  than  150  employees  counseled, 
9  formal  complaints  were  filed  and  8  were  investigated.  Of  these  8, 
2  were  adjusted  satisfactorily.  Only  1  complaint  proceeded  to  a 
hearing.  The  number  of  employees  counseled,  compared  with  those 
who  filed  formal  complaints,  demonstrates  graphically  the  value  of 
the  complaints  system. 

A  Sixteen-Point  Program  Coordinator  was  appointed  and  trained, 
and  Upward  Mobility  Programs  were  implemented  in  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History  and  the  Office  of  Plant  Services. 

The  first  member  of  a  minority  in  a  supergrade  was  appointed 
Assistant  Secretary  for  Public  Service  and  member  of  the  Secre- 
tary's Executive  Committee. 

The  Office  of  Personnel  Administration's  training  course,  "The 
Supervisor's  Role  in  eeo,"  established  last  year,  continued.  Over 

Administrative  Management  I  253 

105  on-board  and  new  supervisors  have  received  this  training,  and 
others  will  be  scheduled  to  attend  the  monthly  sessions.  Eventually 
all  Smithsonian  supervisors  will  take  this  course. 

The  Women's  Program  evolved  successfully.  Bylaws  were  ap 
proved  for  the  Women's  Council;  Council  membership  increased: 
from  9  to  15;  and  Smithsonian's  Women's  Week,  held  for  the  first 
time  in  October  1973,  will  be  an  annual  event. 


The  1973  Priorities  Conference  at  Belmont  set  forth  the  "need  fori 
support  activities  to  be  organized  and  motivated  to  provide  the  bestt 
delivery  of  services  to  the  program  units  and  their  managers."  Ini 
addition,  the  conference  discussions  focused  on  the  "creation  off 
better  Institutional  and  bureau  administrative  awareness  to  accom- 
modate anticipated  future  growth  as  a  requirement."  Thus,  based 
upon  the  theme  of  the  conference  and  succeeding  executive  deter-- 
minations,  the  Office  of  Facilities  Planning  and  Engineering  Services 
(oFPEs)  was  estabUshed  on  October  26,  1973. 

OFPES  serves  the  Smithsonian  by  providing  professional  advice 
and  counsel  to  the  Secretary,  Executive  Committee,  and  Bureau 
Directors  on  matters  pertaining  to  new  construction  and  develop-, 
ment  of  the  physical  plant.  Operational  services  furnished  by  ofpes 
include:  (1)  facilities  planning  and  architectural  review,  (2)  engineer- 
ing and  design  development,  and  (3)  construction  contract  manage- 
ment and  cost  evaluation.  Projects  planned,  developed,  and  man- 
aged by  OFPES  are  accomplished  primarily  through  the  contract  and 
procurement  cycle,  requiring  extensive  technical  analysis  and  prepa- 
ration of  detailed  plans,  drawings,  and  specifications  to  attain  maxi- 
mum dollar  return.  During  the  year,  ofpes  processed,  reviewed, 
managed,  or  provided  assistance  for  new  construction  projects  for 
the  Institution  totaling  $65  million.  In  addition,  projects  of  an  alter- 
ation, improvement,  or  restoration-renovation  nature  in  the  scope 
of  ofpes'  activities  during  fiscal  year  1974  entailed  the  expenditure 
of  $5.5  million. 

The  more  significant  new  construction  projects  in  progress  or 
completed  during  the  year  were:  the  National  Air  and  Space  Mu- 
seum,  scheduled   for   completion   in  fiscal   1976;   the   Hirshhorn 

254  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


'Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  due  to  be  completed  early  in  fiscal 
year  1975;  storage  and  program  facilities  at  the  Silver  Hill  com- 
plex; decking  ranges  in  the  Arts  and  Industries  building  to  provide 
additional  square  footage;  and  the  Exhibit  Design  and  Prodliction 
Laboratory  at  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum.  Major  altera- 
tion, improvement,  or  restoration-renovation  projects  either  initi- 
ated or  completed  during  the  year  were:  Arts  and  Industries  build- 
ing restoration  and  central  air  conditioning;  Center  for  the  Study  of 
Man  administrative  area;  renovation  of  the  third  floor  and  the 
Seventh  Street  corridor  and  air  conditioning  for  the  Fine  Arts  and 
Portrait  Galleries;  escalators  for  the  Natural  History  building;  and 
numerous  other  projects  involving  various  galleries,  exhibit  areas, 
and  special-purpose  spaces  for  all  major  museums,  ofpes  also  proc- 
essed approximately  75   construction-oriented  projects,   with   the 
load  projected  to  increase  significantly  during  the  coming  years.  In 
•  addition  to  specific  projects  completed  during  the  year,  ofpes  con- 
■  tributed  to  the  long-range  project-development  program,  particu- 
:  larly  in  the  development  and  design  areas,  including  the  Museum 
Support  Facility,  Nation  of  Nations  exhibit.  Bicentennial  planning, 
:  South  Yard  development,  and  the  Jefferson  Island  bulkhead  project. 


Among  the  services  provided  by  the  Office  of  Personnel  Adminis- 
tration are  manpower  analysis,  recruitment  and  placement,  com- 
pensation programs,  training  and  career  development,  employee 
relations,  labor-management  relations,  and  special  responsibilities 
in  assuring  equal  opportunity.  In  addition,  the  Office  bears  respon- 
sibility for  the  implementation  of  new  laws  or  policy,  such  as  the 
Fair  Labor  Standards  Act,  Public  Law  93-259. 

Each  of  the  major  program  areas  experienced  an  increase  in  activ- 
ity deriving  from  the  general  growth  of  the  Institution.  Active 
recruitment  for  new  positions  took  place;  a  new,  more  formal, 
position-classification  program  was  begun;  position-management 
studies  in  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  were  under- 
taken; and  a  number  of  employee  problems  were  resolved.  Upward 
mobility  assistance  to  employees  was  provided  in  several  of  the 
museums  through  plans  developed  in  conjunction  with  line  man- 
agers.  These  plans   were   devised   to   maximize  individual   skills 

Administrative  Management  I  255 

through  training,  job  design,  and  other  techniques,  with  particular 
emphasis  on  releasing  employees  from  dead  end  or  otherwise 
unsatisfying  jobs.  | 

Other  positive  approaches  were  taken  to  serve  both  managers 
and  employees,  notably  those  efforts  extended  by  the  task  force  to 
implement  the  reorganization  of  the  former  Buildings  Management 
Department.  Here,  techniques  were  used  which  attempted  to  bring 
together  to  the  greatest  extent  possible  the  needs  of  the  Institution 
with  the  interests  of  individual  employees. 

Labor-management  relations  continued  to  function  in  a  healthy 
way.  Negotiations  to  modify  an  existing  agreement  were  begun  in 
one  bargaining  unit,  and  consultations  and  meetings  were  carried 
out  in  all  units  according  to  public  policy  and  specific  contracts.  The 
grievance  procedure  negotiated  in  the  union  contracts  was  utilized 
in  several  instances,  as  both  labor  and  management  became  ac- 
customed to  joint  problem  solving. 

Twelve  top  managers  received  extended,  in-depth,  executive- 
development  training.  Approximately  300  supervisors  received  in- 
house  training  in  two  courses,  the  first  dealing  with  the  dynamics 
of  interpersonal  relationships  and  the  second  with  the  role  of  the 
supervisor  in  equal  employment  opportunity.  In  addition,  a  survey 
of  supervisory  skills  was  undertaken  in  order  to  plan  for  future 
training  needs. 


The  Office  of  Plant  Services  was  established  in  November  1973, 
following  the  restructuring  of  the  former  Buildings  Management 
Department.  The  new  office  is  responsible  for  maintenance  and 
repair  of  the  Smithsonian  physical  plant;  operation  of  utilities  sys- 
tems; maintenance  of  communication,  transportation,  mail  and 
messenger,  and  horticultural  programs;  grounds  maintenance;  and 
storage  of  the  Smithsonian  collections.  It  also  is  establishing  and 
implementing  standards  of  maintenance  for  the  entire  Institution. 
The  Crafts  Services  Division  of  the  new  office  completed  the 
following  major  projects  during  the  year:  restoring  the  fire-dam- 
aged Belmont  Conference  Center;  constructing  a  new  staff  and 
public  restaurant  facility  in 'the  Fine  Arts  and  Portrait  Galleries; 
providing  support  to  the  Festival  of  American  Folklife;  completing 
modernization  of  the  photographic  laboratory.  Arts  and  Industries 

256  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

'building;  remodeling  the  Conservation  Analytical  Laboratory,  His- 
tory and  Technology  building;  and  installing  a  complete  new  light- 
ing system  in  Building  10,  Silver  Hill  Facility. 

In  late  March,  the  Communications  and  Transportation  Services 
Division  was  delegated  the  responsibility  for  the  Smithsonian  Mail 
and  Messenger  Service.  Planning  for  the  future  of  this  major  serv- 
ice was  begun  in  April  and  is  expected  to  result  in  better  utilization 
of  resources,  more  efficient  use  of  monies,  and  higher  level  service 
to  the  user. 

Plans  to  relocate  the  Automotive  Equipment  Repair  Shop  from 
Building  1  to  Building  7  at  Silver  Hill  were  completed  during  the 
year.  When  the  relocation  is  accomplished  in  late  1974,  a  higher 
level  of  productivity  is  anticipated  through  the  use  of  a  more  suit- 
able work  area. 

The  Horticultural  Services  Division  undertook  a  number  of  Bi- 
centennial projects  during  1974,  including  design  of  a  Victorian 
Garden  for  the  South  Yard,  design  for  plantings  in  the  Arts  and 
Industries  Conservatory,  a  State  flower  and  State  tree  project,  and 
a  nursery-greenhouse  operation.  A  National  Horticultural  Advisory 
Committee  of  prominent  horticulturists  and  botanical  garden  and 
arboretum  directors  was  established  to  assist  in  long-range  pro- 

I  gramming,  planning,  and  evaluation  of  future  horticultural  opera- 

,  tions  of  the  Smithsonian. 

For  the  Warehousing  Services  Division,  the  first  priority  in  1974 
was  the  cleanup  of  existing  warehousing  problems  in  Building  3, 

'  Alexandria,  Virginia,  and  at  the  Silver  Hill  Facility  in  Maryland.  In 
addition  to  assisting  in  office  moves,  the  Division  has  been  identi- 
fying storage  and  service  problems,  and  training  personnel  in 
proper  management  of  storage  facilities. 


The  Office  of  Printing  and  Photographic  Services  was  established 
July  1, 1973,  by  combining  the  Photographic  Services  Division  with 
the  activities  and  personnel  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Print 
Shop  (Museum  Branch,  GPO)  and  the  Duplicating  Section.  A 
color-processing  facility  was  installed  and,  by  September,  is  ex- 
pected to  be  in  full  operation.  The  adp  production  reporting  system 
was  activated  and,  as  in  1973,  the  production  of  photographic 
materials  increased  greatly. 

Administrative  Management  I  257 

Again  this  year,  the  volume  of  photographic  assignments  in- 
creased. Approximately  4000  feet  of  movie  film  were  taken  of 
various  Smithsonian  special  events  and  construction  sites.  In  addi- 
tion, millions  of  pieces  of  documentary  materials  remain  to  be 
microfilmed.  Modern  lighting  equipment  was  installed  in  the  History 
and  Technology  building  studio.  This  improvement  enhanced  the 
Branch's  capability  to  use  special  lighting  techniques  and  effects  for 
photographing  accurately  and  artistically  objects  in  the  national 

A  large  project  of  11,176  black-and-white  prints  was  completed 
for  the  Bureau  of  Indian  Affairs,  Department  of  the  Interior,  and 
5588  new  film  negatives  were  made.  New  equipment  was  obtained 
for  the  copy  and  printing  sections.  A  new  color  section  was  estab- 
lished with  the  purchase  and  installation  of  color  equipment  in  the 
Arts  and  Industries  building  laboratory  which  was  renovated  for 
this  purpose. 

To  support  the  adp  program,  new  forms  were  developed  for  ob- 
taining caption  data  from  the  scientists  and  curators.  Now  9485 
index  cards  are  available  for  retrieving  information,  and  the  most 
popular  subjects  are  filed  and  indexed  by  organization  unit,  subject 
matter,  and  key  words.  The  Library  Branch  worked  on  6900  re- 
quests, including  retrievals,  inquiries,  captions,  and  negative  num- 
bers; 3900  feet  of  movie  film  were  filed;  and  980  negatives  (4''  x  5'') 
of  portraits  and  passports  of  Smithsonian  officials  are  filed  for  ready 

More  than  10,000  requests  received  from  students,  educators, 
scientists,  and  the  general  public  were  handled  this  year.  In  maxi- 
mizing "the  diffusion  of  knowledge"  through  the  visual  media,  an 
all-out  effort  was  initiated  to  produce  "SI  Aids  for  Educational  and 
Cultural  Enrichment."  Initially,  these  will  be  in  the  form  of  slide/ 
lectures  for  use  in  primary  and  secondary  education.  Staff  members 
throughout  the  Institution  and  the  Volunteer  Ladies  Committee  of 
the  Smithsonian  Associates  are  participating  actively  in  this  pro- 
gram. In  conjunction  with  the  Smithsonian  Museum  Shops,  slides 
in  sleeves  illustrating  aircraft  in  the  National  Air  and  Space  Mu- 
seum and  animals  at  the  National  Zoo  were  produced  for  sale.  As 
the  slide  program  expands  in  the  future,  objects  from  other  Smith- 
sonian museums  will  be  incloded. 

258  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 



Examining  Indian  photographs  from  the  National  Anthropological  Archives  are  Augus- 
tine Smith  (left),  a  Laguna,  and  Lorraine  Bigman,  a  Navajo,  participants  in  a  three- 
nionth  program,  exposing  them  to  Smithsonian  historical  material  relating  to  American 
Indians,  as  well  as  introducing  them  to  library  and  archival  training.  This  pilot  program 
is  jointly  sponsored  by  the  Cultural  Studies  Section  of  the  Bureau  of  Indian  Affairs  and 
the  Smithsonian's  National  Anthropological  Archives  and  the  Office  of  Academic 
Studies.  (Photograph  by  Vincent  P.  Connolly) 


The  Office  of  Protection  Services  instituted  daily  safety  and  fire 
inspection  tours  and  monthly  fire  equipment  inspections.  Prior  to 
letting  of  contracts,  the  Health  and  Safety  Division  is  reviewing 
all  contemplated  construction  changes  to  consider  safety  and  fire 
provisions  for  exits,  lighting,  floor  surfaces,  stairs,  and  ramps,  and 
for  fire  detection/suppression  needs. 

The  Smithsonian  Institution  was  nominated  for  the  President's 
Safety  Award  for  1973.  The  Smithsonian  has  been  nominated  7 
times  for  this  coveted  honor  and  has  won  it  twice.  The  Award  for 
1972  was  presented  this  year  by  Secretary  of  Labor  Brennan  on 
the  President's  behalf  to  Paul  N.  Perrot,  Assistant  Secretary  for 
Museum  Programs,  who  accepted  for  Secretary  Ripley  and  the 
Smithsonian.  This  was  in  recognition  of  the  reduction  of  Smith- 
sonian's accident  rate  over  a  3-year  period  and  notably  by  12  per- 
cent in  1971-1972.  On  March  5,  1974,  Under  Secretary  Robert  A. 
Brooks,  in  turn,  presented  the  award  to  Richard  L,  Ault,  Director 
of  Support  Activities. 

During  the  year,  8  new  exhibit  halls  requiring  guard  service  were 
opened  to  the  public.  Guards  were  furnished  for  186  special  events 
held  in  various  Smithsonian  buildings.  Among  the  prominent  activ- 
ities in  which  the  guards  participated  were  the  visits  of  the  President 
of  Pakistan  and  the  Empress  of  Iran.  These  participations  included 
the  security  and  escort  of  distinguished  guests  and  the  security 
activities  of  personnel  present  on  the  occasions. 

During  the  year,  56  guard  force  personnel  completed  the  basic 
security  course  including  First  Aid  and  Weapons  Qualification  and 
were  commissioned  as  Special  Policemen. 

In  October  1973,  a  special  operational  element  designated  as  the 
Outpost  Detachment  was  activated  and  given  the  protection  respon- 
sibility for  the  Renwick  Gallery,  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum, 
and  the  facilities  at  Silver  Hill,  24th  Street,  and  Lamont  Street.  The 
desired  objective  of  improving  security  at  these  outlying  establish- 
ments is  realized  by  the  permanent  assignment  of  personnel  who 
make  daily  supervisory  inspections  of  every  location  on  each  relief. 
The  supervisors  also  are  responsible  for  inspecting  the  quality  of 
security  at  separate  locations  where  protection  is  carried  out  pri- 
vately by  the  occupants  or  by  contract  security  agencies.  As  addi- 

260  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

tional  facilities  are  established  that  are  not  large  enough  to  warrant 

activation  of  a  new  guard  company,  they  too  will  be  added  to  the 

Outpost  Detachment's  area  of  responsibility. 

All  first-  and  second-line  supervisors  have  completed  the  equal 

employment  opportunity  supervisory  training  course.  During  the 

year,  through  reassignment  and/or  employment,  26  women  were 

accepted  for  employment  as  security  guards. 



The  Supply  Division  continued  to  experience  increased  procure- 
ment and  contracting  work  loads  primarily  due  to  the  general  ex- 
pansion of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  its  many  related  activi- 
ties, and  all  indications  point  to  future  accelerated  growth  in  both 
of  these  responsibilities. 

The  major  procurements  for  the  new  Hirshhorn  Museum  and 
Sculpture  Garden  were  accomplished  during  the  year.  Contracting 
is  well  under  way  for  the  special  requirements  and  exhibits  planned 
for  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  which  will  open  in  1976. 

The  Division  also  assumed  responsibility  for  all  construction 
contracted  during  the  year,  and  its  most  significant  accomplishment 
was  the  contract  for  major  renovation  of  the  Arts  and  Industries 
building  which  was  in  progress  at  year's  end. 

The  Division  continued  to  be  an  active  participant  in  the  acquisi- 
tion of  useful  excess  Government  property  to  satisfy  the  needs  of 
the  Institution's  many  organization  units.  Excess  property  acquired 
this  year  was  more  than  $500,000. 


Again  this  year,  the  Travel  Services  Office  (tso)  experienced 
growth  in  all  its  major  activities;  i.e.,  air  and  rail  reservations 
booked  were  up  40  percent;  travel  itineraries  issued  up  30  percent; 
transportation  requests  prepared  up  25  percent;  and  the  cost  of 
transportation  purchased  from  appropriated  and  nonappropriated 
funds  was  some  40  percent  higher  than  last  year. 

In  addition  to  furnishing  travel  services,  advisory  services  and 
detailed  planning  data  were  provided  for  the  annual  Festival  of 
American  Folklife,  for  national  and  international  conferences,  and 
for  meetings  and  archeological  expeditions  in  Yugoslavia,  Israel, 
Egypt,  and  Greece. 

Administrative  Management  I  261 

Of  particular  interest  this  year  was  a  Travel  Seminar  sponsored!! 
by  the  Accounting  Division  for  administrative  staff  of  the  Smith 
sonian.  At  the  request  of  the  Chief  Accountant,  the  Chief  of  Tsol 
participated  in  the  training  sessions  and  explained  the  role  of  her! 
office  in  providing  travel  services  for  official  Smithsonian  travelers.  1 

During  the  year,  a  closer  liaison  had  to  be  maintained  with  the 
airlines  to  accomplish  increasingly  complex  travel  performed  for 
the  Foreign  Currency  Program  of  the  Office  of  International  and 
Environmental  Programs. 

Financial  Services 


The  Treasurer  has  overall  responsibility  for  the  financial  assets  of  I 
the  Smithsonian  Institution.  This  includes  the  budgeting  and  ac- 
counting of   federal   appropriations,   the   fiscal   administration   of 
grants  and  contracts,  and  the  monitoring  of  revenue-producing ; 
activities;  further  detail  on  these  activities  is  given  in  the  reports- 
which  follow  on  the  Office  of  Programming  and  Budget,  the  Ac- 
counting Division,  the  Grants  and  Insurance  Administration  Divi- 
sion, and  the  Business  Management  Office. 

Working  closely  with  the  Investment  Policy  Committee  of  the 
Board  of  Regents,  the  Treasurer  oversees  the  management  of  the' 
endowment  funds  of  the  Institution  by  three  professional  advisory 
firms,  and  is  also  responsible  for  the  short-term  investment  of  cur- 
rent funds  excess  to  immediate  operating  needs.  Details  on  these 
funds  and  the  other  financial  resources  of  the  Institution  can  be 
found  in  the  Financial  Report  at  the  front  of  this  volume. 


The  Office  of  Programming  and  Budget  participates  in  program  plan-  , 
ning  for  the  Institution  and,  to  carry  out  these  plans,  is  responsible  | 
for  the  formulation,  presentation,  implementation,  and  review  of 
operating  and  construction  budgets  of  appropriated  and  nonappro- 
priated funds.  About  $100  million  from  many  different  sources  were 
involved  this  year.  Details  on  these  sources  and  their  use  may  be 
found  in  the  Financial  Report.  The  Office  works  in  close  associa- 
tion with  all  operating  and  managerial  levels  of  the  Institution. 

262  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

During  the  year,  the  staff  of  seven  persons  engaged  in  the  follow- 
ing activities.  Detailed  fiscal  1974  operating  budgets  and  associated 
staffing  plans  for  both  federal  and  nonfederal  funds  were  developed 
with  some  75  individual  organization  units  and  programs.  These 
ranged  from  the  major  museums  and  research  laboratories  to  small 
service  and  staff  offices.  Subsequently,  throughout  the  year,  these 
budgets  and  plans  were  monitored  and  reviewed  with  the  perform- 
ing units  to  assure  that  program  plans  were  accomplished  within 
approved  amounts.  The  uncertainty  at  the  beginning  of  the  year  as 
to  whether  several  legislated  pay  raises  would  be  financed  with  sup- 
plemental appropriations  required  special  efforts  to  assure  the  wisest 
application  of  financial  resources. 

Based  on  the  decision  reached  at  the  February  1973  Belmont  Con- 
I  ference  on  Goals  and  Priorities  (in  which  the  Office  was  heavily 
involved)  that  emphasis  must  be  given  to  strengthening  the  support 
1  functions  of  the  Institution,  such  as  collections  conservation  and 
,  protection  of  buildings,  the  Office  developed  and  presented  to  the 
President's  Office  of  Management  and  Budget  a  completely  revised 
format  for  the  fiscal  year  1975  budget.  As  compared  with  the  tradi- 
tional organizational  unit  presentation,  the  new  format  was  pro- 
grammatic in  nature  designed  to  show  clearly  the  base  capability 
and  resource  requirements  of  the  support  functions  as  well  as  the 
equally  high  priority  of  our  Bicentennial  Program  commitments. 
This  budget  presentation  was  received  very  favorably  by  the  Office 
of  Management  and  Budget  and  resulted  in  the  Smithsonian  being 
allowed  to  seek  substantial  additional  appropriations  for  these  needs 
from  the  Congress.  The  Office  of  Programming  and  Budget  prepared 
and  submitted  to  the  Congress  budget  justifications  and  supporting 
documentation  and  prepared  for  and  participated  in  the  budget 
hearings  before  the  House  and  Senate  Appropriation  Committees. 
Similar  work  was  carried  out  on  the  fiscal  year  1974  pay  supple- 
mental appropriation. 

At  the  same  time,  the  Office  of  Programming  and  Budget  devel- 
oped a  more  formal  system  for  planning  and  goal-setting  by  each 
Smithsonian  organization  unit  —  now  required  by  the  expansion  of 
the  Institution,  by  the  increasingly  decentralized  nature  of  much  of 
its  activity,  and  by  the  growing  complexity  of  administering  its 
diversified  organizations. 

Administrative  Management  I  263 

In  addition  to  the  above  Institution-wide  responsibilities,  the 
Office  of  Programming  and  Budget  also  engaged  in  a  number  of 
special  projects.  It  was  involved  intensively  in  the  formulation  and 
management  review  of  fiscal  years  1974  and  1975  budgets  for  the 
proposed  Millwood  Museum.  It  developed  a  comprehensive  Institu- 
tion-wide exhibition  plan,  schedule,  and  budget.  An  inventory  of 
Smithsonian  buildings  and  facilities  was  prepared  for  the  Board  of 
Regents.  Finally,  the  Office  played  major  roles  in  the  reorganizations 
of  the  Office  of  Exhibits  and  the  Buildings  Management  Department. 


The  Accounting  Division  regularly  handles  and  accounts  for  all 
funds  of  the  Institution,  both  federal  and  nonfederal,  including  pay- 
rolls, payments  for  materials  and  services,  and  receipts  from  a  great 
variety  of  sources,  and  in  addition  provides  over  600  financial  reports 
monthly  to  Institutional  managers  at  unit  and  headquarters  levels. 

Continuing  the  accounting  services  improvement  program  during 
fiscal  1974,  the  Accounting  Division  staff  initiated  and,  with  the 
assistance  of  other  offices,  conducted  seminars  on  time-keeping  and 
payroll,  procurement  and  payment  procedures,  travel  and  voucher- 
ing  procedures,  and  financial  reporting.  These  seminars  were  at- 
tended by  200  Smithsonian  administrative  personnel  including 
officers,  assistants,  clerks,  and  secretaries.  With  the  assistance  of 
our  computer  specialists,  the  Accounting  staff  installed  a  key-to- 
disc  data  entry  system  to  replace  an  inefficient  card  and  paper  tape 
system  eliminating  repetitious  data  processing  and  adding  beneficial 
controls.  The  new  system  became  operational  May  1, 1974,  with  full 
implementation  projected  January  1, 1975.  Additionally,  installation 
in  fiscal  year  1974  of  a  new  personnel  time  reporting  procedure  is 
also  serving  to  speed  and  improve  accuracy  of  payroll  preparation. 


The  Grants  and  Insurance  Administration  Division  is  responsible 
for  administration  of  gifts,  grants,  and  contracts  received  by  the 
Institution.  In  addition,  this  Division  administers  the  Institution's 
risk  management  and  insurance  program.  The  Division  provides 
administrative,  management,  and  fiscal  services  to  Smithsonian  re- 
searchers and  the  business  representatives  of  granting  agencies,  as 

264  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

well  as  the  controls  necessary  to  assure  that  funds  are  expended  in 
accordance  with  appropriate  regulations  and  contract  terms. 

During  the  past  year  the  Division  has  continued  its  excellent  ad- 
ministration in  the  gift,  grant,  and  contract  area  and  at  the  same 
time  has  expanded  its  operations  in  the  risk  management  and  insur- 
ance area.  This  expansion  has  entailed  the  initiation  of  risk  manage- 
ment surveys  of  various  organizations  and  bureaus  of  the  Smith- 
sonian to  identify  risk  and  recommend  ways  of  alleviating  and 
protecting  against  such  risks.  In  addition,  collections  insurance  cov- 
erages throughout  the  Institution  have  been  consolidated,  resulting 
in  reduced  work  loads  and  the  saving  of  considerable  funds  through 
premium  reductions. 


In  addition  to  having  overall  responsibility  for  the  Museum  Shops, 
the  Product  Development  Program  and  the  Belmont  Conference 
Center,  which  are  described  below,  the  Business  Management  Office 
also  advises  other  Smithsonian  bureaus  on  the  negotiation  and 
monitoring  of  revenue-producing  concessions  and  contracts.  During 
the  past  year,  for  example.  Business  Management  assisted  on  such 
diverse  projects  as  the  contracts  for  educational  sound  systems  in 
the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  and  the  Hirshhorn  Mu- 
seum, the  competitive  solicitation  of  food  service  and  parking  con- 
cessionaires for  the  new  National  Air  and  Space  Museum,  and  the 
construction  of  a  new  restaurant  in  the  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts  and  National  Portrait  Gallery  building.  The  efforts  of  this  office 
are  an  important  element  in  the  improvement  of  the  Institution's 
nonfederal  resources. 

Museum  Shops 

The  past  year  was  one  of  growth  and  change  for  the  Museum  Shops. 
For  the  first  time  sales  climbed  above  $2  million,  and  net  income 
reached  the  quarter-million  mark.  More  importantly,  1974  saw  the 
laying  of  groundwork  which  will  produce  far  greater  benefits  to  our 
Museums  and  visitors  in  the  future. 

Recognizing  that  the  Shops  should  provide  a  means  for  a  visitor 
to  extend  his  museum  experience,  selection  and  display  of  merchan- 
dise has  been  drastically  changed  to  provide  increased  educational 
values  and  a  greater  reflection  of  the  museum  in  which  a  shop  is 

Administrative  Management  I  265 

located.  A  leading  architectural  firm  with  extensive  museum  experi- 
ence was  retained  to  redesign  completely  the  main  shop  in  the 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  —  a  project  scheduled 
for  completion  by  December  1974. 

A  number  of  important  organizational  changes  were  also  made, 
with  each  shop  manager  being  delegated  responsibility  for  a  specific 
area.  A  new  position  of  Controller  was  created  to  provide  greater 
inventory  control  and  reports  for  management  guidance.  The  Dis- 
play Department  was  reorganized,  and  a  new  position  was  created 
in  the  Buying  Department. 

Product  Development  Program 

The  Product  Development  Program  originated  from  efforts  to  im- 
prove the  quality  and  relevance  of  items  handled  in  the  Museum 
Shops  and  as  a  means  to  bring  to  audiences  other  than  the 
Smithsonian's  Washington  visitors  the  educational  values  of  the 

As  a  part  of  this  program.  Tonka  Corporation  —  a  leading  U.S. 
toy  manufacturer  with  whom  an  agreement  has  been  in  effect  since 
1972,  and  under  which  it  will  manufacture  and  sell,  in  close  coordi- 
nation with  Smithsonian,  a  line  of  museum-related  products  —  in- 
troduced in  fiscal  year  1974  a  series  of  diorama  kits  with  a  Smithso- 
nian theme.  These  hobby/craft  products  effectively  enable  the 
builder  to  recapture  a  moment  in  history  by  creating  an  entire  scene. 
Each  kit  is  accompanied  by  a  24-page  booklet  containing  detailed 
information  on  the  historical  period. 

Similar  agreements  were  reached  during  fiscal  1974  with  three 
additional  corporations.  The  first  of  these  was  with  the  Fieldcrest 
Company,  which  is  developing  bedspreads,  quilts,  comforters,  blan- 
kets, sheets,  and  towels  based  on  designs  found  in  the  Smithsonian 
collection  items.  Its  trade  introduction  in  May  was  well  received, 
and  products  will  reach  the  market  in  the  fall  of  1974.  Another  agree- 
ment was  with  the  Stieff  Company  for  a  line  of  silver  and  pewter 
reproductions.  The  third  was  with  the  F.  Schumacher  Company,  a 
producer  of  decorative  fabrics  and  wall  coverings. 

Fiscal  year  1974  also  saw  the  introduction  of  Seeing  the  Smith- 
sonian, the  official  guidebook  to  the  Institution,  in  four  foreign 
languages  —  French,  German,  Japanese,  and  Spanish.  Mr.  Kenneth 
Rush,  then  Deputy  Secretary  of  State,  spoke  at  the  introductory 

266  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

ceremony.  Due  to  the  generosity  of  CBS/Publishing  Group,  the 
publisher  of  the  guidebook.  Seeing  the  Smithsonian  is  now  available 
in  braille  at  designated  locations. 

Belmont  Conference  Center 

The  Belmont  Conference  Center,  located  between  the  District  of 
Columbia  and  Baltimore  near  Interstate  95,  provides  an  attractive, 
secluded,  gracious,  and  exclusive  retreat  unusual  in  the  Eastern  Cor- 
ridor. Its  easy  access  to  the  Baltimore-Washington  airports,  as  well 
as  to  automotive  arteries,  impresses  upon  its  guests  the  enjoyable 
paradox  of  a  rural  setting  with  the  conveniences  of  urban  proximity 
but  without  its  complexities.  One  of  the  major  advantages  of  Bel- 
mont is  its  use  by  only  one  group  at  any  one  time;  schedules  are  so 
arranged  as  to  avoid  the  overlap  and  attendant  discomforts  often 
encountered  in  other  conference  centers  and  hotels.  Since  its  open- 
ing in  1967,  conference  operations  have  been  directed  toward  the 
needs  of  small  groups  which  require  a  location  unencumbered  by  the 
normal  intrusions  associated  with  offices.  The  240-year-old  manor 
house,  with  365  surrounding  acres  of  lawns,  forests,  and  fields, 
provides  a  working  retreat  for  the  productive  groups  which  keep 
returning  to  the  Center. 
f  Belmont  can  accommodate  24  in-house  residents,  with  facilities 
for  10  to  12  additional  guests,  speakers,  or  observers  for  meals  and 
meeting  sessions.  This  limiting  size  factor  ensures  that  each  confer- 
ence has  the  undivided  and  individual  attention  of  the  entire  staff, 
as  well  as  the  opportunity  for  unusually  close  interaction  within  the 
meeting  group  itself.  Of  the  80  or  so  meetings  which  Belmont  hosts 
in  a  year,  approximately  60  percent  are  from  federally-funded  agen- 
cies; the  balance  includes  those  from  foundations  and  other  philcin- 
thropic  organizations,  professional,  religious,  and  social  groups, 
corporations  and  private  industry,  and  universities  and  colleges. 

Office  of  Audits 

During  fiscal  year  1974,  the  Office  of  Audits  issued  audit  reports  on 
the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum,  the  Smithsonian  Research 
Foundation,  the  National  Zoological  Park,  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Cen- 
ter for  Environmental  Studies,  Mail  Management,  the  Mediterranean 

Administrative  Management  I  267 




Belmont  Conference  Center. 

Marine  Sorting  Center,  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  the  Travel 
Services  Office,  and  the  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute. 
Audit  recommendations  made  in  these  reports  have  resulted  in  im- 
proved management  procedures  and  controls,  sometimes  pointing  to 
potential  dollar  savings. 

In  addition,  the  Office  of  Audits  completed  various  pre-award  and 
post-audits  of  contracts,  and  closed  out  26  foreign  currency  grants 
in  the  amount  of  $1  million. 

International  Exchange  Service 

The  International  Exchange  Service  is  the  one  program  bureau  in 
the  support  activities  group.  In  1851,  the  Smithsonian  Institution 
established  the  international  exchange  system  to  provide  a  means 
for  exchanging  current  Smithsonian  publications  for  the  trans- 
actions and  proceedings  of  institutions  in  other  countries.  Other 
learned  bodies  in  the  United  States  were  allowed  to  participate  by 
exchanging  their  publications  with  those  of  foreign  organizations. 
This  program  has  continued  through  the  years  and,  by  this  method, 
many  colleges,  universities,  scientific  societies,  and  medical  and 
dental  libraries  exchange  their  current  and  duplicate  publications 
with  similar  organizations  in  other  countries. 

During  the  year,  over  700,000  pounds  of  publications  were  re- 
ceived from  more  than  250  organizations  in  the  United  States  for 
transmission  through  the  Service  to  over  100  countries.  Publica- 
tions weighing  approximately  500,000  pounds  were  forwarded  by 
ocean  freight  to  38  exchange  bureaus  in  32  countries.  Approxi- 
mately 250,000  pounds  of  publications  were  mailed  to  the  intended 
recipients  in  countries  that  do  not  have  exchange  bureaus. 

Publications  weighing  approximately  90,000  pounds  were  re- 
ceived from  exchange  bureaus  in  other  countries  for  distribution  in 
the  United  States. 

Over  700,000  official  United  States  publications  weighing  ap- 
proximately 350,000  pounds  were  received  for  91  organizations  in 
62  countries  in  exchange  for  the  official  publications  of  those 
countries.  The  daily  issues  of  the  Congressional  Record  and  the 
Federal  Register  were  exchanged  with  126  foreign  libraries  in  62 
countries  for  the  parliamentary  journals  of  these  countries. 

Administrative  Management  I  269 

Smithsonian  Women's  Council 

The  Smithsonian  Women's  Council  was  established  by  the  Secre- 
tary in  1972  to  represent  to  the  Smithsonian's  leadership  the  con- 
cerns of  women  at  the  Institution  regarding  employment  and  related 

During  its  first  full  term  of  existence  in  1973-1974,  the  Council 
undertook  several  major  projects.  Its  Child-care  Committee  acted 
on  indications  from  employees  that  employer  child-care  assistance 
was  of  concern  to  them  and  on  the  evidence  that  Smithsonian 
resources  could  make  special  contributions  to  the  development 
and  education  of  children  in  general  through  progams  conducted 
for  employees'  children.  Based  on  information  from  a  wide  variety 
of  sources,  the  Women's  Council  prepared  a  proposal  in  the  fall 
of  1973  for  an  experimental  program,  providing  for  hiring  a  spe- 
cialist in  child  care  and  development  programming.  After  an  initial 
assignment  of  designing  an  information-exchange  service  for  em- 
ployees concerned  with  child  care,  the  specialist  would  move  on 
rapidly  to  the  development  and  execution  of  a  summer  educational 
program  for  school-age  children  and  finally  the  presentation  of 
recommendations  for  the  Smithsonian's  future  role  in  the  care 
and  education  of  its  employees'  children.  Administrative  and  finan- 
cial elements  were  settled  during  the  following  winter  and  in  the 
late  spring  of  1974  recruiting  for  the  position  of  Child-care  Coor- 
dinator began.  The  Assistant  Secretary  for  Public  Service  assumed 
overall  responsibility  for  the  program  with  assistance  from  an  ad- 
visory board  representing  the  Women's  Council  and  the  Offices 
of  Museum  Programs,  Personnel  Administration,  Equal  Oppor- 
tunity, and  the  Treasurer. 

Another  Council  committee,  formed  to  study  patterns  of  recruit- 
ment, employment,  and  promotion  at  the  Smithsonian,  analyzed 
the  Smithsonian's  Merit  Promotion  Program  and  the  skills-file 
method  currently  in  use  in  internal  recruiting  for  clerical  and  sec- 
retarial positions  and  offered  recommendations  for  elimination  of 
inequities  in  these  systems  and  improvement  of  their  operation. 
The  report  and  recommendations  were  submitted  to  the  Directors 
of  Personnel  Administration  and  Equal  Opportunity  in  April  1974. 

Other  committees  of  the  Council  have  been  and  are  engaged  in 
widely  varied  activities.  One  conducted  studies  and  analysis  of  the 

270  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

:  Institution's  Upward  Mobility  Program  and  submitted  to  Person- 
nel Administration  and  Equal  Opportunity  recommendations  for 
significant  changes  and  expansion  in  that  area.  Another  committee 
sponsored  a  lecture  on  "The  Job  Jungle"  by  career-development 
expert  Alexander  Methven,  which  drew  170  employees  and  guests. 
Yet  another  committee  is  developing  plans  for  a  rich  variety  of 
programs  and  exhibits  to  mark  Women's  Week  in  August  1974. 

Administrative  Management  I  271 


Houses  in  Provence  (detail),  by  Paul  Cezanne.  National  Gallery  of  Art, 
Washington,  D.C.,  Collection  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Mellon  (2655). 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1974 



The  national  gallery  of  art,  although  formally  established  as  a 
bureau  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  is  an  autonomous  and  sepa- 
rately administered  organization.  It  is  governed  by  its  own  Board 
of  Trustees,  the  statutory  members  of  which  are  the  Chief  Justice 
of  the  United  States,  Chairman;  the  Secretary  of  State;  the  Secre- 
tary of  the  Treasury;  and  the  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion, all  ex  officio;  and  five  general  trustees.  Paul  Mellon  continued 
as  president  of  the  Gallery  and  John  Hay  Whitney  as  vice  president. 
The  other  general  trustees  continuing  to  serve  were  Dr.  Franklin 
D.  Murphy  and  Stoddard  M.  Stevens.  In  March  1974,  Mr.  Lessing 
J.  Rosenwald  resigned  after  ten  years  as  a  trustee;  Mr.  Carlisle  H. 
Humelsine,  President  of  Colonial  Williamsburg,  was  elected  to 
succeed  him. 

During  the  fiscal  year  1974  the  Gallery  had  over  1,263,690 

A  number  of  important  works  of  art  were  acquired.  Of  particular 
note  were  the  paintings:  Paul  Cezanne's  Houses  in  Provence  and 
Paul  Gauguin's  Te  Pape  Nave  Nave,  gifts  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul 
Mellon,  The  year  was  also  noteworthy  because  of  the  acquisition 
of  numerous  and  important  sculptures  including  Pietro  Tacca's  The 
Pistoia  Crucifix,  Antonio  Canova's  Hercules  Slaying  Lichas,  two 
works  by  Foggini:  Bacchus  and  Ariadne  and  Venus  and  Cupid,  and 
two  highly  significant  twentieth-century  works:  Wilhelm  Lehm- 
bruck's  Seated  Man  and  Alberto  Giacometti's  The  Invisible  Object. 

In  the  graphic  arts  the  Gallery  added  96  drawings,  306  etchings 
and  2,057  prints  to  its  collections,  with  many  outstanding  works, 
spanning  six  centuries  from  The  Adoration  of  the  Magi  by  the 


Master  E  S,  to  a  comprehensive  collection  of  the  works  of  M.  C. 

Notable  exhibitions  held  at  the  Gallery  included:  "Etchings  by 
Rembrandt"  and  "Prints  of  the  Italian  Renaissance"  (both  continued 
from  fiscal  year  1973).  "American  Impressionist  Painting,"  "Six- 
teenth Century  Italian  Drawings  from  the  Collection  of  Janos 
Scholz/'  "American  Art  at  Mid-Century  I,"  "Francois  Boucher  in 
North  American  Collections:  100  Drawings/'  "Nineteenth-Century 
Sculpture"  and  "Recent  Acquisitions  and  Promised  Gifts:  Sculpture, 
Drawings,  Prints."  A  particularly  innovative  major  exhibition  was 
opened  in  May  1974,  "African  Art  and  Motion,"  which  through  the 
objects  shown,  video  tape  and  recordings  of  ceremonial  African 
dancers  and  music,  presented  an  integrated  experience  in  the  culture 
of  sixteen  African  countries. 

The  Gallery's  multimedia  education  program.  Art  and  Man,  pub- 
lished in  cooperation  with  Scholastic  Magazines,  Inc.,  reached  4,000 
classrooms  in  every  state  of  the  country. 

The  total  number  of  bookings  of  Extension  Service  materials, 
film  strips,  slide  lectures,  and  films  was  29,999.  The  total  estimated 
attendance  covering  all  50  states  and  many  foreign  countries  and 
United  States  military  installations  abroad  was  nearly  five  million. 

Total  attendance  at  talks  given  by  the  Gallery's  Education  Depart- 
ment and  at  the  programs  presented  in  the  auditorium  was  120,338. 
These  included  the  regularly  scheduled  auditorium  lectures  and 
films,  the  Introduction  to  the  Collection,  the  Tour  of  the  Week,  and 
Painting  of  the  Week.  There  were  35  guest  lecturers  including  the 
twenty-third  annual  A.  W.  Mellon  Lecture  in  the  Fine  Arts,  Pro- 
fessor H.  W.  Janson,  who  gave  a  series  of  six  lectures  entitled 
"Nineteenth-Century  Sculpture  Reconsidered";  and  A.  B.  de  Vries, 
Director  Emeritus  of  the  Mauritshuis  (Royal  Gallery  of  Paintings), 
the  Kress  Professor  in  Residence. 

The  newly  recruited  Conservation  Department,  working  without 
the  benefit  of  the  expanded  laboratory  facilities  still  in  the  planning 
stage,  concentrated  on  a  survey  of  the  Gallery's  Northern  European 
paintings  with  particular  attention  to  those  of  Vermeer. 

The  Gallery's  art  research  project  at  Carnegie-Mellon  University 
in  Pittsburgh  neared  its  twenty-fifth  anniversary  and  continued  its 
work  in  nuclear  methods  of  analysis  and  mass  spectroscopy.  Under 

274  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 



( ^i4-;- SB 





>  "<t 


National  Gallery  of  Art  East  Building  and  connecting  link,  now  under  construction. 
(Photograph  by  Stewart  Bros.  Photographers,  Inc.)  Below:  Construction  shown  from 
Pennsylvania  Avenue  and  Fourth  Street. 



a  grant  from  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Arts,  matched  by 
private  donors,  a  three-year  project  was  launched  to  produce  a 
series  of  handbooks  on  the  characterization  and  analysis  of  artists' 
pigments'  sources  and  ages.  Both  projects  are  under  the  direction 
of  Dr.  Robert  M.  Feller. 

In  contrast  to  the  previous  year  (1973),  which  saw  much  activity 
in  terms  of  new  staff,  new  acquisitions,  and  new  procedures,  the 
Library  this  year  concentrated  on  stock-taking,  classification  and 
reclassification,  inventory,  and  reorganization.  The  complete  inven- 
tory is  the  first  to  be  undertaken  in  the  Library's  thirty-three-year 
history.  A  total  of  3,973  books  and  pamphlets  were  added  to  the 
collection,  2,070  purchased,  1,195  received  as  gifts,  and  708  obtained 
via  exchange;  74,128  new  photographs  were  added  to  the  Photo- 
graphic Archives. 

During  the  year  the  Gallery  produced  three  exhibition  catalogues 
on  the  Sixteenth  Century  Italian  Drawings  from  the  Collection  of 
Janos  Scholz,  Frangois  Boucher  in  North  American  Collections:  100 
Drawings,  and  Recent  Acquisitions:  Sculpture,  Drawings,  Prints. 
As  an  alternative  to  a  catalogue  for  the  "American  Art  at  Mid- 
Century  I"  exhibition,  a  portfolio  of  thirty-three,  8"  x  lO"  full-color  : 
reproductions  with  text  was  produced  —  a  first  for  the  National  i 
Gallery.  Two  posters  were  also  produced  for  sale.  Continued  public 
interest  in  the  Gallery's  reproductions,  postcards,  and  art  books  was  ] 
evidenced  by  the  patronage  of  292,883  people  in  person  and  8,736 
by  mail.  i 

The  Concert  Programs  continued  with  40  Sunday  evening  con- 
certs in  the  East  Garden  Court  which  were  well  attended  and  also 
broadcast  live  on  a  local  am-fm  station. 

The  past  year  has  seen  the  dramatic  thrust  of  the  East  Building 
from  the  ground  to  levels  ranging  from  the  third  to  the  sixth  floor. 
In  May  the  first  exterior  marble  was  set.  Occupation  and  opening 
exhibits  are  planned  for  the  summer  of  1977. 

Substantial  progress  was  also  made  on  the  "Connecting  Link" 
area  between  the  East  and  West  Buildings.  A  radically  revised  plaza 
design  was  developed,  with  glass  tetrahedrons  forming  architectural 
sculpture  on  the  plaza  and 'serving  as  skylights  for  the  concourse 
level  below.  This  portion  of  the  work,  including  an  enlarged  cafe- 
teria, will  be  open  to  the  public  in  the  summer  of  1976. 

276  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


I  American  Glass :  Watercolors  from  the  Index  of  American  Design 
Continued  from  previous  fiscal  year  through  July  10^  1973 

Etchings  by  Rembrandt 

Continued  from  previous  fiscal  year  through  August  14, 1973 

Prints  of  the  Italian  Renaissance 

I     Continued  from  previous  fiscal  year  through  October  7,  1973 

American  Impressionist  Painting 
July  1  through  August  26,  1973 

Venetian  Views :  Etchings  by  Canaletto  and  Whistler 
July  12  through  December  26,  1973 

Sixteenth  Century  Italian  Drawings  from  the  Collection  of  Janos  Scholz 
September  23  through  November  25,  1973 

American  Art  at  Mid-Century  I 

October  28,  1973,  through  January  6, 1974 

Francois  Boucher  in  North  American  Collections:  100  Drawings 
December  23, 1973,  through  March  17, 1974 

American  Textiles :  Watercolors  from  the  Index  of  American  Design 
December  26, 1973,  through  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year 

Nineteenth-Century  Sculpture 
March  10  through  May  27, 1974 

Art  in  the  Age  of  Francesco  Petrarca 
April  6  to  13,  1974 

African  Art  and  Motion 

May  5, 1974,  through  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year 

A  Salute  to  Mozart:  French  Eighteenth  Century  Prints 
May  9  to  29,  1974 

Recent  Acquisitions  and  Promised  Gifts:  Sculpture,  Drawings,  Prints 
June  2,  1974,  through  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year 

National  Gallery  of  Art  I  277 

Dramatic  night  photograph  of  the  John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts. 


Smithsonian  Year  •  1974 



Faced  with  the  perennial  challenge  of  surpassing  previous  efforts, 
the  Kennedy  Center  opened  its  third  season  with  an  unprecedented 
four-week  festival:  Shakespeare  and  the  Performing  Arts.  In  keep- 
ing with  basic  philosophy  that  Center  festivals  must  make  an  artistic 
statement  of  unique  importance,  the  month-long  celebration  was 
designed  to  illustrate  Shakespeare's  profound  influence  on  all  as- 
pects of  the  performing  arts. 

Utilizing  virtually  every  part  of  the  building,  the  festival  included 
drama,  dance,  opera,  symphony  and  chamber  concerts,  jazz,  and 
film.  The  Center's  unique  structure,  with  four  theaters  under  one 
roof,  provided  an  extraordinary  opportunity  for  comparative  study, 
as,  for  example,  Macbeth  was  presented  in  its  traditional  dramatic 
form  in  the  Eisenhower  Theater,  while  Verdi's  operatic  adaptation 
was  simultaneously  staged  in  the  Opera  House,  and  two  different 
film  interpretations  were  offered  in  the  American  Film  Institute 
Theater.  Similarly,  readings  from  Shakespeare  were  coupled  with 
stunning  ballet  passages  they  have  inspired. 

During  a  special  opening  salute,  activity  extended  even  beyond 
the  walls  of  the  Center,  as  Handel's  Water  Music  was  performed 
antiphonally  by  musicians  on  the  river  terrace  and  on  a  barge  afloat 
the  Potomac. 

Participating  in  the  festival  were  such  outstanding  performers 
as  Dame  Peggy  Ashcrof t.  Sir  Michael  Redgrave,  Maurice  Evans,  Zoe 
Caldwell,  Christopher  Plummer,  Charlton  Heston,  Natalia  Maka- 
rova,  and  Cleo  Laine. 


The  artistic  and  popular  success  of  the  festival  opening  carried 
over  and  remained  constant  throughout  the  season  that  followed. 
Audience  support  surpassed  all  previous  years  as  over  1.7  million 
people  attended  performances,  and  the  vitality  of  the  performing 
arts  in  Washington  was  graphically  illustrated  by  the  fact  that  the 
Opera  House  was  in  full  operation  for  50  weeks,  the  Eisenhower 
Theater  for  52  weeks,  and  the  Concert  Hall  for  52  weeks. 

The  season  ultimately  included:  125  performances  of  dance,  by 
distinguished  companies  from  around  the  world;  160  symphony 
concerts,  including  129  by  the  resident  National  Symphony  Orches- 
tra; 42  performances  of  15  operas;  37  recitals;  30  chamber  concerts; 
23  choral  concerts;  44  concerts  of  popular  music,  folk,  jazz,  and 
rock;  and  671  performances  of  drama  and  musical  comedy. 

In  an  expanded  schedule,  the  Opera  Society  of  Washington  pre- 
sented a  total  of  five  productions,  including  the  American  premiere 
of  Monteverdi's  //  Ritorno  D'Ulisse,  and  the  New  York  City  Opera's 
annual  spring  visit  featured  peformances  of  seven  different  works. 

In  addition  to  return  engagements  of  the  American  Ballet  Theatre 
and  the  National  Ballet,  the  Center  welcomed  for  the  first  time  the 
New  York  City  Ballet  and  Britain's  Royal  Ballet. 

Theatrical  highlights  included  a  standing-room-only,  post-Broad- , 
way  engagement  of  Tennessee  Williams'  A  Streetcar  Named  Desire, 
with  Lois  Nettleton  and  Alan  Feinstein;  shattering  performances  by 
Colleen  Dewhurst  and  Jason  Robards  in  Eugene  O'Neill's  A  Moon 
for  the  Misbegotten,  directed  by  Tony  Award-winner  Jose  Quintero; 
Deborah  Kerr's  recreation  of  her  London  triumph  in  Frank  Harvey's 
The  Day  After  the  Fair;  David  Turner's  The  Prodigal  Daughter, 
starring  Wilfred  Hyde-White;  Kate  Reid's  moving  performance  in 
Brian  Friel's  The  Freedom  of  the  City;  Anthony  Quayle's  powerful 
portrayal  of  a  contemporary  Russian  writer  in  Henry  Denker's 
The  Headhunters;  the  premiere  of  Erich  Maria  Remarque's  Full 
Circle,  directed  by  Otto  Preminger;  and  Samuel  Taylor's  delightful 
comedy.  Perfect  Pitch,  with  Tammy  Grimes  and  Jean-Pierre  \ 

In  a  unique  arrangement,  and  what  is  hoped  will  prove  the  first ' 
of  many  such  examples  of  mutual  cooperation  between  the  Center 
and  American  colleges  and  universities,  the  entire  cast  of  The  Head- 
hunters  spent  a  week  performing  at  the  University  of  Tennessee, 
prior  to  opening  in  Washington.  During  their  stay  in  Knoxville, ' 

280  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

director-star  Anthony  Quayle  and  others  associated  with  the  pro- 
duction conducted  a  series  of  seminars  and  workshops  which  were 
open  to  the  entire  academic  community.  Of  particular  significance 
was  the  fact  that  students  and  faculty  of  the  drama  department 
were  able  to  observe  work  on  professional  production,  prior  to  its 
opening  in  their  theater. 

The  most  significant  theatrical  event  of  the  season,  and  the  Cen- 
ter's most  ambitious  undertaking  since  the  1971  opening  of  Leonard 
Bernstein's  Mass,  was  the  American  premiere  of  Tom  Stoppard's 
Jumpers.  In  a  dazzling  display,  Stoppard  combined  both  physical 
and  philosophical  gymnastics  to  produce  one  of  the  most  literate 
and  entertaining  plays  the  theater  has  witnessed  in  the  past  decade. 
Directed  by  Peter  Wood  and  starring  Brian  Bedford  and  Jill  Clay- 
burgh,  Jumpers  played  the  Eisenhower  for  an  unprecedented  eight 
weeks  and  went  on  to  a  limited  Broadway  engagement. 

During  the  course  of  the  season,  the  Center  also  presented  a 
delightful  series  of  musicals  —  including  revivals  of  two  classics : 
The  Pajama  Game,  with  Barbara  McNair,  Cab  Calloway,  and  Hal 
Linden,  and  Good  News,  with  Alice  Faye  and  John  Payne  —  Stephen 
Sondheim's  award-winning  A  Little  Night  Music,  and  a  highly 
successful  engagement  of  /  Do!  I  Do!,  starring  Carol  Burnett  and 
Rock  Hudson. 

Of  particular  artistic  importance  was  the  presentation  in  May 
of  a  three-week  Mozart  Festival,  conceived  and  developed  by  the 
Center's  Music  Director,  Julius  Rudel.  A  series  of  44  performances, 
14  of  which  were  free,  illustrated  the  full  range  of  Mozart's  genius 
and  featured  both  familiar  works  and  lesser  known,  rarely  per- 
formed selections.  Highlighting  the  festival  was  the  American 
premiere  of  a  revised  edition  of  the  opera  Idomeneo. 

In  a  special  community  outreach,  festival  programming  included 
a  number  of  outstanding  concerts  at  the  Smithsonian  and  in  area 
churches,  and  in  conjunction  with  the  Center's  activities,  the  Music 
Critics  Association  conducted  institutes  dealing  with  Mozart  authen- 
ticity, special  Mozart  performance  problems,  and  Mozart  opera. 

The  following  month,  in  a  dramatic  three-century  leap,  the  Cen- 
ter played  host  to  Art  Now  '74,  a  celebration  of  contemporary 
American  art  and  artists.  Art  Now,  produced  by  the  Artrend  Foun- 
dation, utilized  the  entire  roof  terrace  level  and  focused  primarily 
upon  performance  and  post-object  art,  stressing  the  most  adven- 

Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  281 

A  free  public  performance  by  the  Festival  Winds  during  the  Mozart  Festival. 
(Photograph  by  Richard  Braaten)  Below:  Isaac  Stern  and  friends  in  the  Kennedy 
Center  Concert  Hall.  From  left  to  right,  Isaac  Stem,  Jaime  Laredo,  and  Leonard 
Rose.  (Photograph  by  Richard  Braaten) 

[turous  of  current  art  trends.  Interdisciplinary  in  nature,  it  included 
the  visual  arts,  dance,  music,  video,  film,  theater,  and  works  outside 
the  realm  of  conventional  classification. 

j  Throughout  the  year,  the  Center's  vitally  important  educational 
Irole  expanded  through  the  continued  growth  of  the  Alliance  for  Arts 
Education  (aae).  The  Alliance,  a  joint  project  of  the  Center  and  the 
Office  of  Education,  Department  of  Health,  Education  and  Welfare, 
was  established  in  1973,  to  make  the  Center's  programs,  facilities, 
and  services  more  accessible  to  students  as  participants  and  per- 
formers; to  stimulate,  at  local,  state,  and  regional  levels,  quality 
jprograms  in  which  all  the  arts  are  included  as  an  integral  part  of 
!the  education  of  all  students;  and  to  establish  the  Center  as  a  focal 
point  for  strengthening  the  arts  in  education  at  all  levels. 

With  the  support  of  representatives  of  the  President's  Advisory 
Committee  on  the  Arts,  the  Friends  of  the  Kennedy  Center,  and 
national,  state,  and  local  officials,  the  Alliance  established  com- 
mittees in  over  40  states.  These  state  committees  provide  a  forum 
and  a  communication  center  for  arts  and  education  organizations 
iworking  to  achieve  the  objectives  of  aae  programs.  In  the  fall 
of  1973,  a  Center-hosted  aae  conference  provided  a  unique  oppor- 
tunity for  significant  exchange  between  educators  and  arts  adminis- 
trators from  all  50  states. 

As  a  part  of  an  Alliance  "showcase"  series,  several  states  pre- 
sented outstanding  representative  educational  programs  at  the 
Center  during  the  spring.  These  included  an  appearance  of 
the  Golden  Spike  Youth  Orchestra  of  Utah,  a  poets-in-the-schools 
project  from  New  York,  an  exhibition  of  photographs  and  poems  by 
Sioux  Indian  children  of  South  Dakota,  and  a  workshop  on  the  arts 
jfor  the  mentally  retarded.  A  total  of  17  showcase  activities  are 
scheduled  for  the  summer  of  1974. 

The  sixth  annual  American  College  Theatre  Festival,  presented 
by  the  Center  and  the  Smithsonian  and  produced  by  the  American 
Theatre  Association,  brought  ten  of  the  Nation's  finest  college 
productions  to  the  Eisenhower  Theater  during  a  two-week  period 
in  April.  As  a  part  of  a  new  play  writing  project,  two  original  stu- 
dent works  were  among  the  productions  staged. 

In  cooperation  with  the  Music  Educators  National  Conference, 
the  AAE  is  developing  plans  for  an  American  University  Music 
Festival,  to  be  similar  in  scope  to  the  College  Theatre  Festival. 

Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  283 

In  addition  to  its  AAE-oriented  activities,  the  Center  welcomed 
over  55,000  Washington-area  school  children  to  a  series  of  special 
performances  sponsored  by  the  wives  of  Cabinet  members  and 
performing  arts  organizations  within  the  city. 

The  ongoing  Special  Ticket  Program  enabled  over  135,000  people 
to  attend  regular  Center  performances  at  half-price.  The  program, 
which  is  available  to  students,  the  handicapped,  retired  people 
living  on  fixed  incomes,  limited-income  groups,  and  military  per- 
sonnel in  grades  E-1  through  E-4,  reflects  the  Center's  concern 
that  its  performances  be  accessible  to  all,  regardless  of  economic 

Under  the  chairmanship  of  Mrs.  J.  Willard  Marriott,  the  121- 
member  President's  Advisory  Committee  on  the  Arts  continued  to 
advise  and  assist  in  Center  activities.  During  the  year,  the  Advisory 
Committee  was  particularly  active  in  fund-raising  activities  and 
in  the  development  of  the  Alliance  for  Arts  Education. 

The  Friends  of  the  Kennedy  Center,  established  as  an  auxiliary 
organization  in  1966,  grew  to  include  over  10,000  members  from 
all  parts  of  the  country.  Volunteers  from  the  Friends  have  gener- 
ously contributed  thousands  of  hours  of  time  and  effort,  con- 
ducting public  tours,  managing  souvenir  stands,  and  providing 
hospitality  and  other  services  to  Center  operations  and  functions. 
Working  closely  with  the  National  Park  Service,  the  Friends  have 
provided  visitor  services  to  over  two  million  sightseers  annually. 
Activities  of  the  Friends  are  directed  by  Mrs,  Polk  Guest,  who  has 
served  as  chairman  since  1967. 

Charged  by  Congress  with  responsibility  for  maintaining  the 
Center  as  a  national  memorial,  the  National  Park  Service  has  car- 
ried out  vital  maintenance,  security,  and  information  functions. 
The  daily  efforts  of  National  Park  Service  personnel  within  the 
building  and  throughout  the  17-acre  site  add  immeasurably  to  the 
enjoyment  of  sightseers  and  theatergoers  alike. 

During  its  three  years  of  operation,  the  Center  has  housed  com- 
panies headed  by  universally  recognized  theatrical  personalities  as 
well  as  little-known  college  ensembles.  Plays,  operas,  and  ballets 
have  been  created  and  molded  within  its  walls.  As  the  fourth 
season  approaches,  with  concrete  plans  and  ambitious  goals  reach- 
ing well  into  the  future,  the  Center  and  its  role  as  a  living  memorial 
continue  to  evolve. 

284  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Although  organizationally  a  bureau  of  the  Smithsonian,  the  Cen- 
ter is  administered  separately  by  a  45-member  Board  of  Trustees, 
composed  of  30  members  appointed  by  the  President  to  ten-year 
overlapping  terms,  9  members,  ex  officio,  from  pertinent  Federal 
and  District  of  Columbia  agencies,  3  members  appointed  from  the 
Senate,  and  3  from  the  House  of  Representatives.  Members  of  the 
Board  at  the  close  of  fiscal  year  1974  are  as  follows: 

Roger  L.  Stevens,  Chairman 

Richard  Adler 

Ralph  E.  Becker 

Terrel  H.  Bell 

Mrs.  Donna  Stone  Bradshaw 

J.  Carter  Brown 

Mrs.  Edward  F.  Cox 

Ralph  W.  Ellison 

Mrs.  J.  Clifford  Folger 

The  Honorable  Abe  Fortas 

The  Honorable  Peter  H.  B. 

The  Honorable  J.  William  Fulbright 
Mrs.  George  A.  Garrett 
Leonard  H.  Goldenson 
H.  R.  Haldeman 
Mrs.  Rebekah  Harkness 
Mrs.  Paul  H.  Hatch 
Frank  N.  Ikard 

The  Honorable  Edward  M.  Kennedy 
The  Honorable  Thomas  H.  Kuchel 
Gustave  L.  Levy 
Mrs.  Michael  J.  Mansfield 
Mrs.  J.  Willard  Marriott 

Harry  C.  McPherson,  Jr. 

George  Meany 

Robert  L  Millonzi 

The  Honorable  L.  Quincy  Mumford 

The  Honorable  Charles  H.  Percy 

The  Honorable  John  Richardson,  Jr. 

The  Honorable  S.  Dillon  Ripley 

The  Honorable  Teno  Roncalio 

Arthur  Schlesinger,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Jouett  Shouse 

Mrs.  Stephen  E.  Smith 

Henry  Strong 

William  Hammond  Thomas 

The  Honorable  Frank  Thompson,  Jr. 

Benjamin  Arthur  Trustman 

The  Honorable  John  V.  Tunney 

Jack  Valenti 

Ronald  H.  Walker 

The  Honorable  Walter  E.  Washington 

Lew  R.  Wasserman 

The  Honorable  Caspar  W. 

Mrs.  Jack  Wrather 

Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  285 

.%.44pir  m 


Library  of  the  Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars 
with  a  conference  in  session. 

Smithsonian  Year  '1974 





Late  in  1968,  the  Congress  determined  that  the  official  national 
memorial  to  the  28th  President  of  the  United  States  should  be  — 
uniquely  among  monuments  to  heads  of  state  anywhere  in  the 
world  so  far  as  we  are  aware  —  a  "living  memorial." 

The  Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars  seeks 
to  commemorate  both  the  scholarly  depth  and  the  public  concerns 
of  Wilson  through  a  program  of  advanced  research  and  communi- 
cation between  the  world  of  ideas  and  the  world  of  affairs.  Center 
activities  and  aims  can  be  discussed  in  terms  of  the  three  basic 
ingredients  of  higher  learning  in  a  democracy:  people,  ideas,  and 
communication  —  people  who  can  think,  ideas  that  matter,  and 
communication  that  gets  through. 

Finding  and  supporting  the  gifted  individual  to  conduct  research 
on  subjects  of  fundamental  importance  is  the  primary  concern 
of  the  Center.  The  majority  of  Center  fellows  are  selected  on  the 
basis  of  open  competitions,  which  are  held  twice  yearly.  Last  year 
the  program  accommodated  48  fellows  and  5  guest  scholars  from 
14  countries.  Since  the  Center  commenced  its  activities  three  years 
ago,  it  has  welcomed  118  fellows  from  27  countries  for  ranging 
scholarly  research,  along  with  34  shorter-term  guest  scholars.  The 
Center  has  had  almost  as  many  foreign  as  American  fellows  — 
bringing  them  together  in  a  small  group  of  no  more  than  40  at  any 


given  time.  If  the  company  and  its  perspective  are  global,  the  scale 
is  human  and  the  enterprise  hopefully  humane. 

In  its  selection  procedures  the  Center  relies  deeply  on  panels 
whose  composition  reflects  the  fact  that  higher  scholarship  in 
America  is  heavily  concentrated  in  universities.  Fellowships  are 
not,  however,  confined  to  academics  and  are  not  designed  for  the 
perfection  of  narrow  specialties  or  private  languages.  Any  scholar 
with  a  major  project  in  view  that  can  make  fruitful  use  of  the 
rich  resources  of  the  Washington  area  is  welcome  to  apply.  Fellow- 
ships are  awarded  by  three  broad  divisional  panels:  Natural  Re- 
sources and  Political  Economy;  Social  Studies;  and  Historical  and 
Cultural  Studies. 


Since  the  Center  is  free  from  traditional  academic  calendars  and 
departmental  structures  and  deals  only  in  free,  individual  research, 
the  opportunities  are  rich  for  the  imaginative  and  cross-disciplinary 
scholar  and  for  a  creative  mix  of  specialties  and  backgrounds.  The 
Center  is  attempting  to  encourage  depth  in  its  scholarship  by  focus- 
ing on  the  historical,  philosophical,  and  comparative  dimensions 
of  questions  that  matter  for  civilization. 

Much  of  the  work  at  the  Center  has  taken  place  in  special  subject 
areas  within  the  broader  scholarly  divisions  —  research  on  pat- 
terns of  sustainable  economic  growth  and  on  the  law  of  the  sea 
and  uses  of  the  oceans  within  the  division  of  natural  resources 
and  political  economy,  and  studies  of  problems  of  the  international 
order  and  the  American  system  of  government  within  the  social 
studies  division.  Two  new  special  programs  in  the  latter  division 
will  bring  (1)  distinguished  historians  from  abroad  to  work  in 
Washington  on  the  American  Revolution  as  a  world  event,  and 
(2)  thoughtful  practitioners  from  state  and  local  governments  in 
the  United  States  to  write  a  series  of  studies  on  the  problems  and 
prospects  of  the  American  federal  system. 

While  there  are  clusters  of  scholars  with  such  common  interests, 
the  unifying  force  within  the  Center  is  the  common  scholarly  com- 
mitment of  fellows,  guest  s'cholars,  and  senior  staff  alike  to  what 
Wilson  himself  once  described  as  "the  passionate  search  for  dis- 
passionate truth." 

288  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


Attempts  to  communicate  between  the  world  of  ideas  and  the 
world  of  public  affairs  arise  from  the  commission  to  serve  as  a 
"living  memorial"  to  a  President  who  bridged  both  worlds.  The 
Center  has  the  opportunity  to  perform  a  kind  of  switchboard 
function,  making  connections  between  the  research  materials  of 
the  Washington  area,  people  at  the  Center,  and  the  public  sector 
in  Washington. 

On  the  basis  of  past  experience  and  present  assets,  the  Center 
has  sought  recently  to  encourage  both  broadened  dialogue  between 
scholarship  and  the  public  sector  and  expanded  use  of  the  un- 
matched scholarly  resources  of  the  Washington  area.  Evening  dia- 
logues, colloquia  on  work  in  progress,  and  occasional  conferences 
are  sponsored  by  the  Center  as  ways  of  communicating  scholarship 
within  and  beyond  the  Washington  community  —  above  and  be- 
yond the  publishing  of  the  scholarly  writings  undertaken  and 
produced  by  Center  fellows. 

Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars  I  289 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1974 

1.  Members  of  the  Smithsonian  Council,  June  30, 1974  P«ge  292 

2.  Academic  Appointments,  1973-1974  294 

3.  Smithsonian  Associates  Membership,  1973-1974  303 

4.  Progress  on  Building  Construction,  Restoration,  311 
and  Renovation 

5.  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  Grants  Awarded  313 
in  Fiscal  Year  1974 

6.  News  Releases,  Radio  Programs,  and  Leaflets  Issued  by  the  316 
Office  of  Pubhc  Affairs  in  Fiscal  Year  1974 

7.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press  329 
in  Fiscal  Year  1974 

8.  Publications  and  Selected  Contributions  of  the  336 
Smithsonian  Institution  Staff  in  Fiscal  Year  1974 

9.  Visitors  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  in  408 
Fiscal  Year  1974 

10.  Staff  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  June  30,  1974  409 

11.  List  of  Donors  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  434 
in  Fiscal  Year  1974 


APPENDIX  1.  Members  of  the  Smithsonian  Council,  June  30,  1974 

Dr.  Roger  D.  Abrahams.  Chairman,  Department  of  English,  Professor  of  Eng- 
lish and  Anthropology,  The  University  of  Texas,  Austin,  Texas. 

Dr.  H.  Harvard  Arnason.  Art  Historian,  River  Road,  Roxbury,  Connecticut 
(Honorary  Member). 

Professor  George  A.  Bartholomew,  Department  of  Zoology,  University  of  Cali- 
fornia, Los  Angeles,  California. 

Dr.  Muriel  M.  Herman.  Civic,  art,  and  college  affairs,  "20  Hundred"  Nottingham 
Road,  Allentown  Pennsylvania  (Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  Herman  R.  Branson.  President,  Lincoln  University,  Pennsylvania  (Honorary 

Professor  Archie  F.  Carr,  Jr.  Department  of  Biology,  University  of  Florida, 
Gainesville,  Florida. 

Professor  Carl  W.  Condit.  Center  for  Urban  Affairs,  Northwestern  University, 
Evanston,  Illinois. 

Mrs.  Camille  W.  Cook.  Assistant  Dean,  University  of  Alabama  School  of  Law, 

Professor  Fred  R.  Eggan.  Department  of  Anthropology,  University  of  Chicago, 

Dr.  Donald  S.  Farner.  Chairman,  Department  of  Zoology,  University  of  Wash- 
ington, Seattle,  Washington  (Honorary  Member). 

Professor  Anthony  N.  B.  Garvan.  Chairman,  Department  of  American  Civiliza- 
tion, University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania  (Honorary  Mem- 

Dr.  Murray  Gell-Mann.  California  Institute  of  Technology,  Pasadena,  Cali- 

Dr.  Peter  C.  Goldmark.  Goldmark  Communications  Corporation,  Stamford, 

Dr.  Frank  B.  GoUey.  Executive  Director,  Institute  of  Ecology,  University  of 
Georgia,  Athens,  Georgia. 

Dr.  Philip  Handler.  President,  National  Academy  of  Sciences,  Washington,  D.C. 

Dr.  David  Hawkins.  Director,  Mountain  View  Center  for  Environmental  Educa- 
tion, University  of  Colorado,  Boulder,  Colorado. 

Professor  Nathan  I.  Huggins.  Department  of  History,  Columbia  University, 
New  York  City. 

Dr.  Jan  LaRue.  Director  of  Graduate  Studies,  Department  of  Music,  New  York 
University,  New  York  City  (Honorary  Member). 

292  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Dr.  James  L.  Liverman.  Director,  Division  of  Biomedical  and  Environmental 
Research,  U.  S.  Atomic  Energy  Commission,  Washington,  D.C. 

Dr.  Clifford  L.  Lord.  President,  Hofstra  University,  Hempstead,  New  York 
(Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  Giles  W.  Mead.  Director,  Los  Angeles  County,  Museum  of  Natural  History, 
Los  Angeles,  California. 

Professor  Charles  D.  Michener.  Lawrence,  Kansas  (Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  Peter  M,  Millman.  Ontario,  Canada  (Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  Ruth  Patrick.  Chairman  of  the  Board,  The  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences, 
Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 

Professor  Norman  Holmes  Pearson.  Department  of  English  and  American  Stud- 
ies, Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Connecticut. 

Dr.  Gordon  N.  Ray.  President,  John  Simon  Guggenheim  Memorial  Foundation, 
New  York  City. 

Mr.  Philip  C.   Ritterbush.   Center  for  the  Study  of   Popular  Education  and 
Recreation,  Wallpack  Village,  New  Jersey. 

Mr.  Harold  Rosenberg.  Art  Critic,  New  Yorker  Magazine,  New  York  City. 

Mr.  Andre  Schiffrin.  Managing  Director,  Pantheon  Books,  New  York  City. 

Mr.  George  C  Seybold.  President,  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  Massachu- 
setts (Honorary  Member). 

Professor  Cyril  Stanley  Smith.  Institute  Professor,  Massachusetts  Institute  of 
Technology,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts. 

Professor  John  D.  Spikes.  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah  (Honorary  Member). 

Professor  Stephen  E.  Toulmin.  Professor  in  the  Committee  on  Social  Thought, 
University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  Illinois. 

Mrs.  Barbara  W.  Tuchman.  Author,  New  York  City. 

Dr.  William  Von  Arx.  Senior  Scientist,  Woods  Hole  Oceanographic  Institution, 

Professor  Warren  H.  Wagner,  Jr.  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan  (Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  Rainer  Zangerl.  Chairman,  Department    of  Geology,   Field   Museum   of 
Natural  History,  Chicago,  Illinois  (Honorary  Member). 

Appendix  1.  Smithsonian  Council  I  293 

APPENDIX  2.  Academic  Appointments,  1973-1974 


Smithsonian  Fellows  pursue  research  problems  in  Smithsonian  facilities  and 
collections  in  collaboration  with  professional  staff  members.  Asterisks  indicate 
Fellows  whose  research  was  supported  through  a  grant  for  American  Indian 
Studies  awarded  by  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Humanities  for  tenure 
at  the  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Program  in  American  and  Cultural  History 

Helen  L.  Horowitz.  A  study  of  American  zoos  as  cultural  institutions,  with 
Dr.  Lillian  B.  Miller,  Department  of  History,  National  Portrait  Gallery,  from 
September  1, 1973,  through  December  31, 1973. 

Program  in  Anthropology 

Juan  R.  Munizaga.  A  study  of  physical  anthropology  of  pre-Columbian  popula- 
tions, with  Dr.  Donald  J.  Ortner,  Department  of  Anthropology,  from  August 
15, 1973,  through  August  14, 1974. 

Douglas  R.  Parks.  A  study  of  Pawnee-Arikara  linguistics  and  ethnohistory, 
with  Dr.  John  C.  Ewers,  Department  of  Anthropology,  from  August  1,  1973, 
through  July  31, 1974. 

Katherine  M.  Weist.*  Collection  and  initial  analysis  of  the  historical  materials 
pertaining  to  the  Indians  of  Montana,  with  Dr.  William  C.  Sturtevant,  Depart- 
ment of  Anthropology,  from  September  1,  1973,  through  May  31,  1974. 

Thomas  R.  Wessel.*  Investigation  of  the  means  by  which  the  Bureau  of  Indian 
Affairs  developed  and  implemented  government  policies  under  the  Dawes  Act, 
with  Dr.  John  C.  Ewers,  Department  of  Anthropology,  from  September  1, 1973, 
through  May  31, 1974. 

John  E.  Yellen.  Examination  of  archaeological  and  ethnographic  materials  from 
South  Africa,  with  Dr.  Clifford  Evans,  Department  of  Anthropology,  from 
September  15, 1973,  through  January  31,  1975. 

Program  in  Astrophysics 

Marie  E,  Hallam.  Development  of  a  Lunar  thermal  evolution  model,  with  Dr. 
John  Wood,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  from  September  1,  1973, 
through  August  31,  1974. 

Program  in  Earth  Sciences 

Aurelio  De  Gasparis.  Crystalline  inclusions  of  ferromagnetic  materials  in  tek- 
tites,  with  Dr.  Brian  H.  Mason,  Department  of  Mineral  Sciences  from  January 
1, 1974,  through  December  31, 1974. 


294  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Anthony  C.  Onyeagocha.  Petrochemistry  of  the  Galapagos  volcanic  rocks,  with 
j  Dr.   Thomas   Simkin,  Department  of  Mineral   Sciences,   from  July  1,  1973, 
through  June  30, 1974. 

'         Program  in  Environmental  Sciences 

Ilan  Golani.  Non-metric  analysis  of  the  display  of  the  Tasmanian  Devil  through 
the  use  of  movement  notation,  with  Dr.  John  Eisenberg,  National  Zoological 
Park,  from  July  1, 1973,  through  June  30, 1974. 

Cornelis  W.  Raven.  Physiology  of  phytochrome-controlled  reactions,  with  Dr. 
Walter  A.  Shropshire,  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory,  from  September  1,  1973, 
through  August  31, 1974. 

Tung-Iin  Wu.  A  study  of  dissolved  matter  and  organic  matters  in  estuary  en- 
vironments, with  Dr.  Francis  S.  L.  Williamson,  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for 
Environmental  Studies,  from  June  15,  1973,  through  June  14, 1974. 

Program  in  Evolutionary  and  Systematic  Biology 

Ginter  Ekis.  A  study  of  _  systematics,  natural  history,  and  zoogeography  of 
Colyphus,  with  Dr.  Terry  Erwin,  Department  of  Entomology,  from  July  1,  1973, 
through  June  30, 1974. 

Thomas  H.  Fraser.  Contributions  toward  a  revision  of  the  pantropical  Cardinal 
Fish  genus  Apogon,  with  Dr.  Ernest  A.  Lachner,  Department  of  Vertebrate 
Zoology,  from  November  1, 1973,  through  October  31, 1974. 

Helen  A.  Kennedy.  Systematic  study  of  New  World  generic  relationships  in 
Marantaceae,  with  Dr.  Lyman  B.  Smith,  Department  of  Botany,  from  January 
1, 1974,  through  December  31, 1974. 

Frederick  H.  C.  Hotchkiss.  A  study  of  the  phylogeny  of  the  Asteroidea  with 
Asteroids  collected  during  the  International  Indian  Ocean  Expedition,  with 
Dr.  David  L.  Pawson,  Department  of  Invertebrate  Zoology,  from  October  15, 
1973,  through  October  14, 1974. 

Heinz  A.  KoIImann.  A  study  of  the  paleobiology  of  Mesozoic  Gastropods,  with 
Dr.  Erie  G.  Kauffman,  Department  of  Paleobiology,  from  June  4,  1973,  through 
June  3, 1974. 

Katherine  S.  Ralls.  A  study  of  sexual  dimorphism  in  antelopes,  with  Dr.  Rich- 
ard W.  Thorington,  Department  of  Vertebrate  Zoology,  from  September  1, 
1973,  through  August  31, 1974. 

Edgardo  J.  Romero.  A  study  of  fossil  angiosperm  leaves  by  the  leaf  architec- 
tural method,  with  Dr.  Leo  J.  Hickey,  Department  of  Paleobiology,  from  Feb- 
ruary 1, 1974,  through  January  31,  1975. 

Adam  Urbanek.  A  study  of  the  ultrastructure  of  invertebrates  with  organic 
skeletons,  with  Dr.  Kenneth  M.  Towe,  Department  of  Paleobiology,  from  Sep- 
tember 1,  1973,  through  November  10, 1973. 

Program  in  the  History  of  Science  and  Technology 

Elaine  H.  Koppelman.  The  career  of  British  mathematician,  J.  J.  Sylvester,  with 
Dr.  Uta  C.  Merzbach,  Department  of  Science  and  Technology,  from  Septem- 
ber 1, 1973,  through  August  31, 1974. 

Appendix  2.  Academic  Appointments  I  295 

Michael  M.  Sokal.  Analytic  and  narrative  biography  of  James  McKeen  Cattell, 
with  Dr.  Audrey  B.  Davis,  Department  of  Science  and  Technology,  from  Sep- 
tember 1,  1973,  through  August  31,  1974. 

Patricia  S.  Watlington.  A  study  of  agriculture  in  early  Kentucky,  1775-1820, 
with  Dr.  John  T.  Schlebecker,  Department  of  Industries,  from  September  1, 
1973,  through  August  31, 1974. 

Program  in  Tropical  Biology 

Paul  J.  Campanella.  Study  of  evolution  and  diversity  of  mating  strategies  in 
New  World  tropical  odonates,  with  Dr.  Martin  Moynihan,  Smithsonian  Tropi- 
cal Research  Institute,  from  November  1, 1973,  through  October  31,  1974. 

Donald  L.  Kramer.  A  comparative  study  of  food  selection  in  some  tropical 
fishes  feeding  on  detritus  and  aufwuchs,  with  Dr.  Martin  Moynihan,  Smith- 
sonian Tropical  Research  Institute,  from  October  1,  1973,  through  September 
30, 1974. 

Michael  L.  May.  A  study  of  temperature  responses  of  tropical  dragonflies,  with 
Dr.  Michael  H.  Robinson,  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute,  from  Janu- 
ary 1, 1974,  through  December  31, 1974. 

Robert  R.  Warner.  Field  and  laboratory  analysis  of  the  evolutionary  and  eco- 
logical significance  of  hermaphroditism,  with  Dr.  Ira  Rubinoff,  Smithsonian 
Tropical  Research  Institute,  from  September  15,  1973,  through  September  14, 

Donald  M.  Windsor.  A  study  of  the  evolution  of  sociability  in  polybiine  wasps, 
with  Dr.  Neal  G.  Smith,  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute,  from  Septem- 
ber 1, 1973,  through  August  31, 1974. 


Program  in  American  and  Cultural  History 

Curtis  M.  Hinsley.  The  science  of  man:  anthropology  in  Washington,  D.C., 
1880-1910,  with  Dr.  Nathan  Reingold,  Joseph  Henry  Papers,  from  July  1,  1973, 
through  June  30, 1974. 

Eunice  E.  Mason.  Historical-cultural  study  of  the  West  Indian  immigrants  to 
the  Panama  Canal  Zone,  with  Dr.  Roy  Bryce-Laporte,  Research  Institute  on 
Immigration  and  Ethnic  Studies,  from  November  15,  1973,  through  November 
14, 1974. 

Anne  D.  Shapiro.  Uses  and  performance  practices  in  popular  and  folk  music 
of  18th-century  America,  with  Mrs.  Cynthia  Hoover,  Department  of  Cultural 
History,  from  December  15, 1973,  through  December  14, 1974. 

Susan  M.  Strasser.  The  effects  of  household  technology  on  the  roles  of  women 
in  America,  with  Miss  Rodris  Roth,  Department  of  Cultural  History,  from 
September  1, 1973,  through  August  31, 1974. 

Program  in  Anthropology 

Robert  S.  Corruccini.  Research  on'variation  humanoid  dentition  and  on  varia- 
tion between  populations  of  Virginia  Indians,  with  Dr.  Donald  J.  Ortner, 
Department  of  Anthropology,  from  February  1, 1974,  through  January  31,  1975. 

296  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Laura  J.  Greenberg.  Structural  analysis  of  design,  specifically  Pueblo  pottery 
patterns,  with  Dr.  William  C.  Sturtevant,  Department  of  Anthropology,  from 
September  1,  1973,  through  August  31,  1974. 

Kiyoshi  Yamaura.  A  study  of  the  Eskimo  harpoon  heads  and  their  history,  with 
Dr.  William  W.  Fitzhugh,  Department  of  Anthropology,  from  July  1,  1973, 
through  June  30, 1974. 

Program  in  Astrophysics 

Thomas  E.  Cravens.  Study  of  atomic  collisional  processes  of  interest  to  astro- 
physics, with  Dr.  Alexander  Dalgarno,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observa- 
tory, from  September  1,  1973,  through  May  31,  1974. 

Jean  W.  Goad.  A  spectroscopic  study  of  the  kinematics  in  the  Sb  galaxy  M81, 
with  Dr.  Rudolph  E.  Schild,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  from 
September  1, 1973,  through  May  31, 1974. 

Carlton  R.  Pennypacker.  Infrared  search  for  pulsars  and  study  of  optical 
pulsars  with  Dr.  Costas  Papaliolios,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory, 
from  September  1,  1973,  through  June  30, 1974. 

Kenneth  P.  Topka.  Theoretical  and  observational  research  in  relativistic  as- 
trophysics, cosmology,  stellar  structure,  evolution,  and  the  interstellar  medium, 
with  Dr.  Alexander  Dalgarno,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  from 
September  1,  1973,  through  May  31, 1974. 

William  E.  Wiesel.  Research  on  the  statistics  of  the  two-body  and  restricted 
three-body  gravitational  problems,  with  Dr.  Myron  Lecar,  Smithsonian  Astro- 
physical  Observatory,  from  September  1,  1973,  through  May  31,  1974. 

Michael  Zeilik.  Infrared  astronomy  of  H  II  regions,  with  Dr.  Giovanni  Fazio, 
Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  from  September  1,  1973,  through 
June  30, 1974. 

Program  in  Earth  Sciences 

William  T.  Potts.  A  study  of  Palestinian  early  Bronze  Age  ceramics,  composi- 
tion, and  technology,  with  Dr.  William  G.  Melson,  Department  of  Mineral 
Sciences,  from  September  1, 1973,  through  August  31,  1974. 

Program  in  Evolutionary  and  Systematic  Biology 

Robert  E.  Dietz.  Study  of  biosystematics  of  the  genus  Macrocneme  Hubner, 
with  Dr.  W.  Donald  Duckworth,  Department  of  Entomology,  from  August  15, 
1973,  through  February  14, 1974. 

Cynthia  L.  Lewis.  Study  of  reproduction  and  development  in  the  Gooseneck 
Barnacle,  Pollicipes  polymerus,  with  Dr.  Thomas  E.  Bowman,  Department  of 
Invertebrate  Zoology,  from  July  1, 1973,  through  June  30, 1974. 

C.  P.  Sreemadhavan.  Study  of  leaf  morphology  in  angiosperm  systematics,  with 
Dr.  Leo  J.  Hickey,  Department  of  Paleobiology,  from  September  1,  1973, 
through  August  31, 1974. 

Robert  E.  Vorek.  Study  of  functional  morphology  of  primate  foot  including 
osteometric  and  myological  analysis  of  the  feet  of  various  members  of  the 
anthropoidea,  with  Dr.  Richard  W.  Thorington,  Department  of  Vertebrate 
Zoology,  from  August  1, 1973,  through  July  31,  1974. 

Appendix  2.  Academic  Appointments  I  297 

Bruce  R.  Wardlaw.  Study  of  biostratigraphy  and  paleoecology  of  the  Gerster 
Formation  (Upper  Permian)  in  Nevada  and  Utah,  with  Dr.  Richard  E.  Grant, 
Department  of  Paleobiology,  from  September  1,  1973,  through  May  31,  1974. 

Program  in  the  History  of  Art 

Karen  M.  Adams.  Study  of  the  iconography  of  the  Negro  in  19th-century 
American  painting  and  literature,  with  Dr.  Lois  M.  Fink,  National  Collection 
of  Fine  Arts,  from  September  21, 1973,  through  September  20, 1974. 

Peter  P.  Morrin.  Study  of  the  art,  teaching,  and  theory  of  Hans  Hofmann,  with 
Dr.  Lois  M.  Fink,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  from  December  1,  1973, 
through  July  31, 1974. 

Linda  H.  Skalet.  A  study  of  the  role  of  the  private  collector  and  collection  in 
American  art  history,  with  Dr.  Lois  M.  Fink,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts, 
from  January  1, 1974,  through  December  31, 1974. 

Roberta  K.  TarbelL  A  catalogue  raisonne  of  the  carved  sculpture  of  William 
Zorach,  with  Dr.  Lois  M.  Fink,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  from  July  1, 
1973,  through  June  30, 1974. 

Barbara  B.  ZabeL  A  study  of  the  impact  of  science  and  technology  on  modern 
art,  1900-1915,  with  Dr.  Lois  M.  Fink,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  from 
September  1, 1973,  through  August  31, 1974. 

Judith  K.  Zilczer.  A  study  of  the  aftermath  of  the  Armory  Show;  American 
art  theory  and  criticism,  1913-1923,  with  Dr.  Lois  M.  Fink,  National  Collection 
of  Fine  Arts,  from  August  1, 1973,  through  July  31, 1974. 

Program  in  the  History  of  Science  and  Technology 

Saroj  K.  Ghose.  A  study  of  the  introduction  and  development  of  the  electric 
telegraph  in  India,  with  Dr.  Bernard  S.  Finn,  Department  of  Science  and  Tech- 
nology, from  July  1, 1973,  through  June  30, 1974. 

Paul  A.  Hanle.  A  study  of  the  origins  of  and  influences  on  the  early  statistical 
physics  research  of  Erwin  Schrodinger,  1910-1925,  with  Dr.  Paul  Forman,  De- 
partment of  Science  and  Technology,  from  September  1,  1973,  through  August 
31, 1974. 


Asterisks  indicate  students  whose  research  was  supported  by  Grant  GY-10578 
from  the  National  Science  Foundation's  Undergraduate  Research  Participation 

Program  in  American  and  Cultural  History 

Russel  W.  Chamberlayne,  George  Washington  University.  General  survey  of 
museum  textile  handling  and  research  methods,  with  Mrs.  Rita  Adrosko, 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Sandra  K.  Lund,  Gallaudet  College.  General  archival  studies,  with  Mr.  Richard 
Lytle,  Smithsonian  Archives. 

Gerald  J.  Rosenzweig,  Gallaudet  College.  General  archival  studies,  with  Mr. 
Richard  Lytle,  Smithsonian  Archives. 

298  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Program  in  Anthropology 

Lorraine  Bigman,  Navajo  Community  College,  Arizona.  General  anthropologi- 
cal archival  studies,  with  Dr.  Herman  Viola,  National  Museum  of  Natural 

Katherine  M.  Condli£fe,  George  Washington  University.  Analysis  of  Bushman 
camps,  with  Dr.  John  Yellen,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

J.  Richard  Haefer,  University  of  Illinois.  Study  of  Plains  Indians  musical  in- 
struments, with  Dr.  John  Ewers,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Afifa  Hassan,  Southern  Methodist  University.  Studies  on  bone  material  using 
X-ray  electron  microscope  and  microprobe,  with  Dr.  Donald  Ortner,  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History. 

David  Kiyaga-Mulindwa,  Johns  Hopkins  University.  Correlation  of  linguistic, 
archaeological,  ethnographic,  and  oral  data  in  reconstructing  the  Iron  Age  cul- 
tures of  East  and  Central  Africa,  with  Dr.  Gordon  Gibson,  National  Museum 
of  Natural  History. 

Joseph  M.  Konno,  Rider  College,  New  Jersey.  A  study  of  Puluwatan  naviga- 
tional lore,  with  Dr.  Saul  Riesenberg,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

James  H.  Nottage,  University  of  Wyoming.  Study  of  Plains  Indians  material 
culture,  with  Dr.  William  Sturtevant,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Peter  W.  Ochs,  Jewish  Theological  Seminary.  Transcription  and  analysis  of 
Puluwatan  oral  navigational  lore,  with  Dr.  Saul  Riesenberg,  National  Museum 
of  Natural  History. 

Arlyn  H.  Sharpe,  University  of  Maryland.  Studies  in  the  ethnographic  collec- 
tion, v/ith  Dr.  Eugene  Knez,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Augustine  Smith,  Navajo  Community  College,  Arizona.  General  anthropologi- 
cal archival  studies,  with  Dr.  Herman  Viola,  National  Museum  of  Natural 

Deborah  R.  Van  Brunt,  Yale  University.  Project  on  North  American  Indians, 
with  Dr.  William  Sturtevant,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Program  in  Earth  Sciences 

Katherine  DuVivier,  Williams  College.  Project  to  develop  an  experimental 
touch  exhibit,  with  Dr.  Harold  Banks,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Lana  M.  Everett,*  Swarthmore  College.  Bibliographic  cataloguing  for  Charles 
Darwin  Foundation  and  also  Galapagos  Islands  research,  with  Dr.  Thomas 
Simkin,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Lee  M.  Gray,*  Colgate  University.  Classification  of  Permian  brachiopods  from 
Pakistan,  with  Dr.  Richard  Grant,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Bonnie  B.  Robinson,*  Oberlin  College.  Petrological  study  of  historic  lavas 
from  Cascade  Mountains  to  South  America,  with  Dr.  James  Powell,  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Jo  Ann  Rosenfeld,*  Johns  Hopkins  Medical  School.  Study  of  fossil  marine 
mammals  with  Dr.  Clayton  Ray,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Appendix  2.  Academic  Appointments  I  299 

Program  in  Biology 

Trudie  L.  Blackwell,  Clemson  University.  Study  of  zoo  animal  medical  pro- 
cedures, with  Dr.  Clinton  Gray,  National  Zoological  Park. 

Fred  B.  Blood,  Virginia  Commonwealth  University.  Study  of  Unionid  fauna  of 
Atlantic  Central  Virginia,  with  Dr.  Joseph  Morrison,  National  Museum  of 
Natural  History. 

Philip  D.  Perkins,  University  of  Maryland.  Study  of  taxonomy  of  larval  stages 
of  Hydrophilidae  and  Hydraenidae,  with  Dr.  Paul  Spangler,  National  Museum 
of  Natural  History. 

Marceile  B.  Riddick,  Virginia  Commonwealth  University.  Collection  of  fresh 
water  mussels  in  Virginia,  with  Dr.  Joseph  Morrison,  National  Museum  of 
Natural  History. 

Program  in  the  History  of  Science  and  Technology 

Roy  S.  Klein,  Case  Western  Reserve  University.  Study  of  the  development  of 
American  steel  industry  using  the  Smithsonian's  Alexander  Holley  drawings, 
with  Dr.  Otto  Mayr,  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Elizabeth  C.  Luebbert,  Wellesley  College.  Work  on  the  Computer  History  Proj- 
ect, with  Mr.  Henry  S.  Tropp,  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Anne  M.  Millbrooke,  Boise  State  College.  Processing  and  handling  materials 
associated  with  the  Joseph  Henry  Papers,  with  Dr.  Nathan  Reingold,  Joseph 
Henry  Papers. 

Patricia  A.  Mooney,  University  of  Cincinnati.  Study  with  the  Joseph  Henry 
Papers,  with  Dr.  Nathan  Reingold,  Joseph  Henry  Papers. 

Robert  Rosecrans,  Yale  University.  Research  into  the  origins  of  pediatrics  as  a 
speciality  in  the  United  States  at  the  turn  of  the  20th  century,  with  Dr.  Audrey 
Davis,  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Janet  E.  Surkin,  University  of  California.  Research  for  the  Joseph  Henry 
Papers,  with  Dr.  Nathan  Reingold,  Joseph  Henry  Papers. 

Program  for  Museum  Interns 

This  program  is  supported  by  a  grant  from  the  National  Endowment  for  the 

Richard  E.  Beard,  Emory  University.  Training  in  museum  curatorship,  with 
Mr.  Marvin  Sadik,  National  Portrait  Gallery. 

Kenneth  A.  Yellis,  University  of  Rochester.  Training  in  museum  curatorship, 
with  Mr.  Marvin  Sadik,  National  Portrait  Gallery. 

Program  for  Cooperative  Education  Students 

Brenda  Lynch,  Antioch  College.  Development  of  a  media  program  involving 
both  photography  and  videotaping  of  museum  activities  relating  to  or  of  use 
for  the  educational  department,  with  Mrs.  Teresa  Grana,  National  Collection 
of  Fine  Arts. 

Edward  J.  Weisenbach,  Antioch  College.  Applications  of  media  in  museum 
programs,  with  Mrs.  Teresa  Grana,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

300  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Program  for  Cooperative  Fellows 

John  F.  Commander,  University  of  Maryland.  Preliminary  research  into  appli- 
cations of  aeronautical  and  space-related  scientific  and  technological  develop- 
ments to  Earth-bound  uses,  with  Dr.  Louis  Bucciarelli,  National  Air  and  Space 

Theodorus  Costopoulos,  George  Washington  University.  Investigation  of  how 
power  engineering  has  been  affected  by  technological  developments  within  the 
air  and  space  industry,  with  Dr.  Louis  Bucciarelli,  National  Air  and  Space 

Ronald  E.  Jutila,  Georgetown  University.  Investigations  of  spin-offs  of  space 
travel  technology  as  they  benefit  Earth-bound  apparatus,  with  Dr.  Louis  Buc- 
ciarelli, National  Air  and  Space  Museum. 

Richard  B.  LeBaron,  George  Washington  University.  Study  of  some  of  the  gen- 
eral societal  effects  of  air  and  space  technology  in  terms  of  attitude  shifts  and 
cultural  impacts,  with  Dr.  Louis  Bucciarelli,  National  Air  and  Space  Museum. 

James  D.  Maloney,  George  Washington  University.  Study  to  determine  which 
future  energy  source  developed  from  the  space  program  would  be  best  invest- 
ment for  future  payoff  in  meeting  and  relieving  some  of  the  energy  shortage, 
with  Dr.  Louis  Bucciarelli,  National  Air  and  Space  Museum. 

^         Program  in  Museum  Study 


Jane  Adams.  Organized  and  indexed  photos  and  slides  from  the  Pakistan  An- 
cient Technology  Program,  with  Dr.  Owen  Rye,  National  Museum  of  Natural 

Amanda  Brown,  New  College,  Florida.  Assisted  in  arrangement  of  anthro- 
pological archival  materials,  also  reference  and  correspondence  regarding  In- 
dian Art,  with  Mr.  James  Glenn,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Marianna  Doyle,  Dunbarton  College.  Undertook  the  duties  of  a  Museum  Tech- 
nician in  the  Department  of  Invertebrate  Zoology,  with  Dr.  Thomas  Bowman, 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Dale  Gnidovec,  Muskingum  College.  Worked  toward  familiarization  with  vari- 
ous ancillary  aspects  of  museum  work  anticipating  going  on  to  more  advanced 
level,  with  Dr.  Nicholas  Hotton,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Lois  Hentzschel,  Dunbarton  College.  Trained  to  learn  all  facets  of  museum 
operations,  specifically  registration,  exhibit,  and  conservation  procedures,  with 
Mr.  Lloyd  Herman,  Renwick  Gallery. 

Michel  Monsour,  Tulane  University.  Engaged  in  photographing  Washington 
Victorian  townhouses  threatened  with  demolition  in  the  vicinity  of  Judiciary 
Square  and  Dupont  Circle,  with  Mr.  James  Goode,  Smithsonian  Institution 

Nancy  Moore,  University  of  Maryland.  A  general  examination  of  Greek  coins, 
dealing  with  a  number  of  problems  encountered  in  research  in  this  area,  with 
Dr.  Vladimir  Clain-Stefanelli,  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Karen  L.  Moss,  University  of  Massachusetts.  Sorting  and  organizing  the  re- 
serve collection  from  China,  with  Dr.  Eugene  Knez,  National  Museum  of  Natu- 
ral History. 

Appendix  2.  Academic  Appointments  I  301 

Dennis  Mroczkowski,  George  Washington  University.  Research  on  and  iden- 
tification of  Zouave  uniforms  and  research  on  U.  S.  Army  field  uniforms,  1940- 
1953,  with  Mr.  Donald  Kloster,  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Dante  Querdo,  University  of  Massachusetts.  Research  to  prepare  an  annotated 
bibliography  of  all  manuscripts,  publications,  and  specimens  relating  to  James 
Smithson,  the  founder  of  the  Smithsonian,  with  Mr.  James  Goode,  Smithsonian 
Institution  Building. 

Nancy  Reichman,  New  College,  Florida.  Tabulating  and  preparing  a  large  body 
of  unpublished  data  on  American  Indians  from  the  1970  census  and  research  on 
Indians  east  of  the  Mississippi  River  and  correspondence  with  a  number  of 
Eastern  states  offices  in  obtaining  data  on  the  legal  status  of  present-day  Indians 
in  those  states,  with  Dr.  Samuel  Stanley,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Anita  Rolle,  College  of  Notre  Dame  of  Maryland.  Cataloguing  a  collection  of 
early  20th-century  dressmaking  fabrics,  with  Mrs.  Rita  Adrosko,  National  Mu- 
seum of  History  and  Technology. 

Nancy  Welch,  University  of  Massachusetts.  Independent  study  project  on  mu- 
seum education,  with  Mrs.  Teresa  Grana,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

302  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

APPENDIX  3.  Smithsonian  Associates  Membership,  1973-1974 

SPONSOR  MEMBER  ($10,000  and  up)         Mr.  Henry  J.  Heinz  II 

PATRON  MEMBERS  ($5,000  and  up) 

Mr.  William  Blackie 
Mr.  Paul  L.  Davies 

Mr.  Mandell  Ourisman 
Mr.  Arthur  K.  Watson* 

FOUNDER  MEMBERS  ($1,000  and  up) 

Mr.  Hilary  Barratt-Brown 
Mr.  Halleck  Lefferts 

Mr.  Judd  Kessler 
Mr.  Albert  Whiting 

SUSTAINING  MEMBERS  ($500  and  up) 

Mr.  Arthur  R.  Armstrong 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  C.  Barbour 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  W.  Bedell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  Emery  Buffum 

Mr.  Carter  Cafritz 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  H.  Hallock 

Mrs.  A.  Arlene  Hershey 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  McGreevey 

Mr.  John  Shedd  Read 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  B.  Whitney 

Mr.  Julius  Wile 

DONOR  MEMBERS  ($100,  and  up) 

Mrs.  Howard  Ahmanson 

Mrs.  Alice  Lloyd  Allen 

Mr.  Ivan  Allen,  Jr. 

Mr.  John  D.  Archbold 

Mrs.  Robert  Low  Bacon 

Mr.  Charles  E.  Baker 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  C.  Bast,  Jr. 

Mr.  Eduardo  Battistella 

The  Most  Reverend  William  W.  Baum 

Mrs.  and  Mrs.  Walter  Beck 

Miss  Margaret  E.  Biehl 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Reed  A.  Blackwell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  B.  Bogan 

Mr.  John  Bohorfoush 

Mr.  Albert  J.  Bows 

Mr.  Maxwell  Brace 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Montgomery  S.  Bradley 

Mrs.  Kendall  E.  Bragg 

Mr.  J.  Bruce  Bredin 

Mrs.  William  C.  Brewer 

Mrs.  J.  C.  Brown 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  H.  Buchanan 


Mr.  Walter  C.  Buhler 

The  Honorable  William  A.  M.  Burden 

Mrs.  Jackson  Burke 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  J.  A.  Burwell 

Mr.  E.  T.  Bryan 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  D.  Harold  Byrd 

Mrs.  James  MacGregor  Byrne 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  Cabaniss 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Conrad  Cafritz 

Dr.  Francis  E.  Cake 

Mr.  C.  H.  Candler,  Jr. 

Mrs.  I.  W.  Caplitz 

Mr.  Charles  C.  Caro 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Eugene  J.  Cetmar 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  G.  Chandler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  G.  Chapman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  G.  Howland  Chase 

Mrs.  Pricilla  Meek  Christy 

Miss  Irene  Clark 

Mrs.  C.  J.  Clifford 

Captain  Terrence  L.  Cohill 

Miss  John  Collett 

Appendix  3.  Smithsonian  Associates  I  303 

Donor  Members  ($100  and  up)  continued 

Mr.  Robert  M.  Comly 

Mrs.  Mary  Faye  Craft 

Mrs.  Horace  Craig 

Mrs.  Philip  Crawford 

Mrs.  U.  Haskill  Crocker 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Hugh  5. 

Miss  Viola  E.  Cureton 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Gilbert  Dalldorf 
Mrs.  D.  Innes  Dann 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  Dawson 
Dr.  Lewis  Hillard  Dennis 
General  Jacob  L.  Devers 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bern  Dibner 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Allen  T.  Dittman 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lowell  R.  Ditzen 
Captain  and  Mrs.  Robert  F.  Doss 
Miss  Claire  A.  Dye 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bryan  N.  Eagle 
Mrs.  Tom  J.  Eals 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  Eames 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Earnest 
Mr.  Gerald  S.  Eilberg 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Barton  Elliotte 
Miss  Ann  Erdman 
Miss  Gretchen  Estel 
Mr.  James  E.  Farrell,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Waldron  Faulkner 
Miss  Judith  R.  Fetter 
Mrs.  R.  A.  Fewlass 
Dr.  Leo  S.  Figiel 
Lieutenant  Colonel  and 

Mrs.  James  Fischer 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  H.  Fisher 
Mrs.  Lillie  Fitzgerald 
Rear  Admiral  and  Mrs.  Francis  Fleck 
The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Edward  Foley 
Mrs.  Rowland  G.  Freeman 
Miss  Margaret  Mary  Frowe 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Geoffrey  Fuller 
Miss  Joyce  Fuller 
Mr.  Walter  5.  Furlow 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sebastian  Gaeda 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  Gardner 
Mrs.  T.  Fleetwood  Garner 
Mr.  T.  Jack  Gary 
Mr.  W.  E.  Gathright 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Carl  S.  Gewirz 
Mr.  Philip  M.  Gignaux 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  O.  Rundle  Gilbert 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  T.  K.  Glennan 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  Glover  III 
Colonel  and  Mrs.  Julius  Goldstein 

Mrs.  Katherine  Graham 

Mrs.  Beatrice  B.  Gray 

Dr.  Shelia  H.  Gray 

Mr.  Hix  H.  Green,  Jr. 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Benjamin  Greenberg 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Homer  Gudelsky 

Mrs.  Glenn  R.  Hall 

Mr.  Courtnay  C.  Hamilton 

Miss  Francis  G.  Hamilton 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Earl  Hamner 

Mr.  Gordon  Hanes 

Miss  Morcella  R.  Hansen 

Miss  Clare  Hardy 

Dr.  Mary  Hardy 

Mrs.  Barbara  Harrison 

Mrs.  Fred  H.  Harsh 

Miss  Katherine  Hart 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Carleton  Hascall 

Mrs.  Bruce  Hassinger 

Mrs.  J.  R.  Haynes 

Mrs.  Patrick  Healy 

Mr.  W.  J.  Henderson 

Mrs.  John  L.  Hess 

Miss  Ingeborg  Hochhausler 

Mr.  Walter  J.  Hodges 

Mrs.  Kenneth  M.  Hoeffel 

Miss  Novella  Hollifield 

Mr.  Roger  E.  Holtman 

Mr.  Arthur  A.  Houghton 

Miss  Elizabeth  Houghton* 

Lieutenant  Colonel  and 

Mrs.  S.  S.  Houston 
Mr.  W.  Barrett  Howell 
Mrs.  Edward  F.  Hutton 
Miss  Barbara  D.  Hyde 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  N.  Ikard 
Mrs.  Mary  Ellen  Johansen 
Mrs.  Paul  C.  Johnson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  C.  Keller 
Miss  Irene  Kent 
Mr.  Walter  H.  Kidd 
Mrs.  John  Kimball 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  R.  Knowlton 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  Knox,  Jr. 
Mr.  Harold  C.  Kohfeld 
Colonel  and  Mrs.  Charles  W.  Kouns 
Mrs.  Paul  H.  Krauss 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  Lloyd  Kreeger 
Mr.  Peter  Kussi 
Mrs.  Percy  L.  Kynaston 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.  J.  Lanaham 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Anthony  A.  Lapham 
Mrs.  Oscar  Lasdon 


304  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Dr.  K.  C.  Latven 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Larry  Laughlin 

Mrs.  Sylvia  Laurenti 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Fleming  Law 

Mrs.  Fleming  Law  Sr. 

Mrs.  Mortimer  C.  Lebowitz 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  E.  Lee 

Miss  Marguerite  Lehaurin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  G.  Carroll  Lindsay 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Owen  S.  Lindsay 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ray  Lindsay 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Daniel  P.  Loomis 

Mrs.  Irving  Lord 

Miss  Kate  Lord 

Mr.  J.  Victor  Lowi 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  J.  Lusk 

Mr.  Edmond  C.  Lynch 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alex  C.  Maclntyre 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kurt  Mann 

Mrs.  Julia  O.  Martin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leaton  E.  Martin 

Mr.  Donald  L.  McCathran 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Martin  E.  McCavitt 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  McGhee 

Reverend  Brian  A.  McGrath 

Mrs.  Frank  E.  McKee 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  H.  McLaren 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  McLaughlin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  L.  McManus 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leo  A.  McNalley 

Mr.  Edward  J.  McNally 

Mr.  Frederick  A.  Melhado 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  W.  Metz 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  Miller 

Mrs.  Nicholas  Molodovsky 

Mrs.  William  Mordin 

Mr.  James  Morgan 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wendell  Morris 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Carl  J.  Mulert 

U.  V.  Musico  Foundation 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bernard  Nath 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Pierce  Noble 

Mr.  Gerson  Nordlinger,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Janet  B.  Nunnelley 

Mr.  Robert  O'Brien 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bernard  O'Conner 

Mrs.  Eugene  O'Dunne 

Mr.  Michael  O'Keefe 

Mr.  Pietro  Orcino 

Mrs.  Dawson  Painter 

Dr.  Joy  Palm 

Mr.  G.  P.  Pancer 

Miss  Katherine  Pantzer 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  Jefferson 

Miss  Ruth  Uppercu  Paul 

Professor  Norman  H.  Pearson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edmond  Pendleton 

Mr.  Alfred  H.  Peterson,  Jr. 

Mr.  Tucker  W.  Peterson 

Mrs.  Charles  Emory  Phillips 

Mr.  Abe  Pollin 

Miss  Katherine  Anne  Porter 

Mrs.  T.  Randolph  Potter 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Prado 

Mrs.  Harry  A.  Precourt 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Jerold  Principato 

Miss  Nancy  J.  Pritchard 

Mrs.  Richard  Quaintance 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Ernest  Rafey 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sargetn  M.  Reynolds 

Miss  Jane  Rinke 

Mr.  James  H.  Ripley 

Mr.  Donald  H.  Robinson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  L.  Rogers 

Mrs.  John  S.  Rudd 

Mr.  William  R.  Saloman 

Mr.  Michael  F.  Sawyer 

Mr.  R.  E.  Schoenfeld 

Mrs.  Jerome  Schwabe 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  H.  Scully 

Mr.  James  G.  Shakeman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  W.  Shaw 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cecil  F.  Shelton 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Neil  R.  Smith 

Mrs.  Page  W.  Smith 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  E.  Smith 

Mrs.  Margery  N.  Snyder 

Miss  Irene  M.  Sorrough 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  T.  Dale  Stewart 

Mrs.  Catherine  C.  Stimpson 

Mrs.  David  Stockwell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  C.  Stonerod 

Mrs.  Arthur  H.  Sulzberger 

Mrs.  Edward  C.  Sweeney 

Mrs.  Martha  Frick  Symington 

Mr.  James  B.  Taylor 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  Teale 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  P.  Thielens 

Mr.  Joseph  A.  Thomas 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  I.  Thompson 

Mrs.  Anna  Thornberry 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  G.  Townsend 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  Tracey 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  J.  S.  Tressler 

United  Steelworkers  of  America 

Miss  Eva  B  VanSchaack 

Mr.  G.  Duane  Vieth 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Julius  Wadsworth 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs.  James  Webb 

Mr.  Jervis  B.  Webb 

Mrs.  John  Webber 

Appendix  3.  Smithsonian  Associates  I  305 

Donor  Members  ($100  and  up)  continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  S.  Weedon 
Mrs.  Norma  Christine  Wertz 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  B.  Whitney 
Miss  Edith  S.  Wicksell 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  R.  Wiggins 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alanson  Willcox 
Mrs.  Harry  G.  Wilson 
Mrs.  William  E.  Wilson 

Mrs.  David  Wilstein 

Mrs.  Mark  Winkler 

Mrs.  Jean  Winslow 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Curtin  Winsor,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  T.  Wojno 

Mr.  Herman  Wouk 

Mr.  Thomas  Ziebold 

SUPPORTING  MEMBERS  ($50  and  up) 

Reverend  and  Mrs.  F.  Everett  Abbott 

Mr.  Allan  Akman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stanley  N.  Allan 

Mr.  Richard  Lee  Angle 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Rudolph  Arkins 

Asian  Gem  Distributors,  Ltd. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  W.  Auchincloss 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  R.  Atkinson 

Mr.  Joseph  Baker 

Mrs.  Carol  P.  Banks 

Mr.  Jeffery  O.  Barnes 

Mr.  Harry  C.  Bauer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Martin  E.  Bayol 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  E.  Becker 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  H.  Berkey 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  James  F.  Bing 

Mr.  Richard  Lee  Birchler 

Mr.  Robert  D.  Blake 

Mr.  Frank  Bliss,  Jr. 

The  Honorable  Francis  P.  Bolton 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  Bonsai 

Mr.  Warick  P.  Bonsai 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  J.  Bowman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  F.  Boyd 

Mrs.  Eugenie  Rowe  Bradford 

Mr.  Raymond  A.  Brady 

William  L.  Brannon,  Jr.,  M.D. 

Colonel  Richard  Brown 

Mr.  David  M.  Brown 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  D.  Brown 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Andrew  Brown 

Mr.  Donald  J.  Bruckmann 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Bruning 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frederick  B.  Bryant 

Mr.  Alvin  J.  Buchanan,  Jr. 

Mr.  Wiley  T.  Buchanan,  Jr. 

Mr.  L  Townsend  Burden 

Mrs.  Therese  Burleson 

Mrs.  Henry  A.  Caesar  2nd 

Mr.  Terrence  L.  Cahill 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  M.  Calland 

Mr.  Anthony  C.  Cambell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  Caplan 

Mr.  Philip  L.  Garret 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Douglas  H.  Carter 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  Gary 

Mr.  Sebastino  J.  Castro 

Mr.  K.  Dexter  Cheney 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Timothy  W.  Childs 

Mr.  Edward  J.  Cohen 

Mr.  Robert  M.  Comly 

Mrs.  Ethel  Conlisk 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Corbet 

Miss  Patricia  E.  Coyle 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  B.  Culver 

Captain  and  Mrs.  Victor  Delano 

Mr.  R.  Samuel  Dillon,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ewen  C.  Dingwell 

Mr.  Alden  Lowell  Doud 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kenneth  Drummond 

Mr.  James  M.  Duncan  III 

Mr.  Philip  A.  Dusault 

Miss  Fredette  S.  Eagle 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  Kenneth  Edwards 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  B.  Eichholz 

Mr.  Truxtun  Emerson 

Miss  Ann  Erdman 

Mr.  Timothy  Evans 

Mr.  S.  Joseph  Fantl 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Irving  Fiest 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  A.  L.  Fjordbotten 

Mrs.  Julius  Flieschmann 

Mrs.  Maury  Forman 

Mrs.  Rockwood  Foster 

Dr.  Donald  E.  Frein 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  H.  Fribourg 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  G.  Gaede 

Mr.  John  W.  Galston 

Mr.  Barry  K.  Gibson 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Roy  S.  Gillinson 

Mr.  Moses  J.  Gozonsky 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Grattan 

Miss  Estelle  M.  Greenhill 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gerald  B.  Greenwald 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  James  B.  Gregory 

Miss  Jeanne  Griest 

306  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Miss  Margaret  Groben 

Mrs.  C.  B.  Groce 

Miss  Virginia  H.  Groomes 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ernest  W.  Grove 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alvin  Guttag 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  H.  Hagemeyer 

Mr.  Irving  B.  Harris 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  Hart  and  Family 

Mr.  Philip  H.  Haselton 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  R.  Glenn  Hawthorne 

Mr.  Ronald  E.  Haydanek 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Randolph  A.  Hearst 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  L.  M.  Hellman 

Mr.  Frederick  R.  Henley 

Mrs.  Ernest  L.  Hermann 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Blair  Higinbotham 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  B.  Holden 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Rez  D.  Hopper 

Mrs.  Linda  B.  Howard 

Mrs.  Henry  H.  Hoyt 

Mr.  John  Baird  Hudson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  H.  Hughes 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  R.  Hunter 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Claude  Hurd 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  D.  Hurd 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  T.  Jans 

Mr.  W.  N.  Jersin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  D.  Johnson 

Dr.  Donald  A.  Johnson 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  F.  M.  Johnson,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Albert  Jung 

Mr.  W.  John  Kenney 

Mrs.  Marie  Kent 

Herbert  Kersten,  M.D. 

Mr.  Charles  T.  Kindsvatter 

Dr.  Harold  King 

Mrs.  Viola  R.  King 

Mrs.  C.  Edwin  Kline 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  K.  Knee 

Mr.  Lawrence  J.  Korwin 

Mr.  Bogumil  Kosciesza 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  R.  L.  Kranker 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Wolfgang  H.  Kraus 

Mrs.  Paul  H.  Krauss 

Miss  S.  Victoria  Krusiewski 

Mr.  John  T.  Lawrence 

Miss  Gertrude  Leach 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  M.  Lederer 

Mr.  Howard  R.  Leederman 

Mr.  Andrew  Leonard 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  R.  Leuba 

Mr.  William  C.  Lewis 

Miss  Jane  T.  Lingo 

Miss  Patric  G.  Link 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sol  M.  Linowitz 

Adgate  A.  Lipscomb  and  Son 

Kathleen  E.  Lloyd,  M.D. 

Mrs.  Demarest  Lloyd 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stephen  Low 

Mr.  Harry  Lunn 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  R.  S.  Lusk,  Jr. 

Mr.  Robert  E.  Lynch,  Jr. 

Mr.  Frank  R.  Lyons 

Mrs.  J.  Noel  Macy 

Mrs.  James  T.  Magee 

Mrs.  Katherine  Magraw 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gershom  R.  Makepeace 

Major  and  Mrs.  George  S.  Mansfield 

Mr.  Charles  L.  Marks 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leonard  H.  Marks 

Mr.  Howard  J.  Mason,  Jr. 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Francis  Mayle,  Jr. 

Captain  and  Mrs.  Charles  McCall 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  W.  McEachren 

Mr.  Edward  J.  McNally 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Edgar  M.  McPeak 

Mrs.  R.  B.  Menapace 

Mrs.  Ida  C.  Merriam 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Norman  J.  Mersamer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dennis  M.  Michael 

Mr.  E.  P.  Moore 

Mrs.  W.  Gillespie  Moore 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  James  Moulthrop 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  H.  Muncy 

Miss  Lee  Muth 

Mr.  Bruce  H.  Nelson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  E.  Newby 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Barry  Newton 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Lloyd  Niles 

Mrs.  F.  C.  Noble 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  Norden  and  Family 

Mr.  Newbold  Noyes 

Mr.  Robert  O'Brien 

Major  General  &  Mrs.  Thetus  C.  Odom 

Mrs.  John  B.  Ogilvie 

Mr.  Thomas  O'Hare 

Mr.  Michael  O'Keefe 

Mr.  Kenneth  B.  Osmun 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  J.  R.  Pales 

Miss  Patricia  C.  Patch 

Mr.  Harry  A.  Paynter 

Mr.  William  A.  Paznekas 

Mr.  C.  Wesley  Peebles,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  W.  Pence,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  E.  Perez 

Miss  Jo  Perrill 

Mr.  Tucker  W.  Peterson 

Captain  and  Mrs.  Phillips 

Mr.  Joseph  B.  Phillips 

Mrs.  Ogden  Phipps 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Pierce 

Mr.  W.  Sutton  Potter 

Appendix  3.  Smithsonian  Associates  I  307 

Donor  Members  ($50  and  up)  continued 

Mr.  Donald  H.  Price 

Mr.  Douglas  S.  Price 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mark  Ragel 

Mr.  Conrad  Raker 

Colonel  J.  V.  Rambeau 

Mr.  Michael  Raoul-Duval 

Mrs.  Albert  J.  Redway 

Dr.  Michal  J.  Rielly 

Mr.  John  M.  Rhodes 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  E.  Richards 

John  E.  Richardson,  M.D. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Eugene  H.  Rietzke 

Mrs.  David  Roberts  III 

Miss  Silvia  G.  Roberts 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  L.  Robertson 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  S.  David  Rockoff 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Milton  E.  Rose 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Newell  Rossman 

Mr.  Robert  J.  Rovang 

Mrs.  John  Barry  Ryan 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Abner  Sacks 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  David  L.  Salmon,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  Sanger,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  Sapadin 

Mr.  B.  Francis  Saul 

Mr.  S.  M.  Saul 

Mrs.  Francis  B.  Sayre,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  Schleiffer 

Mr.  Alan  N.  Schneider 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Saul  Schwartzback 

Mr.  J.  J.  Selfridge 

Mr.  G.  William  Shea 

Mrs.  Bernice  Sherwin 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  George  L.  Sigalos 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  R.  Sigmon 

Mr.  Jack  Silberman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  P.  Skinner 

Mr.  Sanford  Slavin 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  C.  Haskell  Small 

The  Honorable  and 

Mrs.  Gerald  C.  Smith 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joe  Pitts  Smith 
Mr.  Lamar  A.  Smith 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  T.  Smith 
Miss  Shirley  A.  Smith 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Larry  Snodgrass 
Mr.  J.  Morse  Sonith 

Mr.  Harold  A.  Soulis 

Commander  and  Mrs.  Lane  L.  Spencer 

Mr.  Raymond  Staples 

Mrs.  Beck  Stein 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  L.  Sugarman 

Mr.  David  Sutherland 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  R.  Sutter 

Mrs.  Mary  Davidson  Swift 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  M.  Szabad 

Mr.  Joseph  M.  Tessmer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  B.  Thomson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  W.  Thoron 

Miss  Linda  Tiexera 

Mr.  Stirling  Tomkins 

Mr.  John  E.  Toole 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  Buel  Trowbridge 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  E.  Russell  True,  Jr. 

Truland  Foundation 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  E.  Tuttle 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  C.  Van  Dusen 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  Varner 

Miss  Joan  Nancy  Vorobey 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  A.  E.  P.  Wall 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Edmond  Walsh 

General  and  Mrs.  L.  A.  Walsh,  Jr. 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  P.  Ward 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  B.  Watson 

Mr.  Ridley  Watts 

Mr.  David  Wechsler 

Mr  Thomas  R.  Weinel 

Mr.  Ernest  G.  Weiss 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stanley  Westreich 

Mrs.  Edwin  N.  Wheeler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  L.  White 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dallas  R.  Wicker 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Warren  Wiggins 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gordon  Wiley 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  H.  Wilkinson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Anthony  Wilson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edwin  F.  Wilson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Luke  W.  Wilson 

Mrs.  Orme  Wilson 

Mr.  David  L.  Wood 

Mrs.  Leslie  H.  Wyman 

Mr.  Robert  C.  A.  Zetro 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  R.  Zuckerman 


The  Institution  gratefully  acknowledges  the  generosity  and  enthusiasm  of  the 
following  individuals  who  became  Life  Members  during  the  years  1965  through 
1971,  when  life  memberships  in  Smithsonian  Associates  were  available. 

308  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

FOUNDER  MEMBERS  ($1000  and  up) 

Mr.  Irwin  Belk 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

David  K.  E.  Bruce 
Mrs.  Morris  Cafritz 
The  Honorable  Douglas  Dillon 
Mr.  Charles  E.  Eckles 

The  Honorable  and  Mrs. 

John  Clifford  Folger 
Mr.  Cornelius  Van  S.  Roosevelt 
Mr.  Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr. 
Mr.  P.  A.  B.  Widener 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sidney  S.  Zlotnick 

SUSTAINING  MEMBERS  ($500  and  up) 

Mrs.  Anna  Bing  Arnold 

Mrs.  Theodore  Babbitt 

Mr.  Joel  Barlow 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  Barnes 

Mr.  William  R.  Biggs 

Mr.  George  A.  Binney 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  D.  Blatt 

Miss  Fay  Boyle 

Mrs.  L.  Roosevelt  Bramwell 

Mr.  A.  Marvin  Braverman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Nicholas  Brown 

Mr.  Bertram  F.  Brummer 

Mrs.  Leon  Campbell,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Leonard  Carmichael 

Dr.  Rita  Chow 

Clarke  and  Rapuano  Foundation 

(Mr.  Gilmore  D.  Clarke) 
Mrs.  Frances  A.  Davila 
Mr.  Newell  W.  Ellison 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alfred  U.  Elser,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  S.  Friedman 
Mr.  Richard  F.  Fuller 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hy  Garfinkel 
Mr.  George  A.  Garret 
Mr.  Carl  S.  Gewirz 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Crawford  Greenewalt 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gilbert  C.  Greenway 
Mr.  William  H.  Greer,  Jr. 
Mr.  Melville  B.  Grosvenor 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Homer  Gudelsky 
Mr.  Gilbert  Hahn 
Mr.  Laurence  Harrison 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Hirshhorn 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Christian  Hohenlohe 

Mr.  Philip  Johnson 

Miss  Brenda  Kuhn 

Mr.  Harold  F.  Linder 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  Leon  Mandel 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Willard  Marriott 

The  Honorable  William  McC. 

Martin,  Jr. 
Lieutenant  Commander  and  Mrs. 

P.  J.  Maveety 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Mellon 
Miss  Katherine  A.  A.  Murphy 
Neuberger  Foundation  Incorporated 

(Roy  R.  and  Marie  S.  Neuberger) 
Duke  of  Northumberland 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Melvin  M.  Payne 
Miss  Lucy  M.  Pollio 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Peter  Powers 
Miss  Elsie  Howland  Quinby 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  S.  Dillon  Ripley 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Seymour  J.  Rubin 
Mr.  H.  C.  Seherr-Thoss 
Mrs.  Jouett  Shouse 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Carl  Swan  Shultz 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  H.  Smith 
Mr.  Robert  T.  Smith 
Miss  Sally  Sweetland 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bertrand  L.  Taylor  III 
Mrs.  Clark  W.  Thompson 
Mrs.  Carl  Tucker 
Mr.  Alexander  O.  Vietor 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  W.  Warner 
Dr.  Alexander  Westmore 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  Bradley  Willard 
Mrs.  Rose  Saul  Zalles 


The  Smithsonian  Institution  thanks  the  following  business  organizations  for 
i their  understanding  and  generous  support  of  the  Institution's  research  and 
education  programs  through  membership  in  the  Smithsonian  Associates. 

American  Express  Badger  Meter,  Inc. 

American  Metal  Climax  Foundation,  Inc.  Caterpillar  Tractor  Co. 
Arthur  Andersen  and  Company  Celanese  Corporation 

AVCO  Corporation  The  Coca  Cola  Company 

Appendix  3.  Smithsonian  Associates  I  309 

Corporation  Memberships  (Continued) 

Continental  Oil  Company 

Dana  Corporation 

Deere  &  Company 

El  Paso  Natural  Gas  Company 

The  First  National  Bank  of  Miami 

The  B.  F.  Goodrich  Company 

International  Business  Machines 

International  Telephone  and  Telegraph 

S.  S.  Kresge  Company 
The  Magnavox  Company 
Mobil  Oil  Corporation 
Philip  Morris  Incorporated 

National  Bank  of  Detroit 

Northwest  Industries,  Inc. 

Olin  Corporation 

PACCAR,  Inc. 

R.  J.  Reynolds  Industries,  Inc. 

Levi  Strauss  &  Co. 

TRW  Inc. 

Transcontinental  Gas  Pipe  Line 

Trust  Company  of  Georgia  Foundation 
Hiram  Walker  &  Sons  Inc. 
Wells  Fargo  Bank 
Winn-Dixie  Stores,  Inc. 


This  body  was  created  in  October  1971  to  assist  the  Institution  in  the  pursuit 
of  certain  of  its  aims  for  the  decade  of  the  1970s,  particularly  in  the  develop- 
ment of  its  relations  with  industry.  While  the  Institution  hopes  to  advance  its 
goals  in  public  education  and  environmental  studies  through  increased  private 
support,  it  seeks,  in  turn,  to  serve  the  educational  and  community  interests  of 
its  Corporate  Members.  We  are  grateful  for  the  energy  and  concern  shown  by 
the  members  of  the  Board. 

Lewis  A.  Lapham,  Chairman 
Harry  Hood  Bassett 
William  Blackie 
John  W.  Brooks 
Richard  P.  Cooley 
Joseph  F.  Cullman  3rd 
Harry  B.  Cunningham 
Paul  L.  Davies 
Leonard  K.  Firestone 
Charles  T.  Fisher  III 
G.  Keith  Funston 
Alfred  C.  Glassell,  Jr. 
Mrs.  David  L.  Guyer 
Ben  W.  Heineman 

Henry  J.  Heinz  II 
William  A.  Hewitt 
Frank  Y.  Larkin 
George  C.  McGhee 
Mrs.  Robert  S.  McNamara 
Ruben  F.  Mettler 
Roger  Milliken 
Charles  M.  Pigott 
Mrs.  Malcolm  Price 
Francis  C.  Rooney,  Jr. 
Merritt  Kirk  Ruddock 
Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr. 
James  O.  Wright 


310  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

APPENDIX  4.  Progress  on  Building  Construction,  Restoration, 
and  Renovation 

Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum.  The  construction  of  the  Exhibit  Design  and 
Production  Laboratory  is  40  percent  complete  with  the  entire  project  due  to 
be  finished  in  the  fall  of  1974. 

Arts  and  Industries  Building.  Contract  was  awarded  for  the  restoration  and 
air  conditioning  of  the  building,  and  5  percent  of  the  construction  work, 
which  began  in  March  1974,  has  been  completed.  In  addition,  fire  protection 
systems,  exterior  lighting,  and  restroom  facilities  were  completed.  The  restora- 
tion and  renovation  project  is  scheduled  for  completion  in  the  third  quarter  of 
fiscal  year  1976. 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies.  Construction  of  the  Visitor 
Center  and  Dormitory  was  initiated  in  the  last  quarter  with  completion  sched- 
uled for  the  fall  of  1974.  The  Jefferson  Island  renovation  and  bulkheading  de- 
sign work  reached  the  95  percent  completion  stage,  and  the  construction 
contract  award  and  beginning  of  work  will  occur  late  this  fiscal  year. 

Fine  Arts  and  Portrait  Galleries.  Design  of  the  exterior  lighting  plan  is  90 
percent  complete.  The  third  floor  renovation  is  30  percent  complete  with  the 
first  floor  corridor  renovation  95  percent  complete.  Staff  and  public  lunchroom 
construction  was  completed,  and  these  facilities  are  expected  to  be  operating 
by  the  end  of  this  fiscal  year. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden.  Construction  is  approximately  95 
percent  complete  with  the  public  opening  scheduled  for  the  late  fall  of  1974. 

History  and  Technology  Building.  The  execution  of  the  exterior  lighting  plan 
was  completed.  North  terrace  and  roof  repairs  were  finished.  Design  for  the 
Library  addition  is  progressing,  as  is  the  design  for  the  remodeled  Conserva- 
tion Analytical  Laboratory.  Construction  for  the  latter  is  scheduled  for 
completion  in  the  fall  of  1974. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum.  Construction  is  45  percent  complete  with  the 
scheduled  opening  to  the  public  set  for  July  4,  1976.  Initial  occupancy  is 
scheduled  for  the  late  summer  of  1975. 

National  Zoological  Park.  Construction  of  the  Monkey  House  and  Cheetah 
facility  are  25  percent  completed  in  accordance  with  the  Master  Plan.  During 
the  year,  demolition  of  the  Lion  House  took  place  and  construction  will  be 
initiated  in  the  first  quarter  of  next  fiscal  year.  Projected  completion  of  the 
new  facility  is  scheduled  for  the  third  quarter  of  fiscal  year  1977.  Also,  in 
conjunction  with  the  Master  Plan,  the  general  services  and  parking  facility 
design  is  95  percent  completed.  Still  in  the  design  stages  are  the  Elephant  Yard 
and  Bird  Area.  Appropriations  for  design  and  site  development  of  the  Con- 
servation Center,  Front  Royal,  Virginia,  Master  Plan  will  be  included  in  the 
fiscal  year  1976  budget  request. 

Appendix  4.  Progress  on  Building  Construction  I  311 

Natural  History  Building.  Constuction  of  administrative  and  production  space 
is  30  percent  complete  for  the  Center  for  the  Study  of  Man.  Design  of  the 
building's  exterior  lighting  plan  was  completed  and  also  the  specifications  for 
the  Library  expansion.  Contract  awards  are  expected  to  be  made  in  the  first 
quarter  of  fiscal  year  1975. 

Silver  Hill  Facility.  Construction  work  on  Building  24  was  initiated  and  is 
75  percent  completed.  Building  25  construction  is  15  percent  completed.  Both 
buildings  should  be  finished  by  the  fall  of  1974. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Building.  Humidification  system  installation  was  com- 
pleted. The  planning  and  design  phase  of  the  South  Yard  development  and 
restoration  is  underway. 

Bicentennial  Exhibit  Construction.  Demolition  and  construction  will  begin  in 
the  first  quarter  of  next  fiscal  year  for  the  "Nation  of  Nations"  exhibit  in  the 
History  and  Technology  building.  Construction  was  started  for  the  "Of  the 
People,  By  the  People,  For  the  People"  exhibit  for  the  History  and  Technology 
building.  Design  was  completed  for  the  "Ecology  200"  exhibit  for  the  Natural 
History  building.  In  the  Arts  and  Industries  building,  the  planning  is  nearing 
completion  for  the  exhibit  of  the  re-creation  of  the  Centennial.  All  exhibit! 
projects  are  scheduled  for  completion  prior  to  the  Bicentennial. 

312  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

APPENDIX  5.  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  Grants 
Awarded  in  Fiscal  Year  1974 


American  Institute  of  Indian  Studies,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania.  Continued 
support  for  administration,  Benares  Center  for  Art  and  Archeology,  and  re- 
search fellowships  (India). 

American  Museum  of  Natural  History.  New  York,  New  York.  Excavation  at  the 
Harappan  site  of  Allahdino  in  the  Malir  Area,  Karachi  District,  Pakistan. 

American  Research  Center  in  Egypt,  Princeton,  New  Jersey.  Continued  support 
for  a  program  of  research  and  excavation  in  Egypt:  support  for  operation  of  the 
Cairo  Center,  fellowship  support,  maintenance  of  archeological  research  at  the 
site  of  Hierakonpolis  (Nekhen)  in  Edfu  District,  survey  of  Arabic  scientific 
manuscripts  in  Cairo,  maintenance  of  a  stratified  pharonic  site  in  the  Egyptian 
delta  at  Mendes,  Akhenaten  Temple  project,  research  in  modern  Arabic  litera- 
ture, continuation  of  an  epigraphic  and  architectural  survey  at  Luxor  of  the 
Oriental  Institute,  feasibility  of  clearing,  conserving,  and  recording  the  tomb  of 
King  Ramesses  II  in  the  Valley  of  the  Kings,  an  egyptological  conference, 
editing  the  Nag  Hammadi  codices. 

Boston  University,  Boston,  Massachusetts.  Archeological  excavations  at  Stobi 

Dumbarton  Oaks  Center  for  Byzantine  Studies,  Washington,  D.C.  A  corpus  of 
the  ancient  mosaics  of  Tunisia. 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Department  of  Anthropology,  Washington,  D.C. 
Helmand-Sistan  projects:  studies  of  historical  ecology. 

Southern  Methodist  University,  Dallas,  Texas.  The  Pleistocene  sediments  of  the 
Nile  Valley,  Egypt. 

State  University  of  New  York  at  Buffalo,  New  York.  Investigations  on  the 
Neolithic  sites  in  Southeastern  Poland. 

University  of  California,  Berkeley,  California.  Archeological  excavations  at  the 
Harappan  Seaport  of  Balakot,  Pakistan. 

University  of  Minnesota,  Minneapolis,  Minnesota.  Excavations  in  Diocletian's 
Palace  at  Split,  Yugoslavia. 

University  of  Missouri,  Columbia,  Missouri.  Research  and  study  of  Early 
Medieval  Polish  archeology. 

University  of  Pennsylvania,  University  Museum,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 
The  Dira  Abu  el-Naga  project  (Egypt). 

University  of  Pennsylvania,  University  Museum,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 
Excavation  within  the   town  and  harbour  site  of  Malkata,  Western  Thebes 


Appendix  5.  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  I  313 


Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania.  Biochemical  investi- 
gations of  diploid  and  triploid  frogs  of  the  Rana  esculenta  complex  (Poland). 

Duke  University,  Durham,  North  Carolina.  Exploitation  of  habitats  by  chemi- 
cally differentiated  races  of  morphologically  uniform  lichen-forming  fungi 

Harvard  University,  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Cambridge,  Massachu- 
setts. Study  of  the  dentition  of  Cretaceous  mammals  of  Mongolia  (Poland). 

Howard  University,  Washington,  D.C.  Cenozoic  mammals  of  Pakistan. 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Department  of  Botany,  Washington,  D.C.  Revision  of 

Trimen's  Handbook  to  the  Flora  of  Ceylon. 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Department  of  Paleobiology,  Washington,  D.C.  Com- 
parative study  and  geography  of  selected  Devonian  and  Permian  corals  in 
Poland  and  the  U.S.A. 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Office  of  International  and  Environmental  Programs, 

Washington,  D.C.  Limnological  investigations  of  Lake  Ohrid  (Yugoslavia), 
limnological  investigations  of  Skadar  Lake  (Yugoslavia),  Mediterranean  Marine 
Sorting  Center  (Tunisia). 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Tropical  Research  Institute,  Balboa,  Canal  Zone. 
Ecology  of  freshwater  lakes  in  Panama  (Poland). 

Texas  Tech  University,  Lubbock,  Texas.  Mammals  of  the  Adriatic  islands  and 
adjacent  mainland  of  Yugoslavia. 

University  of  California,  Berkeley,  California.  A  biosystematic  comparison  of 
the  siphonocladales  (Chlorophyta)  (Tunisia). 

University  of  California,  Berkeley,  California.  Comparative  study  of  Late 
Cretaceous  Mongolian  and  North  American  mammals  (Poland). 

University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan.  Systematic  studies  of  the  mol- 
luscan  genus  Bulinus  in  Africa  and  adjacent  regions  (Egypt). 

University  of  Utah,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah.  The  evolution  of  optimal  reproductive 
strategies  (India). 

Utah  State  University,  Logan,  Utah.  Systems  analysis  of  the  PreSaharan  eco- 
system of  Southern  Tunisia. 

Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Connecticut.  Paleoanthropology,  paleontology, 
and  stratigraphy  of  Neogene  localities  in  Pakistan. 


Duke  University,  Durham,  North  Carolina.  Studies  in  Lake  of  Tunis. 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Astrophysical  Observatory,  Cambridge,  Massachu- 
setts. Operation  of  the  Uttar  Pradesh  State  Observing  Station  at  Naini  Tal 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Department  of  Mineral  Sciences,  Washington,  D.C. 
Lonar  Meteorite  Crater  project  (India). 

University  of  Washington,  Seattle,  Washington.  Color  magnitude  diagrams  for . 
young  star  clusters  in  magellanic  clouds  (Poland). 

314  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


Smithsonian  Institution,  Department  of  Science  and  Technology,  Washington, 
D.C.  Publication  in  Islamic  medicine  in  the  thirteenth  century  (Egypt). 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Office  of  Museum  Programs,  Washington,  D.C.  Publi- 
cation of  ICOM's  The  Protection  of  Cultural  Property:  handbook  of  national 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Traveling  Exhibition  Service,  Washington,  D.C.  Study 
and  exhibition  of  Wissa  Wassef  tapestries  from  Egypt. 

Appendix  5.  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  /  315 

APPENDIX  6.  News  Releases,  Radio  Programs,  and  Leaflets  Issued 
by  the  Office  of  Public  Affairs  in  Fiscal  Year  1974 


Musical  Director  Will  Speak  in  Associates  Series  July  12 
Jonas  Mekas  Film  Will  Open  Associates  Summer 

James  Billington  Will  Direct  Wilson  Center  for  Scholars 
Have  ESP?  July  Smithsonian  Offers  Do-It- Yourself  Tests 
Finest  Known  Model  Rocket  Collection  Given  to 

National  Air  &  Space  Museum 
Grand  Style  Prints,  Objects  on  View  at  National 

Collection  of  Fine  Arts 
Display  Sale  of  George  Ohr  Pottery  Complements 

Renwick  Gallery  Exhibit 
N.Y.  Light  Ensemble  Will  Perform  in  Smithsonian 

Associates  Program 
"Antwerps's  Golden  Age"  Highlights  Smithsonian's 

Summer  Road  Shows 
Visitors  and  Press  Hall  National  Portrait  Gallery's 

Exhibition  Tracing  Involvement  in  the  Founding  Years 

of  the  Republic 
Exhibit  Will  Commemorate  Centenary  of  Pioneer 

Aeronaut  Santos-Dumont 
Payroll  of  Revolutionary  Man-Of-War  To  Join 

Philadelphia  at  Smithsonian 
Associates  Schedule  Free  Film  on  Sundays 
Smithsonian  Stieff  Sign  Agreement  for  Line  of  Silver, 

Pewter  Products 
Connecticut  Firm  Gives  Museum  Early  Naval  Uniforms 

Officers  Uniforms 
"New  Images  1839-1973"  Compares  Early  Photo 

Techniques,  Modern  Counterparts 
Performing  Arts  Variety  Offered  at  Smithsonian 
Renwick  Gallery  To  Exhibit  "American  Glass  Now" 
Women's  Liberation  at  the  Smithsonian 
The  Energy  Crisis  May  Change  Our  Architecture 
Ten  Traveling  Exhibitions  Circulated  by  Smithsonian 
Music  from  Marlboro  To  Open  Washington  Season 

Oct.  20 
Smithsonian  Puppet  Theater  Premieres  "Patchwork" 
23rd  National  Exhibition  of  Prints  at  NCFA  To  Reflect 

Artistic  Trends 
Smithsonian  Award  To  Philadelphia  Man 

July  3, 1973 
July  3,  1973 

July  9,  1973 

July  6,  1973 

July  12, 1973 

July  12,  1973 

July  12,  1973 

July  13, 1973 

July  13,  1973 

July  17,  1973 

July  18, 1973 

July  19, 1973 

July  19, 1973 
September  13,  1973 

September  14, 1973 

September  14, 1973 

September  17, 1973 
September  17, 1973 
September  19, 1973 
September  19, 1973  ' ; 
September  24, 1973 
September  27,  1973 

September  20,  1973 
September  20,  1973 

September  21, 1973  ^ 

316  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Neglected  19th  Century  American  Painter  Being  Afforded 

Major  Exhibition  at  NCFA 
Smithsonian  Associates  Offer  Fall  Trips  to  Historical 

Associates  Fall  Film  Series  To  Feature  Baillie  Festival 
Michael  Huxley  Named  To  Science  Post 
Director  Jerzy  Grotowski  To  Speak  at  Smithsonian 
Inflatable  Rubberized  Airplane  To  Be  Presented  to  Air 

Smithsonian  Seeks  Donations  of  Clothing  Circa  1920-1970 
U.W.  Workshop's  Spanish  Connection  Yields  Exhibition 

of  Prints  at  NCFA 
Movable  Concert  on  Modern  Music  Will  Be  Performed 

in  3  Galleries  at  NCFA 
Pacific  Northwest  Indian  Boxes,  Bowls  Will  Be  Exhibited 

at  Renwick  Gallery 
4  Scholars  To  Give  Free  Lectures  at  NCFA  on  American 

Sculpture  for  Period  1830-1930 
Wymberley  Coerr  Will  Direct  New  Office  of  International 

Environmental  Programs 
Collector  Will  Discuss  Russian  Abstract  Art  in  Free  Lecture 
Open  House  at  NCFA  Gives  Public  Chance  To  Go 

Behind  the  Scenes  of  Art  Museum 
Major  Smithsonian  Exhibition  Traces  History  of 

Rehabilitation  Medicine 
Smithsonian  Will  Produce  Birthday  Tribute  to  Gershwin, 

Todd  Duncan 
Energy  Crisis  May  Make  Windmills  Turn  Again 
Shaker  Furniture,  Drawings  Will  Be  Shown  at  Renwick 

Exhibit  Opening  Nov.  2 
Marguerite  Zorach :  The  Early  Years,  1908-1920 
Artists,  Verda,  Olmera  Peters  Illustrate  Tribal  Costumes 

of  Southern  Africa 
Smithsonian  Will  Present  Bill  Monroe,  Bluegrass  Boys, 

Guest  Fiddlers  Nov.  11 
Smithsonian  To  Host  Performances  by  Kathakali  Troupe 

Nov.  19  &  20 
Smithsonian  Collection  of  Classic  Jazz  Now  Available 
Earl  Hines  Will  Perform  in  Jazz  Heritage  Concert 
Associates  Offer  Poetry  Readings 
Needlework  Highlighted  in  New  Smithsonian  Tour 
Art  of  the  Pacific  Northwest:  From  the  1930's  to  the 

Theater  Chamber  Players  in  Residence  at  the 

Meyer  Foundation  Gives  Grant  for  Freer  Program 
Princeton  Scholar  Will  Lecture  on  Two  Freer  Gallery 

Outstanding  Naturalist  Photographer  Will  Show  Latest 

Film  November  12 

September  26, 1973 

October  2, 1973 

October  4,  1973 

October  9,  1973 

October  10,  1973 

October  10, 1973 

October  11,  1973 
October  12, 1973 

October  12,  1973 

October  12, 1973 

October  12, 1973 

October  12, 1973 

October  18,  1973 
October  18,  1973 

October  19,  1973 

October  19,  1973 

October  5,  1973 
October  24, 1973 

October  10,  1973 
October  10,  1973 

October  29,  1973 

October  30,  1973 

October  30,  1973 

October  31,  1973 

October  31,  1973 

November  2,  1973 

November  6,  1973 

November  6, 1973 

November  7,  1973 
November  7,  1973 

November  7,  1973 

Appendix  6.  Office  of  Public  Affairs  I  317 

NCFA  Woodcuts  Exhibit  To  Survey  New  Developments 

in  Old  Medium 
Unsung  Aspect  of  Aviation-Air  Traffic  Control  Will  Get 

Its  Day  in  New  Smithsonian  Institution 
Sony  President  Will  Open  Doubleday  Lecture  Series 
National  Zoo's  Giant  Pandas  Get  New  Outdoor  Play 

Highlights  of  Articles  in  Current  Smithsonian  Research 

American  Music  Group  To  Perform  19th  Century 

American  Music 
Musical  Fantasy  Adapted  From  Peking  Opera  To  Be 

Performed  at  Smithsonian 
"Ascent  of  Man"  Film  Series  To  Premiere  at  Smithsonian 
Hirshhorn  Museum  Recruiting  Volunteers  for  Docent 

Smithsonian  Acquires  Historic  Diesel  Engine 
Exhibit  at  NCFA  of  Rediscovered  Paintings  Will  Show 
Marguerite  Zorach  as  Innovator 

Art  Portfolio  DAT  at  NCFA  Brings  College  to  Students 
200  Years  of  Royal  Copenhagen  Porcelain 
Stars  Fell  on  Talladego — Article  Proposes  New  State 

Portrait  Gallery  Exhibit  Commemorated  150th 

Anniversary  of  Monroe  Doctrine 
"Creep"  Slowly  Tearing  California  Town  in  Two 
Smithsonian  Associates  Will  Mark  Turkish  Republic's 

50th  Birthday 
Smithsonian  To  Present  Homage  to  Poet  W.  H.  Auden 
John  E.  Graf,  Former  Smithsonian  Assistant  Secretary 
Renwick  Gallery  To  Ring  in  Christmas  With  Free 

Handbell  Concert  Dec.  11 
Oberlin  Baroque  Ensemble  Will  Perform  at  Smithsonian 

Institution  December  7 
Cecil  Taylor  To  Speak,  Perform  at  Jazz  Heritage  Series 

Dec.  16 
Art  Museums  Open  Restaurant 
Charles  DeVault  to  Coordinate  TV  Projects  for 

Coloring  the  Smithsonian  To  Go  on  Sale  December  10 
Smithsonian  Guidebook  Now  Available  in  Four  Foreign 

Language  Editions 
Christmas  Gift  Idea  from  Smithsonian  Resident  Puppet 

Group  Tours  of  Shaker  Exhibition  Now  Available  at 

Renwick  Gallery 
Smithsonian,  Alva  Sign  Contract  for  Reproductions 
Display  of  Islamic  Ceramics  Will  Conclude  Freer 


318  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

November  7, 1973 

November  7, 1973 

November  8, 1973 
November  13,  1973 

November  13, 1973 

November  14, 1973 

November  15,  1973 

November  16, 1973 
November  20,  1973 

November  20,  1973 
November  20,  1973 
November  20,  1973 
November  21, 1973 
November  21, 1973 
November  21, 1973 

November  12,  1973 

November  26, 1973 
November  26, 1973 

November  26, 1973 
November  26, 1973 
November  29, 1973 

November  30,  1973 

November  30, 1973 

December  5, 1973 
December  5, 1973 

December  7, 1973 
December  7, 1973 

December  12, 1973 

December  13, 1973 

December  17, 1973 
December  17, 1973 

NCFA  to  Show  Saul  Steinberg  Drawings 
Statement  by  S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary  of  the 

Smithsonian  Institution  on  the  Death  of  Charles 

Greeley  Abbot 
NCFA  to  Show  Joseph  Cornell  Boxes 
Smithsonian  Puppet  Theater  Extends  Patchwork 

Through  Jan.  6 
Associates  Will  Present  Production  of  Virginia  Folk 

Tales  for  Children 
Two  "Distinguished  Scholars"  Among  18  Fellows  Named 

by  Woodrow  Wilson  Center 
Western  Wind  Group  To  Perform  Early  American  Music 

Jan.  7 
Theater  Chamber  Players  Reschedules  Concert  for 

January  14 
Johnson-Sea-Link  Panel  Submits  Report  to  Smithsonian 

Michael  Stephans,  Karl  Berger  To  Perform  Their  Works 

at  Smithsonian  January  11 
Smithsonian  Winter  Courses  Range  From  Architecture 

to  Pantomime 
Anacostia  Museum  Will  Show  Barnett-Aden  Art 

'Bigfoot"  Legend  Still  Persists  163  Years  After  First 

Anthropologist  Will  Lecture  January  15  on  Supernatural 

World  of  Ancient  Maya 
Freer  Lecturer  to  Discuss  Ceramics  Art  of  the  Khmers 
Kyne's  Consort  Will  Perform  Concert  of  16th  Century 


Think  68  Is  Cold?  Don't  Try  Siberia 
'American  Self-Portraits"  Will  Open  at  National  Portrait 

Gallery  Feb.  1 
Contemporary  Paintings  From  Pakistan  Will  Be 

Exhibited  at  Renwick  Gallery 
Exhibit  Will  Feature  Works  by  12  Major  Photographers 
Memo  to  Editors:  Tenth  Anniversary  of  National 

Museum  of  History  and  Technology 
Renwick  Gallery  Schedule  Free  Talks  on  Shaker  Religion 

and  Architecture 
:  Smithsonian's  3rd  Annual  Musical  Weekend  in 

Washington  Scheduled  for  May  10-12 
Memo  to  Editors:  National  Museum  of  History  and 

Technology  Auditorium  Named  for  Leonard  Carmichael 
Cajun  Musicians,  Mountain  String  Band  To  Perform  in 

Concert  at  Smithsonian 
Work  of  Expatriate  American  Artist  To  Be  Shown  at 

National  Collection 
Biologist  Watson  Will  Speak  in  Doubleday  Lecture 
National  Zoo  Will  Establish  Breeding  Farm  in  Front 


December  17, 1973 
December  17,  1973 

December  19,  1973 
December  19,  1973 

December  14, 1973 

December  20,  1973 

December  20, 1973 

December  20, 1973 

December  27,  1973 

December  26, 1973 

December  27, 1973 

January  2, 1974 

January  2, 1974 

January  4, 1974 

January  4,  1974 
January  7,  1974 

January  7,  1974 
January  8,  1974 

January  9, 1974 

January  9, 1974 
January  9, 1974 

January  14, 1974 

January  13, 1974 

January  14, 1974 

January  17, 1974 

January  17, 1974 

January  18, 1974 
January  21, 1974 

Appendix  6.  Office  of  Public  Affairs  I  319 

"Anatomy  of  a  Gallop"  Contrasts  Portrayals  of  Running 

Dr.  Joshua  Taylor  To  Give  Lecture  on  Pacific  Northwest  Art 
R.  V.  Johnson  Will  Be  Launched  January  26  at  Ft.  Pierce,  Fla. 
National  Portrait  Gallery  Receives  Pearl  Buck  Portrait 
Smithsonian  Publishes  Definitive  Monograph  on  19th 

Century  Artist  Robert  Loftin  Newman 
Explore  Gallery  for  Children  Opens  at  National 

Collection  of  Fine  Arts 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  to  Survey  Pacific 

Northwest  Art  of  Last  Four  Decades 
Smithsonian  Publishes  Catalog  on  Art  of  Pacific 

Theater  Chamber  Players  Will  Present  Second  Concert  at 

Smithsonian  Feb.  4 
Walter  Hopps  To  Give  Free  Lecture  on  Artist  Joseph 

Cornell  at  NCFA 
Environmental  Law  Conference  To  Be  Held  in  San 

Freer  Lecturer  to  Discuss  Imagery  on  Iranian  Vessels 
Museum  Director  To  Give  Talks  in  Luncheon  Series 
Air  Force  Chamber  Players  Will  Present  All  Debussy 

Concert  at  Renwick  Gallery 
Associates  Will  Present  Two  Events  for  Black  History 

Week,  Feb.  10-16 
Smithsonian  To  Present  Second  Series  of  Guggenheim  in 

Lectures  in  Astronomy 
There's  a  Good  Time  Coming  March  10, 11,  12  at 

Placing  of  2  Large  Statues  Will  Complete  Exterior 

Restoration  of  Renwick  Gallery 
Pinocchio  Opens  February  6  at  Smithsonian  Puppet 

Out  of  Gas?  Let  Puppet  Theater  Come  to  You 
Establishment  of  "Seven  Sisters"  Was  Milestone  for 

Women's  Rights 
Four  Staff  Changes  Are  Announced  by  National 

Collections  of  Fine  Arts 
Smithsonian  Completes  World  Survey  of  Pollution 

Monitoring  Programs 
Michael  Straight  Will  Talk  at  Renwick  Gallery  on 

Government's  Role  in  Environmental  Design 
Lionel  Hampton  To  Appear  at  Smithsonian  February  17 
"Music  From  Marlboro"  at  Smithsonian  March  2 
Ann  Van  Devanter  Will  Discuss  Self-Portrait  Painters 

in  Free  Lecture  at  National  Portrait  Gallery  March  3 
Jacob  Bronowski  Will  Be  Present  for  2  "Ascent  Of  Man" 

James  Weaver  Will  Perform  Bach  Clavierubung 

Feb.  22-25 

320  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

January  21, 1974 

January  21, 1974 
January  21, 1974 
January  23,  1974 
January  24,  1974 

January  24, 1974 

January  24, 1974 

January  24, 1974 

January  24,  1974 

January  24, 1974 

January  25,  1974 

January  25,  1974 
January  25,  1974 
January  28,  1974 

January  28, 1974 

January  29,  1974 

January  30,  1974 

January  30,  1974 

January  31, 1974 

February  1,  1974 
February  5,  1974 

February  1, 1974 : 

February  7, 1974  • 

February  7, 1974 . 

February  12,  1974  i 
February  12,  1974.1 
February  12, 1974  I 

February  14, 1974  I 

February  15, 1974  '< 

d.  m 

Film  Festival  To  Highlight  Work  by  Czech  Filmmakers 
8th  Annual  Festival  of  American  Folklife  Scheduled  for 

Two  Weeks  on  the  National  Mall,  July  3  through  14 
Los  Angeles  Mayor  Bradley  Will  Speak  at  Smithsonian 
Smithsonian  Exhibit  Depicts  Culture  "Land  of  Dragons" 
March  Smithsonian  Offers  Energy  Conservation  Tips 
Anacostia  Extends  Barnett-Aden  Show 
Biologist  Barry  Commoner  To  Speak  at  Smithsonian 
Associates  Offer  Lecture  Series  on  Oriental  Rugs 
Third  Frank  Nelson  Doubleday  Lecture  To  Be  Held 

March  7 
Ralph  Stanley  and  the  Clinch  Mountain  Boys  in  Concert 

at  the  Smithsonian  March  10 
Carmen  McRae  To  Perform  at  Smithsonian  March  17 
National  Portrait  Gallery  Publishes  Catalog  To 

Accompany  Exhibition  on  Monroe  Doctrine 
New  "Discovery  Room"  Brings  Museum  Objects  Out  of 

Leonard  Rapport  Will  Deliver  First  1974  Philatelic  Lecture 
Smithsonian  To  Begin  Evening  Hours  April  1 
Freer  Lecturer  To  Discuss  Japanese  Visual  Poetry 
Rare  Tourmaline  Crystals  Presented  to  Smithsonian 
Memo  to  Editors 

Smithsonian  Offers  Tour  of  Ceramics  &  Glass  Halls 
One-Million-Dollar  "Hope  Diamond"  Sent  to 

Smithsonian  by  $145.26  Metered  Postage 
Invitation  to  a  Movie  Premiere 
Free  Talk  on  Collector  John  Gellatly  Will  Be  Given  at 

National  Collection 
Religious  Folk  Art  on  View  at  Renwick  as  Tribute  to  the 

Arts  of  the  Americas 
Tribute  to  Mark  Tobey 

Annual  Kite  Competition  March  23  at  Monument 
Smithsonian  Institution  Announces  New  Series  of 

Specials  for  the  DuPont  Cavalcade  of  Television, 

David  L.  Wolper  To  Produce 
National  Portrait  Gallery  To  Present  First  Major 

Smithsonian  Bicentennial  Exhibition 
Marlboro  Musicians  To  Perform  at  Smithsonian  April  6, 

Air  and  Space  Museum  Will  Bring  Back  Age  of 

Barnstorming  in  New  Exhibit 
Paul  Mellon  Presents  761  Saint-Memin  Portraits  to 

Smithsonian's  National  Portrait  Gallery 
An  Invitation  to  an  Afternoon  of  American  Music 
An  Invitation  to  a  Lecture  on  Art 
Ancient  Cities,  Psychical  Medicine,  Antique  Organs  & 

the  Cosmos  Among  Smithsonian  Courses 
Smithsonian  To  Open  New  Ecology  Exhibit 
The  Story  of  a  Building — NPG 

February  19,  1974 
February  19,  1974 

February  21,  1974 
February  21,  1974 
February  22,  1974 
February  25,  1974 
February  25,  1974 
February  26,  1974 
March  1,  1974 

March  3,  1974 

March  3,  1974 
March  4,  1974 

March  5,  1974 

March  5,  1974 
March  6,  1974 
March  7,  1974 
March  11,  1974 
March  7,  1974 
March  7,  1974 
March  8,  1974 

March  13,  1974 
March  14,  1974 

March  14,  1974 

March  14,  1974 
March  15,  1974 
March  18,  1974 

March  18,  1974 

March  27,  1974 

March  22, 1974 

March  24,  1974 

March  25,  1974 
March  26,  1974 
March  27, 1974 

March  28,  1974 
March  29,  1974 

Appendix  6.  Office  of  Public  Affairs  I  321 

Smithsonian  To  Recall  Historic  Flight  with  Display  of 

Douglas  World  Cruiser 
Former  Hermitage  Curator  Will  Speak  on  Arms  & 

Armour  in  Its  Collections 
Associates  Lecture  Series  Examines  "What's  New  at 

Editors'  Advisory:  "Alternative  World  Model  System" 

Press  Conference 
Panel  To  Discuss  Pennsylvania  Avenue  in  Illustrated 

Presentation  at  Smithsonian 
Science  Information  Exchange  Offers  New  Monthly  Service 
Associates  Guide  Offers  Tips  to  Washington,  D.C.  Visitors 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  Opens  Gallery  Devoted 

to  Portrait  Miniatures 
Architect  Moshe  Safdie  To  Deliver  Doubleday  Lecture 

at  Smithsonian 
Renwick  Exhibition  Will  Survey  200  Years  of  Royal 

Copenhagen  Porcelain  Creativity 
Smithsonian  Jazz  Concert  Marks  Tribute  to  Ellington 
Press  Advisory:  Museum  Education  Day 
Bathrooms  in  America  —  Exhibit  Shows  How  Far  We've 

Gloria  Steinem  Will  Speak  in  Popular  Culture  Series 
Dr.  Jdenek  David  Appointed  New  Librarian  for  Woodrow 

Wilson  Center  for  Scholars 
Smithsonian  Associates  Schedule  Theater  Production 

for  Children 
Birth  of  Twins  [Golden  Lion  Marmosets]  at  National 
Zoological  Park  Milestone  in  Effort  to  Save  Endangered 
White  House  Portrait  of  Lincoln  Highlights  National 

Portrait  Gallery  Exhibition 
Smithsonian  Offers  New  Tours  for  Groups 
Smithsonian  Anthropologist  Will  Lecture  on  Northwest 

Coast  Indian  Boxes,  Bowls 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  Plans  Gala  for  Children 

on  May  18 
Museum  Showing  Collages  by  Anne  Ryan 
Washington  Print  Club  Will  Hold  5th  Biennial  Exhibition 

at  NCFA 
1st  Open  Boomerang  Tournament  in  U.S.  Is  Scheduled  by 

Smithsonian  on  May  18 
Smithsonian  Boomerang  Workshop  To  Give  Enrollees 

Happy  Returns 
Associates  Schedule  Lecture  on  Life  &.  Thoughts  of  Buddha 
Theater  Chamber  Players  May  6  Performance  To  Feature 

American  Premiere  of  Choral  Work 
3  Experts  To  Discuss  Options  for  Dealing  with  Energy 

The  Smithsonian  Comes  to  Brentano's 

April  1, 1974 

April  1, 1974 

April  2, 1974 

April  3, 1974 

April  4, 1974 

April  4,  1974 
April  8,  1974 
April  8, 1974 

April  8, 1974 

April  8, 1974 

April  10, 1974 
April  11,  1974 
April  11, 1974 

April  11, 1974 
April  12, 1974 

April  15, 1974 

April  15, 1974 

April  18,  1974 

April  19, 1974 
April  22, 1974 

April  22, 1974 

April  22, 1974 
April  22, 1974 

April  23,  1974 

April  23, 1974 

April  23,  1974 
April  24, 1974 

April  24,  1974 '] 

April  24, 1974 

322  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Smithsonian,  Fieldcrest  Sign  Agreement  for  Manufacture 

of  Textile  Products  Based  on  Institution's  Collections 
Johns  Hopkins  Study  Suggests  That  Emotional  Clues 

Exist  To  Predict  Susceptibility  to  Cancer, 

Other  Disorders 
Renwick  Gallery  Will  Survey  What's  New  in 

Top  Work  in  Exhibit  Is  Cited 
Final  Jazz  Heritage  Concert  of  1973-74  Season  To 

Feature  Jim  Hall  Duo  and  Jimmy  Guiffre 
Portraits  of  Speakers  of  the  House  on  View  at  the 

National  Portrait  Gallery 
Children's  Art  Depicts  Concern  for  Whales 
Associates  Display  Winning  Photographs 
Mozart  Concerts  at  Smithsonian  To  Feature  Original 

"What  If  ..."  A  Comic  Space  Fantasy  To  Open  Previews 

May  8  at  Smithsonian  Puppet  Theater 
Anacostia  Museum  Will  Show  Art  by  D.C.  School 

Walter  Terry,  Charles  Guggenheim  Will  Lecture  on 

Ballet,  Filmmaking 
Museum  Reopens  Its  Main  Entrance 
Caspar  Weinberger  Will  Deliver  Final  "Creativity  and 

Collaboration"  Lecture 
Tribute  to  Mark  Tobey  Opens  at  National  Collection  of 

Fine  Arts 
National  Portrait  Gallery  Receives  Portrait  of  Richard 

Henry  Lee 
NPG  To  Unveil  President  Lyndon  Johnson's  Favorite 

Portrait  of  Himself 
Mississippi  Traditions  To  Be  Featured  at  Folklife  Festival 

on  Mall  July  3-7 
Greever  Allan  Will  Deliver  Second  1974  Philatelic  Lecture 
Houston  Endowment  Grant  To  Fund  Directory  of 

Medical  Artifacts 
Wilson  Center  Offers  Fellowships  to  Eleven  Scholars  for 

Communications  Workers  Featured  at  Festival  of 

American  Folklife 
Stephen  Weil  Appointed  Deputy  Director  of  Hirshhorn 

Hirshhorn  Museum  Names  Charles  Millard  Chief  Curator 
Bicentennial  Exhibition  Opens  at  National  Portrait 

Gallery  June  14 
Smithsonian  Seeks  Teen  Volunteers 
Sports,  Crafts,  Learning  Center  in  Festival  of  American 

Theater  Chamber  Players  Will  Perform  World  Premiere 

Graziano  Concerto 

April  25,  1974 
April  25,  1974 

April  29, 1974 

April  29,  1974 
April  29, 1974 

May  1,  1974 

May  1,  1974 
May  2, 1974 
May  3,  1974 

May  3,  1974 

May  6, 1974 

May  9,  1974 

May  9,  1974 
May  13, 1974 

May  13, 1974 

May  16,  1974 

May  20,  1974 

May  21, 1974 

May  20, 1974 
May  22, 1974 

May  28, 1974 

June  4,  1974 

May  31, 1974 

May  30,  1974 
May  31, 1974 

May  31, 1974 
May  31, 1974 

June  3, 1974 

Appendix  6.  Office  of  Public  Affairs  I  323 

Institute  in  Jazz  Criticism  Scheduled  Sept.  23-Oct.  2,  in 

Smithsonian  Article  Reexamines  Ocean's  Potential  for 

Food,  Fuel 
Smithsonian's  Hirshhorn  Museum  Opens  October  5, 1974 
Press  Review,  National  Portrait  Gallery  June  13 
Volunteers  Needed  for  Smithsonian  Insect  Zoo 
"Shoo  Bird"  Protects  From  Migrating  Birds 
Participants  From  Nine  Nations  Will  Show  "Old  Ways 

in  the  New  World"  at  Festival 
Tea  Chest 
New  "African  Diaspora"  Presentation  of  Festival  To 

Show  Black  Culture  from  U.S.,  Trinidad,  Africa 
Press  Preview,  Festival  of  American  Folklife 
Art  Conservation  Methods  Explored  in  NCFA  Exhibit 
NCFA  Exhibition  Examines  American  Prints  1920-1940 
Smithsonian  Guidebook  Produced  in  Braille 
Summer  Courses  for  Young  People  Range  from 

Dinosaurs  to  Videotape 
$  Million  Equivalent  Contributed  to  UNESCO  for 

Egyptian  Monuments 
Associates  Offer  Classes,  Studio  Courses  for  Summer 
Festival  To  Introduce  New  Children's  Area 
Portland  Zoo  a  School  for  Its  Animal  Residents 
Duke  Ellington  You've  Probably  Never  Heard 

June  3, 1974 

June  3, 1974 

June  6, 1974 

June  6,  1974 

June  7,  1974 

June  10, 1974 

June  10, 1974 

June  11,  1974 
June  13,  1974 

June  14,  1974 
June  18,  1974 
June  18,  1974 
June  18, 1974 
June  26, 1974 

June  21, 1974 

June  21,  1974 
June  25,  1974 
June  26,  1974 
June  27, 1974 


July  1.  "Man  and  African  Wildlife."  A  discussion  featuring  John  Owen,  form- 
erly Director  of  National  Parks  in  Tanzania,  and  Helmut  Buechner,  Senior 
Scientist  at  the  National  Zoo  in  Washington. 

July  8.  "Concert,"  featuring  two  rarely  performed  works  by  Georg  Philipp 

July  15.  "Life  with  the  Bushmen."  John  Yellen,  a  pre-doctoral  fellow  at  the 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  recalls  his  experiences  while  living  for 
two  years  with  the  Bushmen  of  southern  Africa.  , 

"The  Giant  Timber  Bamboo."  Two  Smithsonian  scientists  tell  the  story  of  an 
unusual  species  of  bamboo  that  blooms  only  once  every  120  years,  and  is  now 
in  bloom  in  the  United  States.  I 

July  22.  "Indians  in  Washington."  Dr.  Herman  Viola  of  the  National  Anthro-  \ 
pological  Archives  describes  how  the  American  Government  used  diplomacy 
rather  than  force,  in  dealing  with  the  Indians  in  the  early  19th  century. 

"The  Black  Presence  in  the  Era  of  the  Revolution."  A  look  at  a  neglected  part 
of  our  history,  with  Sidney  Kaplan,  professor  of  Afro-American  Studies  at  the 
University  of  Massachusetts. 

July  29.  "Great  Tenor  Sax  Men."  Another  program  in  the  "Radio  Smithsonian" 
jazz  series,  with  Martin  Williams,  Director  of  the  Smithsonian's  Jazz  Studies 

324  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

August  5.  "Giants  of  the  Ocean."  A  look  at  whales,  focusing  on  the  efforts 
being  made  to  protect  them  and  studies  of  how  they  live. 

August  12.  "Concert."  A  program  of  baroque  music,  presented  by  the  Smithson- 
ian's Division  of  Musical  Instruments. 

August  19.  "Art  in  America."  A  discussion  featuring  Walter  Hopps,  Visiting 
Curator  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  and  Val  Lewton,  an  artist  on 
the  National  Collection  staff. 

"What  Good  Are  the  Moon  Rocks?"  A  talk  with  Farouk  El  Baz,  Research  Direc- 
tor at  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum. 

August  26.  "The  Literary  Scene,"  surveyed  by  Saul  Bellow,  author  of  Herzog 
and  Henderson,  the  Rain  King. 

"A  Dissent  on  Modern  Farming."  Botanist  Hugh  litis  of  the  University  of  Wis- 
consin explains  why  he  thinks  today's  farming  methods  may  be  ecologically 

September  2.  "Concert,"  featuring  music  of  the  Middle  Ages  and  the  Renais- 
sance, performed  by  Les  Menestriers,  a  young  group  from  France. 

September  9.  "The  1973  Festival  of  American  Folklife,"  Part  I.  A  sampling  of  the 
people  and  music  that  make  the  Folklife  Festival  one  of  the  Smithsonian's 
most  popular  events. 

September  16.  "The  1973  Festival  of  American  Folklife,"  Part  II. 

September  23.  "The  1973  Festival  of  American  Folklife,"  Part  III. 

September  30.  "It  Talks,  It  Whispers,  It  Sings."  A  look  at  the  history  of  the 

October  7.  "Exploring  Natural  History."  A  talk  with  Porter  Kier,  new  Director 
of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

"The  Rise  of  the  Spirit  of  Independence."  A  look  at  the  importance  of  commu- 
nication in  the  days  preceding  the  American  Revolution. 

October  14.  "Concert,"  featuring  Judith  Norell,  harpsichord,  and  Bruce  Brewer, 
tenor,  performing  music  of  Jean-Philippe  Rameau  and  Andre  Campra. 

October  21.  "Hammarskjold,  the  Man."  A  look  at  the  late  Secretary-General 
of  the  United  Nations,  "an  austere  and  enigmatic  man,"  with  Ambassador  and 
Mrs.  Rajushwar  Dayal,  who  were  among  Hammarskjold's  closest  associates. 

October  28.  "New  Perceptions  in  Music."  A  conversation  with  Earle  Brown, 
internationally  recognized  contemporary  composer  and  conductor. 

November  4.  "The  Smithsonian  Collection  of  Classic  Jazz,"  Part  I.  Martin  Wil- 
liams, Director  of  the  Smithsonian's  Jazz  Studies  Program,  spotlights  a  new 
album  issued  by  the  Institution's  Division  of  Performing  Arts. 

November  11.  "The  Smithsonian  Collection  of  Classic  Jazz,"  Part  II. 

November  18.  "Renewing  the  Environment."  A  discussion  featuring  anthropolo- 
gist Margaret  Mead,  who's  taken  an  active  interest  in  ecology,  and  John  Milton 
of  Threshold,  a  new  non-profit  environmental  foundation. 

"Beetle-Mania."  Two  coleopterists.  Prof,  Carl  Lindroth  of  Sweden  and  Dr. 
Terry  Erwin  of  the  Smithsonian,  explain  why  they  study  beetles  and  what 
they've  learned  from  them. 

November  25.  "Protecting  a  Paradise."  A  look  at  the  efforts  under  way  to  pro- 
tect the  environment  of  American  Samoa,  with  its  governor,  John  Hayden,  and 
Smithsonian  botanist  Arthur  Dahl. 

Appendix  6.  Office  of  Public  Affairs  I  325 

"History  in  Stone."  Mrs.  Jane  Fawcett,  Organizing  Secretary  of  the  Victorian 
Society  of  Great  Britain,  describes  the  fight  to  save  England's  historic  buildings. 

December  2.  "Bill  Monroe  in  Concert."  The  father  of  bluegrass  music  performs 
with  his  group.  The  Bluegrass  Boys,  and  two  guest  fiddlers,  Charlie  Smith  and 
Tater  Tate. 

December  9.  "A  Visitor  from  Bhutan."  A  talk  with  Mynak  Rimpoche,  a  Buddhist 
lama  who  heads  the  National  Museum  of  Bhutan,  in  the  Himalayas. 

"Exploring  the  Depths."  Smithsonian  oceanographer  Daniel  Stanley  describes 
the  dangers  of  pollution  in   the   seas. 

December  16.  "The  Shaker  Way."  A  look  at  the  life  and  crafts  of  the  Shaker 
religious  sect.  Guests  include  Mrs.  Faith  Andrews,  a  leading  expert  on  Shaker 
culture,  and  Sister  Mildred  Barker,  one  of  14  remaining  Shakers. 

December  23.  "Wilson's  Living  Memorial."  Dr.  James  Billington,  new  Director 
of  the  Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars,  talks  about  plans  for 
the  Center's  future. 

"Fighting  Lassa  Fever."  Smithsonian  curator  Henry  Setzer  describes  the  efforts 
to  curb  Lassa  fever,  a  serious  disease  carried  by  African  rats. 

December  30.  "Concert,"  featuring  19th  century  American  vocal  music,  per- 
formed by   the   American   Music   Group. 

January  6.  "The  Ascent  of  Man."  British  mathematician  and  philosopher  Jacob 
Bronowski  discusses  his  thoughts  on  the  history  of  man  and  science,  as  reflected 
in  a  new  film  series  having  its  American  premiere  at  the  Smithsonian. 

January  13.  "The  New  Immigrants."  Dr.  Roy  Bryce-LaPorte,  Director  of  the 
Smithsonian's  new  Institute  for  Immigration  and  Ethnic  Studies,  describes  the 
lot  of  West  Indian  immigrants  in  the  United  States. 

"Exhibits  on  the  Move."  A  look  at  the  Smithsonian's  efforts  to  "take  the  mu- 
seum to  the  people." 

January  20.  "Concert,"  featuring  baroque  music  performed  on  authentic  instru- 
ments by  the  Oberlin  Baroque  Ensemble. 

January  27.  "A  New  Look  at  Learning."  New  trends  in  education,  discussed  by 
Dr.  Samuel  Gould,  Chairman  of  the  Commission  on  Non-traditional  Study. 

"China  Looks  at  Her  Past."  A  talk  with  Dr.  Thomas  Lawton,  Deputy  Director 
of  the  Smithsonian's  Freer  Gallery,  who  recently  spent  a  month  exploring  art 
and  archeology  in  the  People's  Republic. 

February  3.  "Concert,"  featuring  music  of  America  performed  by  the  Western 
Wind  and  the  Paul  Hill  Chorale. 

February  10.  "The  Maya  and  the  Supernatural."  The  spiritual  world  of  the 
ancient  inhabitants  of  Mexico  is  discussed  by  Professor  Michael  Cole  of  Yale 

February  17.  "A  New  Animal  Farm."  John  Perry,  Assistant  Director  for  Conser- 
vation of  the  Smithsonian's  National  Zoo,  talks  about  the  zoo's  new  breeding 
farm  at  Front  Royal,  Virginia. 

"A  Bus  for  Culture."  A  look  at  New  York  City's  culture  bus,  a  new  idea  for 
getting  visitors  to  museums. 

"Schistosomiasis :  A  Tropical  Threat."  A  report  on  the  efforts  to  curb  a  disease 
possibly  more  serious  than  malaria. 

February  24.  "Science:  The  Real  World."  Nobel  Prizewinning  biologist  James 
Dewey  Watson  offers  his  candid  thoughts  on  what  he  calls  "the  sociology  of 

326  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

"Homage  to  Docents."  A  look  at  the  Smithsonian's  volunteer  teaching  guides. 

March  3.  "String  Bands:  Two  Traditions."  A  concert  featuring  old-time  moun- 
tain music,  performed  by  Creed,  Cockerham,  and  Patterson,  and  Louisiana 
Cajun  music,  played  by  the  Balfa  Brothers. 

March  10.  "Anthropolgy  for  Today."  Dr.  Sam  Stanley,  Program  Coordinator  for 
the  Smithsonian's  Center  for  the  Study  of  Man,  describes  how  the  Center  works 
on  current  human  problems. 

"Pacific  Northwest  Art."  A  lively  and  diverse  art  scene,  explored  by  Rachael 
Griffin  of  the  Portland  Art  Museum  and  Dr.  Martha  Kingsbury  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Washington. 

March  17.  "Television:  On  the  Other  Side."  The  British  approach  to  television, 
discussed  by  Huw  Wheldon,  Managing  Director  of  BBC-TV. 

"Woodrow  Wilson's  Legacy,"  viewed  by  former  ambassador  George  Kennan 
on  the  50th  anniversary  of  Wilson's  death. 

March  24.  "A  Conversation  with  Barry  Commoner." 

Also,  "How  Much  Growth  is  Enough?,"  with  growth  specialist  Chester  Cooper, 
a  fellow  of  the  Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars. 

March  31.  "Concert,"  featuring  the  Baroque  Ensemble  of  the  Juilliard  School, 
under  the  direction  of  Albert  Fuller.  Works  include  the  Overture  to  "Zais,"  by 
Jean  Philippe  Rameau,  and  the  Trio  Sonata  from  the  Musical  Offering,  by 
J.  S.  Bach. 

April  7.  "Reflecting  on  History."  Dr.  Brooke  Hindle,  new  director  of  the  Na- 
tional Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  Describes  his  plans  for  the  mu- 
seum's future,  and  specifically  for  observing  the  Bicentennial.  "The  Scope  of  the 
Universe."  An  infinite  subject,  discussed  as  finitely  as  possible  by  Dr.  Myron 
Lecar  of  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory. 

April  14.  "Disaster  in  the  Sahel."  A  look  at  the  severe  drought  in  the  Sahelian 
zone  of  Africa  and  at  research  aimed  at  staving  off  such  calamities. 

April  21.  "It  All  Depends."  Smithsonian  scientists  Tom  Soderstrom  and  Don 
Duckworth  describe  the  interdependence  of  living  things,  as  reflected  in  the 
tropical  rain  forest,  the  earth's  most  fragile  eco-system. 

April  28.  "A  Bluegrass  Workshop,"  featuring  Ralph  Stanley  and  His  Clinch 
Mountain  Boys,  performing  at  the  Smithsonian. 

May  5.  "Unearthing  the  Past."  Gus  Van  Beek,  Curator  of  Old  World  Anthro- 
pology at  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  talks  about  his  exciting 
excavations  at  Tell  Jemmeh  in  Israel. 

"On  Creativity."  Excerpts  from  a  talk  by  violinist  Yehudi  Menuhin. 

"Humanizing  Architecture."  A  talk  with  Moshe  Safdie,  creator  of  the  innova- 
tive "Habitat,"  seen  at  Expo  67. 

May  12.  "Concert,"  featuring  recorder  virtuoso  Frans  Brueggen  and  harpsi- 
chordist Alan  Curtis. 

May  19.  "The  Smithsonian  Now  and  Tomorrow."  A  conversation  with  S.  Dillon 
Ripley,  who  recently  completed  ten  years  as  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian, 

"To  Save  Wild  Animals."  Thomas  Lovejoy  of  the  World  Wildlife  Fund  and 
Anne  LaBastille  of  the  Smithsonian  talk  about  the  increasing  threats  to  the 
world's  wildlife. 

May  26.  "The  Great  Louis  Armstrong."  Martin  Williams,  director  of  the  Smith- 
sonian's Jazz  Studies  Program,  looks  at  one  of  the  giants  of  jazz. 

Appendix  6.  Office  of  Public  Affairs  I  327 

June  2.  "Looking  for  Life  in  the  Universe."  Dr.  George  Field,  director  of  the 
Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  talks  about  possible  evidence  for  life 
beyond  earth. 

"Abraham  Lincoln:  The  White  House  Years,"  discussed  by  Rick  Beard  and  Ken 
Yellis,  developers  of  a  National  Portrait  Gallery  exhibition  focusing  on  Lincoln. 

June  9.  "Concert,"  featuring  music  of  Mozart,  performed  by  Jean  Hakes,  so- 
prano, Sonya  Monosoff,  violin,  and  Malcolm  Bilson,  piano. 

June  16.  "Boomerangs:  Many  Happy  Returns."  Benjamin  Ruhe,  a  boomerang 
expert  and  former  Smithsonian  staff  member,  tells  about  the  lore  of  boomerangs. 
"Mexico:  A  Writer's  View."  A  talk  with  the  distinguished  Mexican  novelist 
Carlos  Fuentes. 

June  23.  "First  Flight  Around  the  World."  A  look  at  the  flight  of  the  Douglas 
World  Cruisers,  which  made  the  first  circuit  of  the  globe  in  1927,  with  Maj.  Gen. 
Leigh  Wade,  USAF  Ret.,  who  was  one  of  the  pilots. 

"Creative  Government."  A  conversation  with  Secretary  of  Health,  Education, 
and   Welfare   Caspar   Weinberger. 

June  30.  "Duke  Ellington  You've  Probably  Never  Heard  Before."  Martin  Wil- 
liams, Director  of  the  Smithsonian's  Jazz  Studies  Program,  spotlights  some  un- 
familiar pieces  by  the  Duke. 



References  to  Cultural  Histories  of  the  United  States  73-5 

First  Ladies  Dolls  Bibliography  73-6 

Photos  of  Clothing,  Accessories  of  Presidents  73-7 

Numismatic  Dealers  in  New  York  City  73-8 

Publications  on  Fishes  —  Indopacific  Freshwater  and  Marine  73-9 

Sources  for  Wildlife  Pictures  73-10 

First  Ladies  Hall  Photos  73-11 

Inaugural  Photos  (objects  and  illustrations)  73-12 

Bibliography  on  the  American  Indian  73-13 

Bibliography  on  American  Ceramics  74-1 

Bibliography  on  Indians  of  North  America  74-2 

Sources  of  Information  for  Careers  in  Biology,  Conservation 

and  Oceanography  74-3 

Objects  Associated  With  Revolutionary  Era  (list  of  photos)  74-4 

Selected  Readings  on  the  First  Ladies  of  the  White  House  (revision)  74-5 

Bibliography  on  American  Antique  Furniture  74-6 

328  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

APPENDIX  7.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press 
in  Fiscal  Year  1974 



Joel  E.  Arem.  Man-Made  Crystals.  112  pages,  25  color  and  48  black-and-white 
illustrations.  December  1973.  Cloth:  $15.00;  paper:  $5.95. 

David  Edward  Finley.  A  Standard  of  Excellence:  Andrew  W.  Mellon  Founds  the 
National  Gallery  at  Washington.  200  pages,  42  black-and-white  illustrations. 
May  30,  1974.  Cloth:  $7.50. 

Glen  A.  Gilbert.  Air  Traffic  Control:  The  Uncrowded  Sky.  xvi  +  111  pages,  6 
color  and  183  black-and-white  illustrations.  July  17, 1973.  Cloth:  $12.50. 

Frank  M.  Hull.  Bee  Flies  of  the  World:  The  Genera  of  the  Family  Bombyliidae. 
xii  -)-  687  pages,  color  frontispiece,  1111  figures.  November  12,  1973.  Cloth: 

Marion  Clayton  Link.  Windows  in  the  Sea.  198  pages,  15  color  and  52  black- 
and-white  illustrations.  Reprint.  October  1973.  Cloth:  $12.50. 

Ursula  B.  Marvin.  Continental  Drift:  The  Evolution  of  a  Concept,  vii  -f  239 
pages,  102  figures.  Revised  reprint.  June  10, 1974.  Cloth:  $12.50. 

Vladimir  Simosko  and  Barry  Tepperman.  Eric  Dolphy:  A  Musical  Biography 
and  Discography.  Foreword  by  Martin  Williams,  x  -f-  132  pages,  17  black-and- 
white  illustrations.  March  1974.  Cloth:  $10.00. 


Barbara  Brand.  The  Story  of  Belmont.  16  pages,  13  black-and-white  illustra- 
tions. March  1974.  Paper:  $1.25. 

Larry  R.  Collins.  Monotremes  and  Marsupials:  A  Reference  for  Zoological  Insti- 
tutions. 323  pages,  56  figures.  August  10, 1973.  Paper:  $4.20. 

Sidney  Kaplan.  The  Black  Presence  in  the  Era  of  the  American  Revolution, 
1770-1800.  National  Portrait  Gallery.  258  pages,  98  figures.  Published  by  the 
New  York  Graphic  Society,  Ltd.,  in  association  with  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion Press.  1973.  Cloth:  $15.00;  paper:  $7.50. 

The  American  Experience:  Smithsonian  Institution  American  Revolution  Bicen- 
tennial Program.  50  pages.  February  6,  1974. 

The  Honey  Bee.  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  20  pages,  7  illus- 
trations. Reprint.  June  1974. 


Annual  Report  of  the  American  Historical  Association  for  the  Year  1972.  Vol- 
ume 1:  Proceedings,  xvi  4- 166  pages.  December  1973.  Paper:  $1.80. 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  329 

Smithsonian  Year  1973.  Annual  Report  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  for  the 
"Year  Ended  30  June  1973.  viii  +  343  pages.  January  28, 1974.  Paper:  $3.00. 

Smithsonian  International  Exchange  Service,  1973  Annual  Report.  9  pages.  May 
30, 1974. 

Statement  by  the  Secretary.  The  Smithsonian  Institution,  1973.  "Look  Backward, 
Lest  you  Fail  to  Mark  the  Path  Ahead,"  and  "Financial  Report."  iv  +  44  pages. 
December  14, 1973. 


A  Tribute  to  Mark  Tobey,  Catalogue  of  the  exhibition.  National  Collection  of 
Fine  Arts.  112  pages,  6  color  and  70  black-and-white  illustrations.  June  7,  1974. 
Paper:  $5.85. 

Edward  Deming  Andrews,  Janet  Malcolm,  A.  D.  Emerich,  and  A.  K.  Benning. 
Shaker:  Furniture  and  Objects  from  the  Faith  and  Edward  Deming  Andrews 
Collections  Commemorating  the  Bicentenary  of  the  American  Shakers.  Cata- 
logue of  exhibition,  Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  88 
pages,  1  color  and  65  black-and-white  illustrations.  October  30,  1973.  Paper: 

Robin  Bolton-Smith  and  William  H.  Truettner.  Lilly  Martin  Spencer:  The  Joys 
of  Sentiment,  1822-1902.  Catalogue  of  the  exhibition.  National  Collection  of 
Fine  Arts.  254  pages,  5  color  and  127  black-and-white  illustrations.  July  26, 
1973.  Paper:  $6.25. 

Audrey  B.  Davis.  Triumph  Over  Disability:  The  Development  of  Rehabilitation 
Medicine  in  the  U.S.A.  Catalogue  of  Exhibition,  National  Museum  of  History 
and  Technology.  52  pages,  97  black-and-white  illustrations.  October  23,  1973. 
Paper:  $2.50. 

Rachael  Griffin  and  Martha  Kingsbury.  Art  of  the  Pacific  Northwest  from  the 
1930s  to  the  Present.  Catalogue  of  the  exhibition.  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts,  153  pages,  5  color  and  138  black-and-white  illustrations.  February  1974. 
Paper:  $4.10. 

In  the  Minds  and  Hearts  of  the  People:  Prologue  to  the  American  Revolution, 
1760-1774.  Catalogue,  National  Portrait  Gallery.  60  pages,  26  black-and-white 
illustrations.  June  1974.  Paper:  $1.45. 

Marchal  E.  Landgren.  Robert  Loftin  Newman,  1827-1912.  Catalogue  of  the 
exhibition.  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  191  pages,  3  color  and  240  black- 
and-white  illustrations.  March  18,  1974.  Paper:  $5.45. 

Gerald  Z.  Levin  and  Jeanette  M.  Hussey.  President  Monroe's  Message:  A  Cata- 
log Accompanying  an  Exhibition  Commemorating  the  150th  Anniversary  of  the 
Monroe  Doctrine,  1823-1973.  National  Portrait  Gallery.  128  pages,  and  26  black- 
and-white  illustrations.  February  12, 1974.  Paper:  $3.45. 

Robert  C.  Mikesh  and  Claudia  M.  Oakes.  Exhibition  Flight.  Catalogue  of  exhibi- 
tion. National  Air  and  Space  Museum.  60  pages,  81  black-and-white  illustra- 
tions. December  13, 1973.  Paper:  $1.30. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum:  Pictorial  guide  to  permanent  exhibits.  36 
pages,  1  color  and  35  black-and-white  illustrations.  July  1973.  Paper:  $1.00. 

Daniel  Rhodes  and  Otto  Natzlerr  Form  and  Fire:  Natzler  Ceramics,  1939-1972. 
Catalogue  of  exhibition,  Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts.  124  pages,  39  color  and  32  black-and-white  illustrations.  August  20,  1973. 
Paper:  $4.00, 

330  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Steinberg  at  the  Smithsonian:  The  Metamorphoses  of  an  Emblem.  A  book  of 
drawings  by  the  artist  for  the  exhibition  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 
43  pages,  9  color  and  26  black-and-white  illustrations.  December  1973.  Paper: 

Lisa  W.  Strick.  The  Black  Presence  in  the  Era  of  the  American  Revolution,  1770- 
1800.  Catalogue  of  the  exhibition.  National  Portrait  Gallery.  76  pages,  1  color 
and  58  black-and-white  illustrations.  August  31, 1973.  Paper:  $2.05. 

Roberta  K.  Tarbell.  Marguerite  Zorach:  The  Early  Years,  1908-1920.  Catalogue 
of  the  exhibition.  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  77  pages,  3  color  and  43 
black-and-white  illustrations.  December  6, 1973.  Paper:  $2.90. 

William  H.  Truettner  and  Robin  Bolton-Smith.  National  Parks  and  the  Ameri- 
can Landscape.  Catalogue  of  an  exhibition  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts  commemorating  the  centennial  anniversary  of  the  National  Parks  system. 
148  pages,  3  color  and  132  black-and-white  illustrations.  July  1973.  Paper:  $3.25. 


Folders,  Flyers,  Booklets,  Records 

A  Measure  of  Beauty:  The  Diffusion  of  Style  in  Early  Nineteenth  Century  Amer- 
ica. Checklist  of  the  exhibition.  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  10  pages,  1 
illustration.  July  3, 1973. 

Africa:  Three  Out  of  Many:  Ethiopia,  Ghana,  Nigeria.  Foldout  flyer.  Anacostia 
Neighborhood  Museum.  6  pages.  September  17, 1973. 

Bicentennial  Inventory  of  American  Paintings  Executed  before  1914.  Foldout, 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  6  pages.  Reprint.  February  20,  1974. 

The  Black  Presence  in  the  Era  of  the  American  Revolution:  1770-1800.  Folder. 
National  Portrait  Gallery.  4  pages,  2  illustrations.  August  10, 1973. 

The  Black  Presence  in  the  Era  of  the  American  Revolution,  1770-1800.  Portfolio, 
teacher's  guide.  National  Portrait  Gallery.  12-page  booklet  with  5  black-and- 
white  illustrations,  8  separate  color  plates,  8  biography  sheets.  September  17, 

The  Catalog  of  American  Portraits.  Leaflet.  National  Portrait  Gallery.  8  pages. 
October  18, 1973. 

Electricity  and  Physiology,  Chemistry,  Magnetism,  Heat.  Information  folder. 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  4  pages.  Reprint.  November  5, 

Let's  Co  To  The  Smithsonian:  Bulletin  for  Schools.  Folders.  Office  of  Elemen- 
tary and  Secondary  Education.  September  1973-June  1974. 

Let's  Go  to  the  Smithsonian:  Learning  opportunities  for  schools  1973-74.  Port- 
folio. Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education.  8-page  booklet  with  9 
black-and-white  illustrations,  5  1-page  inserts.  September  17,  1973. 

Life  in  the  Universe.  Booklet.  National  Air  and  Space  Museum.  10  pages.  5  illus- 
trations. June  10, 1974. 

Lilly  Martin  Spencer:  The  Joys  of  Sentiment.  Checklist.  National  Collection  of 
Fine  Arts.  8  pages,  1  illustration.  July  1973. 

Charles  A.  Lindbergh  and  the  Spirit  of  St.  Louis.  Information  leaflet.  National 
Air  and  Space  Museum.  6  pages,  2  illustrations.  Reprint.  May  16, 1974. 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  331 

Modern  American  Woodcuts.  Checklist  of  the  exhibition.  National  Collection  of 
Fine  Arts.  16  pages,  5  illustrations.  December  10, 1973. 

Music  Machines  —  American  Style,  Sounds  of  the  Exhibition  at  the  National 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  Smithsonian  Institution.  Record,  SSVa 
RPM,  with  jacket.  October  1973.  $1.50. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum.  Foldout  building  guide.  Highlights  of  the  ex- 
hibits and  map.  10  pages,  10  illustrations.  August  9,  1973. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  Foldout  building  guide.  8  pages,  5  illustrations. 
Reprint.  October  25,  1973. 

The  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts:  A  Museum  of  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion. Folder  gallery  guide.  4  pages.  October  25,  1973. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  and  Renwick  Gallery.  Information  for  Docents. 
Portfolio  with  20-page  booklet.  May  29,  1974. 

National  Museum  of  History  of  Technology.  Foldout  building  guides  in  French, 
Spanish,  and  German.  Office  of  Public  Affairs.  8  pages.  January  1974. 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History.  Foldout  building  guide.  9  pages.  Reprint. 
September  17,  1973. 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History.  Foldout  building  guides  in  French,  Span- 
ish, and  German.  Office  of  Public  Affairs.  January  1974. 

National  Portrait  Gallery.  Information  folder.  4  pages.  August  20,  1973. 

NCFA  Calendar.  July  1973-June  1974. 

Prang's  American  Chromos.  Folder.  Division  of  Graphic  Arts,  National  Museum 
of  History  and  Technology.  4  pages,  1  illustration.  August  23, 1973. 

Robert  Loftin  Newman:  1827-1912.  CheckHst.  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 
16  pages,  1  illustration.  October  25,  1973. 

Selected  Portraits  of  Prominent  North  American  Indians.  Information  folder. 
National  Anthropological  Archives.  4  pages.  Reprint.  June  1973. 

Services  of  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  Education  Department.  Foldout  flyer. 
5  illustrations.  8  pages.  December  3,  1973. 

Shaker:  Renderings  of  Textiles  and  Costumes  from  the  Index  of  American  De- 
sign. Booklet  for  the  exhibition  at  the  Renwick  gallery.  8  pages,  16  illustra- 
tions. November  1,  1973. 

Shaker:  The  Heaven-Inspired  Drawings.  Booklet  for  the  exhibition  at  the  Ren- 
wick gallery.  8  pages,  1  illustration.  November  1, 1973. 

Smithsonian  Institution.  Foldout  guides  in  French,  Spanish,  and  German.  Office 
of  Public  Affairs.  10  pages,  map,  and  illustrations.  January  1974. 

Smithsonian  Institution.  Foldout  guide.  Office  of  Public  Affairs.  12  pages,  map, 
and  illustrations.  Reprint.  March  15,  1974. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Workshop  Series.  Office  of  Museum  Programs,  Flyer 
folder.  6  pages.  January  31, 1974. 

Vehicle  Hall.  Foldout  guide  to  exliibit.  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  6 
pages,  3  illustrations.  Reprint.  October  18,  1973. 

Herman  A.  Webster  Drawings,  Watercolors,  and  Prints.  Checklist  of  the  exhibi- 
tion. National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  8  pages,  1  illustration.  February  15,  1974. 

332  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Wiley  Post's  "Winnie  Mae."  Information  leaflet.  National  Air  and  Space  Mu- 
seum. 8  pages.  Reprint.  May  1974. 

The  Wright  Brothers.  Information  leaflet.  National  Air  and  Space  Museum.  8 
pages,  4  black-and-white  illustrations.  Reprint.  May  28, 1974. 



12.  Stanwyn  G.  Shetler  with  Mary  Jane  Petrini,  Constance  Graham  Carley,  M.  J. 
Harvey,  Larry  E.  Morse,  Thomas  E.  Kopfler,  and  Collaborators.  "An  Introduc- 
tion to  the  Botanical  Type  Specimen  Register."  vi  -|-  186  pages,  3  figures  and 
frontispiece.  August  3,  1973. 

13.  Daniel  H.  Janzen.  "Swollen-Thorn  Acacias  of  Central  America."  iii  4-  131 
pages,  119  figures,  10  tables.  April  23,  1974. 


10.  Louis  H.  Fuchs,  Edward  Olsen,  and  Kenneth  J.  Jensen.  "Mineralogy,  Mineral- 
Chemistry,  and  Composition  of  the  Murchison  (C2)  Meteorite."  iv  +  39  pages, 
19  figures  and  frontispiece.  August  14,  1973. 

11.  Daniel  J.  Stanley  and  Peter  Fenner.  "Underwater  Television  Survey  of  the 
Atlantic  Outer  Continental  Margin  near  Wilmington  Canyon."  ii  +  54  pages, 
18  figures.  August  2, 1973. 

12.  Grant  Heiken.  "An  Atlas  of  Volcanic  Ash."  iv  +  101  pages,  15  figures,  33 
plates,  3  tables.  April  12, 1974. 


15.  G.  Arthur  Cooper  and  Richard  E.  Grant.  "Permian  Brachiopods  of  West 
Texas,  II."  vii  -|-  233-793  pages,  figure  40,  plates  24-191.  April  16, 1974. 

18.  Robert  J.  Emry.  "Stratigraphy  and  Preliminary  Biostratigraphy  of  the  Flag- 
staff Rim  Area,  Natrona  County,  Wyoming."  iii  +  43  pages,  19  figures  and 
frontispiece.  July  18, 1973. 

20.  Adam  Urbanek  and  Kenneth  M.  Towe.  "Ultrastructural  Studies  on  Grapto- 
lites,  1 :  The  Periderm  and  Its  Derivatives  in  the  Dendroidea  and  in  Mastigo- 
graptus."  iii  -{-  48  pages,  2  figures,  30  plates,  2  tables.  May  15,  1974. 


120.  Jerry  A.  Powell.  "A  Systematic  Monograph  of  New  World  Ethmiid  Moths 
(Lepidoptera:  Gelechioidea)."  iv  +  302  pages,  294  figures,  22  plates.  September 
18, 1973. 

127.  Arthur  G.  Humes  and  Jan  H.  Stock.  "A  Revision  of  the  Family  Lichomol- 
gidae  Kossman,  1877,  Cyclopoid  Copepods  Mainly  Associated  with  Marine  In- 
vertebrates." V  +  368  pages,  190  figures.  November  12,  1973. 

139.  J.  Laurens  Barnard.  "Gammaridean  Amphipoda  of  Australia,  Part  II."  v  -|- 
148  pages,  83  figures.  February  15, 1974. 

143.  Florence  A.  Ruhoff.  "Bibliography  and  Zoological  Taxa  of  Paul  Bartsch." 
With  a  Biographical  Sketch  by  Harald  A.  Rehder.  v  +  166  pages.  July  20,  1973. 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  333 

145.  James  A.  Peters.  "The  Frog  Genus  Atelopus  in  Ecuador  (Anura:  Bufoni- 
dae)."  iii  +  49  pages,  31  figures.  July  19, 1973. 

146.  Thomas  E.  Bowman  and  Hans-Eckhard  Gruner.  "The  FamiHes  and  General 
of  Hyperiidea  (Crustacea:  Amphipoda."  iv  +  64  pages,  82  figures.  December 
31, 1973. 

149.  Michael  H.  Robinson  and  Barbara  Robinson.  "Ecology  and  Behavior  of  the 
Giant  Wood  Spider  Nephila  maculata  (Fabricius)  in  New  Guinea."  iv  +  76 
pages,  30  figures,  11  tables.  December  31, 1973. 

150.  Barbara  Schuler  Mayo.  "A  Review  of  the  Genus  Cancellus  (Crustacea:  Dio- 
genidae)  with  the  Description  of  a  New  Species  from  the  Caribbean  Sea."  iii  -|- 
63  pages,  25  figures.  August  31, 1973. 

151.  J.  Laurens  Barnard.  "Revision  of  Corophiidae  and  Related  Families  (Am- 
phipoda." iv  +  27  pages,  1  figure.  August  14,  1973. 

152.  Storrs  L.  Olson.  "Evolution  of  the  Rails  of  the  South  Atlantic  Islands  (Aves: 
Rallidae)."  iii  +  53  pages,  8  figures,  11  plates.  August  14, 1973. 

153.  Isabel  Perez  Farfante  and  Harvey  R.  Bullis,  Jr.  "Western  Atlantic  Shrimps 
of  the  Genus  Solenocera  with  Description  of  a  New  Species  (Crustacea:  Deca- 
poda:  Penaeidae)."  ii  +  33  pages,  19  figures.  August  2, 1973. 

154.  Oscar  L.  Cartwright.  "Ataenius,  Aphotaenius,  and  Pseudataenius  of  the 
United  States  and  Canada  (Coleoptera:  Scarabaeidae:  Aphodiinae)/'  iv  +  106 
pages,  24  figures,  3  plates.  May  15, 1974. 

155.  Richard  Winterbottom.  "The  Familial  Phylogeny  of  the  Tetraodontiformes 
(Acanthopterygii :  Pisces)  as  Evidenced  by  Their  Comparative  Myology."  iv  + 
201  pages,  185  figures.  March  12, 1974. 

156.  Leonila  Alzate  Corpuz-Raros  and  Edwin  F.  Cook.  "A  Revision  of  North 
American  Capitophorus  Van  der  Goot  and  Pleotrichophorus  Borner  (Homop- 
tera:  Aphididae)."  iv4-  143  pages,  494  figures.  April  12,  1974. 

157.  William  D.  Field,  Cyril  F.  dos  Passos,  and  John  H.  Masters.  "A  Bibliography 
of  the  Catalogs,  Lists,  Faunal  and  Other  Papers  on  the  Butterflies  of  North 
America  North  of  Mexico  Arranged  by  State  and  Province  (Lepidoptera:  Rho- 
palocera)."  ii  +  104  pages.  February  20, 1974. 

158.  Warren  B.  King,  editor.  "Pelagic  Studies  of  Seabirds  in  the  Central  and 
Eastern  Pacific  Ocean."  iv  +  277  pages,  170  figures,  June  12, 1974. 

159.  John  S.  Stephens,  Jr.,  and  Victor  G.  Springer.  "Clinid  Fishes  of  Chile  and 
Peru,  with  Description  of  a  New  Species,  Myxodes  ornatus,  from  Chile."  iii  + 
24  pages,  15  figures.  January  21,  1974. 

160.  John  R.  Holsinger.  "Systematics  of  the  Subterranean  Amphipod  Genus 
Stygobromus  (Gammaridae),  Part  I:  Species  of  the  Western  United  States."  iii 
+  63  pages,  37  figures.  March  12,  1974. 

161.  Roger  F.  Cressey  and  Hillary  Boyle.  "Five  New  Bomolochid  Copepods  Para- 
sitic on  Indo-Pacific  Clupeid  Fishes."  ii  -|-  25  pages,  73  figures.  December  31, 

164.  Horton  H.  Hobbs,  Jr.  "Synopsis  of  the  Families  and  Genera  of  Crayfishes 
(Crustacea:  Decapoda)."  iii  -f  32" pages,  27  figures.  March  10,  1974. 

165.  Klaus  Riitzler.  "The  Burrowing  Sponges  of  Bermuda."  iii  +  32  pages,  26 
figures.  February  15, 1974. 

334  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

•168.  Paul  D.  Hurd,  Jr.,  E.  Gorton  Linsley,  and  A.  E.  Michelbacher.  "Ecology  of 
the  Squash  and  Gourd  Bee,  Peponapis  pruinosa,  on  Cultivated  Cucurbits  in  Cali- 
fornia (Hymenoptera:  Apoidea)."  iii  +  17  pages,  4  figures,  8  tables.  May  23, 

171.  D.  M.  Tattle,  E.  W.  Baker,  and  M.  Abbatiello.  "Spider  Mites  from  North- 
western and  North  Central  Mexico  (Acarina:  Tetranychidae)."  18  pages,  28 
figures.  May  15, 1974. 

174.  Alejandro  Villalobos  Figueroa  and  Horton  H.  Hobbs,  Jr.  "Three  New  Crus- 
taceans from  La  Media  Luna,  San  Luis  Potosi,  Mexico."  iii  +  18  pages,  8  figures. 
June  28, 1974. 


21.  Grace  Rogers  Cooper.  "Thirteen-Star  Flags:  Keys  to  Identification."  vii  + 
62  pages,  25  figures  and  frontispiece.  November  6, 1973. 

24.  Smith  Hempstone  Oliver  and  Donald  H.  Berkebile.  "Wheels  and  Wheeling: 
The  Smithsonian  Cycle  Collection."  v  +  104  pages,  illustrated.  April  23,  1974. 

25.  John  H.  White,  Jr.  "American  Single  Locomotives  and  the  'Pioneer.' "  v  + 
50  pages,  52  figures  and  frontispiece.  September  19,  1973. 

26.  Robert  M.  Vogel,  editor.  "A  Report  of  the  Mohawk-Hudson  Area  Survey: 
A  Selective  Recording  Survey  of  the  Industrial  Archeology  of  the  Mohawk  and 
Hudson  River  Valleys  of  Troy,  New  York,  June-September  1969."  ix  -|-  210 
pages,  141  figures.  September  25, 1973. 

27.  Helen  R.  Hollis.  "Pianos  in  the  Smithsonian  Institution."  iv  -|-  47  pages,  23 
figures.  December  31, 1973. 


Volume  38,  Part  6.  C.  V.  Morton.  "Studies  of  Fern  Types,  II."  Pages  215-281. 
December  31, 1973. 

166-170.  In  one  volume,  as  follows.  November  23, 1973. 

166.  Peter  J.  Vine.  "Crown  of  Thorns  (Acanthaster  planci)  Plagues:  The  Natural 
Causes  Theory."  14  pages,  4  figures. 

167.  R.  Endean  and  W.  Stablum.  "A  Study  of  Some  Aspects  of  the  Crown-of- 
Thorns  Starfish  (Acanthaster  planci)  Infestations  of  Reefs  of  Australia's  Great 
Barrier  Reef."  iii  -f  76  pages,  22  figures. 

168.  R.  Endean  and  W.  Stablum.  "The  Apparent  Extent  of  Recovery  of  Reefs  of 
Australia's  Great  Barrier  Reef  Devastated  by  the  Crown-of-Thorns  Starfish,  iii 
-f-  37  pages,  23  figures. 

169.  Dennis  M.  Devaney  and  John  E.  Randall.  "Investigations  of  Acanthaster 
planci  in  Southeastern  Polynesia  During  1970-1971."  ii  -|-  35  pages,  5  plates, 
13  figures. 

170.  James  A.  Marsh,  Jr.,  and  Roy  T.  Tsuda.  "Population  Levels  of  Acanthaster 
planci  in  the  Mariana  and  Caroline  Islands,  1969-1972."  16  pages. 

171.  Charles  A.  Ely  and  Roger  B.  Clapp.  "The  Natural  History  of  Laysan  Island, 
Northwestern  Hawaiian  Islands."  xi  -\-  362  pages,  42  figures,  83  tables,  32  ap- 
pendix tables.  December  31, 1973. 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  335 

APPENDIX  8.  Publications  and  Selected  Contributions  of  the 

Smithsonian  Institution  Staff  in  Fiscal  Year  1974 



Goode,  James  M.  "The  Outdoor  Sculpture  of  Downtown  Washington,  D.C." 
Smithsonian  Associates,  July  5,  11,  18,  25,  and  August  1,  1973. 

.  "The  Military  Sculpture  of  Washington,  D.C."  U.S.  Marine  Corps  Gen- 
eral Officers  Society,  July  10,  1973. 

-.  "The  Architectural  History  of  Georgetown,  Washington,  D.C."  Ameri- 

can Bar  Association,  August  3,  1973. 

-.  "The  History  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Building."  Smithsonian 

Volunteers,  September  12,  1973. 

-.  "The  Architectural  History  of  Charlottesville,  Virginia."  International 

Numismatic  Congress,  September  16,  1973. 

"The  Early  Outdoor  Sculpture  of  Washington,  D.C,  1807-1870."  The 

Caroline  County  Historical  Society,  Bowling  Green,  Virginia,  September  30, 

"The  Victorian  Architecture  of  Downtown  Washington,  D.C."  Univer- 

sity of  Virginia  School  of  Architectural  History,  October  12,  1973. 

-.  "The  Architectural  History  of  Richmond,  Virginia."  Smithsonian  Asso- 

ciates, October  19  and  November  24, 1973. 

"The  Architectural  History  of  Lancaster,  Pennsylvania."  Smithsonian 

Associates,  March  22,  1974. 

"The  Georgian  Architecture  of  Annapolis,   Maryland."  Smithsonian 

Associates,  April  27, 1974. 

-.  "Washingtoniana  as  a  Field  for  Research."  The  Junior  League  of  Wash- 

ington, D.C,  May  16,  1974. 

"The  Architectural  History  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Building.' 

The  American  Institute  of  Architects,  May  21,  1974. 
.   "The  Victorian   Furniture   Collection   in   the   Smithsonian   Institution 

Building."  The  Citizens  for  Maine  Preservation,  Portland,  Maine,  June  16, 



Correll,  David  L.,  Maria  A.  Faust,  and  D.  J.  Severn.  "Phosphorus  Flux  and 
Cycling  in  Estuaries."  Presented  at  the  Second  International  Research  Con- 
ference, Myrtle  Beach,  S.C,  October  1973. 

Cory,  Robert  L.  "Changes  in  Oxygen  Production  in  the  Patuxent  Estuary,  Mary- 
land, 1963  through  1969."  Chesapeake  Science,  volume  15,  number  2  (1974), 
pages  78-83. 

Cory,  Robert  L.,  and  Michael  Redding.  "Mortality  of  the  Commercial  Clam  Mya 
Aernaria  and  Tropical  Storm  Agnes."  Presented  at  the  Chesapeake  Research 
Consortium's  Symposium  on  the  Effects  of  Tropical  Storm  Agnes  on  the 
Chesapeake  Bay  Estuarine  System,  College  Park,  Md.,  May  1974. 

336  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

.  "Tropical  Storm  Agnes  and  Water  Quality  of  Rhode  River."  Presented 

at  the  Chesapeake  Research  Consortium's  Symposium  on  the  Effects  of  Trop- 
ical Storm  Agnes  on  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Estuarine  System,  College  Park, 
Md.,  May  1974. 

Crawford,  C.  C,  J.  E.  Hobbie  and  K.  L.  Webb.  "The  Utilization  of  Dissolved  Free 
Amino  Acids  by  Estuarine  Microorganisms."  Ecology,  volume  55,  number  3 
(1974),  pages  551-563. 

Falk,  John  H.  The  Lawn.  The  Regents  of  the  University  of  California,  63  pages, 

.  Lawn  Guide.  The  Regents  of  the  University  of  California,  23  pages,  1973. 

.  "Life  in  Early  California:  A  New  Approach  to  the  Outdoor  Field  Trip." 

Science  and  Children,  volume  11,  number  3  (1973),  pages  18-19. 

-.  "Wheeling  Your  Way  Through  the  Outdoors."  Science  and  Children, 

volume  12  (1974). 

Kinsman,  Dorothy  L.    "Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental   Studies." 
Maryland  Conservationist,  volume  50,  number  1  (1974),  pages  4-8. 


Collins,  Michael.  "Aerospace  on  the  Mall."  Aerospace,  official  publication  of  the 

Aerospace  Industries  Association,  volume  11,  number  2  (June  1973),  pages 

Zisfein,  M.  B.  [Book  Review]  "Our  World  in  Space,"  Robert  McCall  and  Isaac 

Asimov,  Smithsonian  Magazine,  1974. 
Zisfein,  M.  B.,  and  D.  S.  Lopez.  "Exhibition  Flight."  Introductory  text,  13  pages. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1973. 

Aeronautics  Department 

Mikesh,  Robert  C.  "Aircraft  in  Museums  Around  the  World."  Sections  1  and 

2,  second  edition.  (Multilith.) 
Mikesh,  Robert  C,  and  Claudia  M.  Oakes.  "Exhibition  Flight."  56  pages,  82 

figures,  1973. 

Astronautics  Department 

Doster,  Alexis,  III.  "Life  in  the  Universe."  Smithsonian  Institution  Press.  12 
pages,  5  illustrations.  June  1974. 

Center  for  Earth  and  Planetary  Studies 

El-Baz,  Farouk.  "The  Moon:  International  Astronomical  Union  Symposium." 
D.  Reidel,  Holland,  Icarus,  volume  19,  number  4  (1973),  pages  614-615. 

.  "Astrogeology.  A  Special  Issue  on  Earth  Science:  The  View  from  '74." 

Ceotimes,  volume  19,  number  1  (1974),  pages  14-16. 

"The  New  Moon."  140th  Annual  Meeting  of  the  American  Association 

for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  AAAS  Program  (1974),  page  6. 

"  'D-Caldera':  New  Photography  of  a  Unique  Feature."  Apollo  17  Pre- 

liminary Science  Report,  NASA  SP-330,  chapter  30,  part  D  (1974),  pages  30-13 
to  30-17. 

'Aitken  Crater  and  Its  Environs."  Apollo  17  Preliminary  Science  Report, 

NASA  SP-330,  chapter  33,  part  B  (1974),  pages  32-8  to  32-12. 
EI-Baz,  Farouk,  and  R.  E.  Evans.  "Observations  of  Mare  Serenitatis  from  Lunar 

Orbit  and  Their  Interpretation."  MIT  Press,  Proceedings  of  the  Fourth  Lunar 

Science  Conference,  volume  1  (1973),  pages  139-147. 
Evans,  R.  E.,  and  F.  El-Baz.  "Geological  Observations  from  Lunar  Orbit."  Apollo 

17  Preliminary  Science  Report,  NASA  SP-330,  chapter  28  (1974),  pages  28-1 

to  28-32. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  337 

Mattingly,  T.  K.,  and  F.  EI-Baz.  "Orbital  Observations  of  the  Lunar  Highlands 
on  Apollo  16  and  Their  Interpretation."  MIT  Press,  Proceedings  of  the  Fourth 
Lunar  Science  Conference,  volume  1  (1973),  pages  49-56. 

Ward,  S.  R,  F.  El-Baz,  T.  A.  Maxwell,  W.  J.  Peeples,  and  W.  R.  Sill.  "Radar  De- 
scription of  Lunar  Surface  Features."  Geological  Society  of  America,  Ab- 
stracts with  Programs,  volume  5,  number  7  (1973),  page  855. 


Durant,  F.  C,  III.  "Robert  H.  Goddard  and  the  Roswell  Years  (1930-1941)." 
24th  Congress  of  the  International  Astronautical  Federation,  Baker,  U.S.S.R., 
October  1973. 

Winter,  Frank  H.  "Camera  Rockets  and  Space  Photography  Before  World  War 
II."  24th  Congress  of  the  International  Astronautical  Federation,  Baker, 
U.S.S.R.,  October  1973. 

Zisfein,  M.  B.  "The  National  Air  and  Space  Museum."  American  Air  Mail  So- 
ciety Golden  Anniversary,  Washington,  D.C.,  September  1973. 

.  "The  National  Air  and  Space  Museum."  Aero  Club  of  Buffalo,  Buffalo, 

N.Y.,  October  1973. 

"Air   Traffic    Control."   Smithsonian   Associates,   Washington,   D.C., 

March  1973. 

-.  "The  National  Air  and  Space  Museum."  Smithsonian  Associates,  Wash- 

ington, D.C.,  June  1974. 


Department  of  Anthropology 

Angel,  J.  Lawrence.  "Human  Skeletons  from  Grave  Circles  at  Mycenae."  Appen- 
dix, pages  379-397,  in  Crave  circle  B  of  Mycenae  by  George  E.  Mylonas.  The 
Archaeological  Society  of  Athens,  1973. 

.  "Neolithic  Human  Remains."  Appendix,  pages  277-282,  in  "Excavations 

in  the  Franchthi  Cave,  1969-1971,  Part  II,"  by  Thomas  W.  Jacobsen.  Hesperia, 
volume  42,  number  3  (1973),  pages  253-283. 

"Late  Bronze  Age  Cypriotes  from  Bamboula."  Appendix,  pages  148- 

165,  in  Bamboula  at  Kourion  by  Jack  L.  Benson.  Museum  Monographs,  Unr 
versity  of  Pennsylvania  Press,  Philadelphia,  1973. 

"The  Cultural  Ecology  of  General  Versus  Dental  Health."  Chapter, 

pages  382-391,  in  Biology  of  human  populations.  Contributions  to  their  struc- 
ture and  dynamics  (Bevolkerungsbiologie.  Beitrage  zur  Struktur  und  Dyna- 
mik  menschlicher  Populationen  in  anthropologischer  Sicht.),  edited  by  Wolf- 
ram Bernhard  und  Anneliese  Kandler.  Stuttgart:  Gustav  Fischer  Verlag,  1974. 
(Festschrift  for  Professor  Use  Schwidetzky). 

Angel,  J.  Lawrence,  with  Michael  Finnegan  and  Henry  W.  Setzer.  "Bones  Can 
Fool  People."  F.B.I.  Law  enforcement  bulletin,  volume  43,  number  1  (1974), 
pages  16-20,  30. 

William  H.  Crocker.  "Xicrin-Brazil."  Pages  22-31,  volume  6  (Amazonia,  Orin- 
oco, and  Pampas),  in  Peoples  of  the  Earth,  editorial  director,  Tom  Stacey. 
Danbury,  Connecticut:  The  Danbury  Press  (Grolier  Enterprises  Inc.),  1973. 

.  "Extramarital  Sexual  Practices  of  the  Ramkokamekra-Canela  Indians: 

An  Analysis  of  Socio-cultural  Factors."  Pages  184-194  in  Native  South  Ameri- 
cans: Ethnology  of  the  Least  Known  Continent.  Patricia  J.  Lyon,  editor.  Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts:  Little,  Brown  &  Company,  1974.  [A  republication  from  an 
obscure  1964  source.] 

338  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

,,  Evans,  Clifford,  and  Betty  J.  Meggers.  "United  States  'Imperialism'  and  Latin 
American  Archeology."  American  Antiquity,  volume  38  (1973),  pages  257- 

'Imperialismo  Norteamericano  y  Arquologia  Latinoamericana."  Boletin 

del  Institute  Montecristeno  de  Arqueologia,  number  1,  pages  11-13,  Republica 
Dominicana,  1973. 

Ewers,  John  C.  Artists  of  the  Old  West  (enlarged  and  revised  edition).  240 
pages,  194  illustrations,  44  in  color.  Garden  City,  New  York:  Doubleday  and 

I      Company,  1973. 

.  Blackfeet  and  Gros  Ventres  Tribes  in  Northern  Montana,  1888.  Indian 

Claims  Commission  Testimony,  Docket  279-A.  183  pages.  Microfiche  publi- 
cation. New  York:  Clearwater  Publishing  Company,  Inc.,  1973. 

-.  Chippewa  Cree  and  Little  Shell  Lands  in  Montana,  1888.  Indian  Claims 

Commission  Testimony,  Docket  221-B.  170  pages.  Microfiche  publication. 
New  York:  Clearwater  Publishing  Company,  Inc.,  1973. 

'Symbols  of  Chiefly  Authority  in  Spanish  Louisiana."  Pages  272-284, 

2  plates,  in  The  Spanish  in  the  Mississippi  Valley,  1762-1804,  edited  by  John 
Francis  McDermott.  Urbana:  University  of  Illinois  Press,  1974. 

Fitzhugh,  William.  "Smithsonian  Archeological  Investigations  on  the  Central 
Labrador  Coast  in  1973:  A  Preliminary  Report."  Canadian  Archaeological 
Associations,  Bulletin  number  5  (1973),  pages  77-90. 

.  Culture  History  and  Ecology  of  Prehistoric  Maritime  Cultures  of  Scan- 
dinavia. American  Philosophical  Society,  Yearbook  1973  (1974). 

"Hound  Pond  4:  A  Charles  Complex  Site  in  Groswater  Bay,  Labrador, 

Man  in  the  Northeast,  page  7, 1974. 

Knez,  Eugene  I.  "A  South  Korean  Village:  Sam  Jong  Dong."  Syracuse  Univer- 
sity, Ph.D.  dissertation,  1959:  Human  Relations  Area  Files,  1974. 

Laughhn,  Robert  M.,  with  Brent  Berlin,  Dennis  E.  Breedlove,  and  Peter  H. 
Raven.  "Cultural  Significance  and  Lexical  Retention  in  Tzeltal-Tzotzil  Ethno- 
botany."  Pages  143-164  in  Meaning  in  Mayan  Languages;  Ethnolinguistic 
Studies,  edited  by  Munro  S.  Edmonson.  The  Hague:  Mouton,  1973. 

Meggers,  Betty  J.,  and  Clifford  Evans  (contributing  editors).  "Archaeology: 
South  America."  Handbook  of  Latin  American  Studies,  number  35,  pages 
46-69.  Gainesville,  Florida:  University  of  Florida  Press.  1973. 

Ortner,  D.  J.,  and  D.  W.  Von  Endt.  "Electron  Probe  Microanalysis  of  the  Pri- 
mary Spongiosa  in  Human  Feotal  Bone."  Ninth  European  Symposium  on 
Calcified  Tissues,  Baden,  Austria,  October  1972. 

Stewart,  T.  Dale.  "The  Indians  of  the  Americas :  Myths  and  Realities."  Revista 
Interamericana,  volume  3,  number  1  (1973),  pages  42-54. 

Sturtevant,  William  C.  "Studies  in  Ethnoscience."  Pages  39-59  in  Culture  and 
Cognition:  Readings  in  Cross-Cultural  Psychology,  edited  by  J.  W.  Berry  and 
P.  R.  Dasen.  London:  Methuen  and  Company,  Ltd.,  1974.  (A  partial  reprint  of 
article  first  published  in  American  Anthropologist,  volume  66,  number  3,  part 
Z,  1964.) 

Trousdale,  William.  "Helmand-Sistan  Project:  Carved  Decorative  and  Inscribed 
Bricks  from  Bust."  Easf  and  West,  new  series,  volume  22,  numbers  1-2  (1972), 
pages  215-226.  Rome,  November  1973. 

Ubelaker,  Douglas  H.  "The  Reconstruction  of  Demographic  Profiles  from  Os- 
sury  Skeletal  Samples:  A  Case  Study  From  the  Tidewater  Potomac."  Disser- 
tation Abstracts  International,  volume  34,  number  6  (1973). 

Van  Beek,  Gus.  "The  Vaulted  Assyrian  Building  at  Tell  Gemmah."  Qadmoniot, 
volume  6,  number  1  (1973),  pages  23-27. 

Viola,  Herman  J.  Introduction  to  a  reprint  of  Thomas  L.  McKenney  Memoirs, 
Official  and  Personal.  University  of  Nebraska  Press,  1974. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  339 

• .  "Some  Recent  Writings  on  the  American  Indian."  American  Archivist, 

volume  37,  number  1  (January  1974),  pages  51-54. 

Von  Endt,  D.  W.,  P.  E.  Hare,  and  D.  J.  Ortner.  "Environmental  Factors  Which 
Affect  Protein  Decomposition  in  Archeological  Specimens."  Proceedings  of 
the  Society  of  American  Archaeologists,  volume  59  (1974). 

Department  of  Botany 

Ahmadjian,  V.,  and  M.  E.  Hale,  editors.  The  Lichens.  New  York:  Academic 
Press,  1973. 

Ayensu,  Edward  S.  "Biological  and  Morphological  Aspects  of  the  Velloziaceae." 
Biotropica,  volume  4,  number  3  (1973),  pages  135-149. 

.  "Comments  on  Old  and  New  World  Dioscoreas  of  Commercial  Impor- 
tance." Primer  Simposio  Internacional  Sobre  Dioscoreas,  number  8,  1972 
(1974),  pages  77-81. 

Bowers,  Frank  D.,  A.  J.  Sharp,  and  Harold  Robinson.  "Additional  Mosses  from 
Costa  Rica  and  Mexico."  The  Bryologist,  volume  76  (1973),  page  447-449. 

Cowan,  R.  S.  "Herbaria  as  Data-banks."  Arnoldia,  volume  33  (1973),  pages  3-11. 

.  "A  New  Swartzia  from  Suriname."  Phytologia,  volume  26,  number  4 

(1973),  pages  279-280. 

"A  Revision  of  the  Genus  Bocoa  (Caesalpinioideae-Swartzieae)."  Pro- 

ceedings of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  87,  number  13 
(1974),  39  pages,  14  figures. 

Studies  of  Tropical  American  Leguminosae  VII."  Proceedings  of  the 

Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  86,  number  39  (1973),  pages  447- 

Cowan,  Richard  S.,  and  Lyman  B.  Smith.  "Rutaceas."  Flora  llustrada  Catarin- 
ense,  part  1,  fascicle  RUTA  (November  1973),  pages  1-89,  plates  1-23. 

Cuatrecasas,  J.  "Miscellaneous  Notes  on  Neotropical  Flora  IV."  Phytologia,  vol- 
ume 27,  number  1  (1973),  pages  41-57. 

.  "Miscelaneous  Notes  on  Neotropical  Flora  V."  Phytologia,  volume  27, 

number  3  (1973),  pages  169-179. 

-.  "Supplemental  Characterization  of  Genus  Pseudoconyza  (Compositae, 

Inuleae-Plucheinae)."  Phytologia,  volume  26,  number  6  (1973),  pages  410- 

Cuatrecasas,  J.,  and  D.  N.  Porter.  "A  New  Species  of  Brunellia  from  Panama." 

Phytologia,  volume  26,  number  6  (1973),  pages  485-486. 
Culberson,  C.  F.,  and  M.  E.  Hale,  Jr.  "4-0-Demethylnotatic  Acid,  a  New  Dep- 

sidone  in  Some  Lichens  Producing  Hypoprotocetraric  Acid."  Bryologist,  vol- 
ume 76  (1973),  pages  77-84. 
,  "Chemical  and  Morphological  Evolution  in  Parmelia  Sect.  Hypotra- 

chyna:   Product  of  Ancient  Hybridization?"  Brittonia,  volume   25    (1973), 

pages  162-173. 
Dahl,  Arthur  L.  "Benthic  Algal  Ecology  in  a  Deep  Reef  and  Sand  Habitat  off 

Puerto  Rico."  Botanica  Marina,  volume  16  (1973),  pages  171-175. 

.  "Biological  Proportions."  Science,  volume  181  (1973),  page  469. 

.  "Surface  Area  in  Ecological  Analysis:  Quantification  of  Benthic  Coral 

Reef  Algae."  Marine  Biology,  volume  23  (1973),  pages  239-249. 
Eyde,  Richard  H.,  and  Judy  T.  Morgan.  "Floral  Structure  and  Evolution  in  Lope- 

zieae  (Onagraceae)."  American  Journal  of  Botany,  volume  60  (1973),  pages 

Fosberg,  F.  Raymond.  "Geomorphic  Cycle  on  Aldabra  —  Hypothesis,"  Pages 

469-475  in  C.  Mukundan  and  C.  S.  Gopinadha  Pillai,  editors.  Proceedings  of 

the  Symposium  on  Corals  and  Coral  Reefs,  1969.  Cochin:  Marine  Biological 

Association  of  India,  1972. 

340  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

.  "The  Name  of  the  Octopus  Tree."  Baileya,  volume  19  (1973),  pages 

.  "On  Present  Condition  and  Conservation  of  Forests  in  Micronesia."  In 

Symposium:  Planned  Utilization  of  the  Lowland  Tropical  Forests,  August 
1971.  Bogor,  Indonesia:  Pacific  Science  Association  Standing  Committee  on 
Pacific  Botany,  1973. 

'Sketch  of  the  St.  Croix  Flora."  In  H.  Gray  Multer  and  Lee  C.  Gerhard, 

editors.  Guidebook  to  the  Geology  and  Ecology  of  Some  Marine  and  Terres- 
trial Environments,  St.  Croix,  U.S.  Virgin  Islands.  Christiansted:  West  Indies 
Laboratory  of  the  Fairleigh  Dickinson  University,  1974. 

— .  "Type  Specimens  of  Buxus  Sempervirens  Linnaeus."  Boxwood  Bulletin, 

volume  13,  number  2  (1973),  pages  18-21. 

'Vascular  Plants  —  Widespread  Island  Species."  Pages  167-169  in  A.B. 

Costin  and  R.  H.  Groves,  editors.  Nature  Conservation  in  the  Pacific.  Can- 
berra: Australian  National  University  Press,  1973. 

3sberg,  F.  Raymond,  and  Marie-Helene  Sachet.  "Past,  Present  and  Future  Con- 
servation Problems  of  Oceanic  Islands."  Pages  209-215  in  A.  B.  Costin  and 
R.  H.  Groves,  editors.  Nature  Conservation  in  the  Pacific.  Canberra:  Austral- 
ian National  University  Press,  1973. 

.  "Remarks  on  Halophila  (Hydrocharitaceae).  Taxon,  volume  22  (1973), 

pages  439-443. 

[ale.  Mason  E.,  Jr.  "Studies  on  the  Lichen  Family  Thelotremataceae  1."  Phyto- 
logia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  413-420. 

,  "Growth."  Pages  473-492  in  The  Lichens,  edited  by  V.  Ahmadjian  and 

M.  E.  Hale.  New  York:  Academic  Press,  1973. 

"New  Parmeliae   (Lichens)    from  Africa.  2."   Phytologia,  volume  27 

(1974),  pages  1-6. 

"Studies  on  the  Lichen  Family  Thelotremataceae  2."  Phytologia,  volume 

27  (1974),  pages  490-501. 
ing,  R.  M.,  and  Robinson,  H.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXII. 

A  new  species  of  Ferreyrella."  Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  167-169. 
.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXIII.  A  new  genus,  Matu- 

dina."  Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  170-173. 

"Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXIV.  The  genera  of  Barro 

Colorado  Island,  Panama."  Phytologia,  volume  27  (1973),  pages  233-240. 

-.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXV.  A  new  genus  and  spe- 

cies, Pseudokyrsteniopsis  perpetiolata."  Phytologia,  volume  27  (1973),  pages 

-.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXVI.  New  species  of  Neomi- 

randea."  Phytologia,  volume  27  (1973),  pages  245-251. 

"Studies  in   the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXVII.  A  new  species  of 

Oxylobus  from  Oaxaca,  Mexico."  Phytologia,  volume  27  (1974),  pages  385- 

'Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXVIII.  New  species  of  Ager- 

atum,  Fleischmannia  and  Hebeclinium  from  northern  South  America."  Phyto- 
logia, volume  27  (1974),  pages  387-394. 

"Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXIX.  Additions  to  the  genera 

Cronquistianthus,  Helogyne  and  Neocuatrecasia  from  Peru."  Phytologia,  vol- 
ume 27  (1974),  pages  395-401. 

ellinger,  David  B.  "Conrad  Vernon  Morton  (1905-1972)."  American  Fern 
Journal,  volume  63,  number  3  (1973),  pages  49-60. 

licolson,  D.  H.,  and  R.  A.  Brooks.  "Orthography  of  Names  and  Epithets:  Stems 
and  Compound  Words."  Taxon,  volume  23,  number  1  (February  1974),  pages 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  341 

Nowicke,  J.  W.  "Two  New  Species  of  Besleria  (Gesneriaceae)  from  Panama." 
Brittonia,  volume  26  (1974),  pages  37-41. 

Read,  Robert  W.  "The  Ecology  of  the  Palms."  Principes,  volume  18,  number  2 
(April  1974),  pages  39-50. 

.  "Tillandsia  adamsii,  A  New  Jamaican  Species."  Phytologia,  volume  28, 

number  1  (May  1974  ),  pages  21-23. 

Robinson,  H.  "Additions  to  the  Genus  Tagetes  (Helenieae,  Asteraceae)."  Phyto- 
logia, volume  26  (1973),  pages  378-380. 

.  "New  Combinations  in  the  Cactaceae  Subfamily  Opuntioideae."  Phy- 
tologia, volume  26  (1973),  pages  175-176. 

"Scanning  Electron  Microscope  Studies  of  the  Spines  and  Glochids  of  the 

Opuntioideae  (Cactaceae)."  American  Journal  of  Botany,  volume  61  (1974), 
pages  278-283. 

'Two  New  Species  of  Enlinia  from  the  Southwestern  United  States  (Dip- 

tera:  Dolichopodidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Wash- 
ington, volume  75  (1973),  pages  419-422. 

Robinson,  H.,  and  R.  D.  Brettell.  "A  New  Species  of  Senecio  from  Costa  Rica." 
Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  page  454. 

.  "Studies  in  the  Senecioneae  (Asteraceae).  I.  A  New  Genus,  Pittocaulon." 

Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  451-453. 

-.  "Studies  in  the  Senecioneae  (Asteraceae).  II.  A  New  Genus,  Nelsonian- 

thus."  Phytologia,  volume  27  (1973),  pages  53-54. 

"Studies  in  the  Liabeae  (Asteraceae).  I.  A  New  Species  of  Liabum  from 

Mexico."  Phytologia,  volume  27  (1973),  pages  252-253. 

"Studies  in  the  Senecioneae  (Asteraceae).  III.  The  Genus  Psacalium." '' 

Phytologia,  volume  27  (1973),  pages  254-264. 

"Studies  in  the  Senecioneae  (Asteraceae).  IV.  The  Genera  Mesadenia, 

Syneilesis,  Miricacalia,  Koyamacalia  and  Sinacalia."  Phytologia,  volume  27 
(1973),  pages  265-276. 

"Studies  in  the  Senecioneae  (Asteraceae).  V.  The  Genera  Psacaliopsis, 

Barkleyanthus,  Telanthophora  and  Roldana."  Phytologia,  volume  27  (1974),! 
pages  402-439. 

"Tribal  Revisions  in  the  Asteraceae.  V.  The  Relationship  of  Rigiopap- 

pus."  Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  69-70. 

"Tribal  Revisions  in  the  Asteraceae.  VI.  The  Relationship  of  Eriachaen- 

ium."  Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  71-72. 

"Tribal  Revisions  in  the  Asteraceae.  VII.  The  Relationship  of  Isoetop- 

sis."  Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  73-75. 

"Tribal  Revisions  in  the  Asteraceae.  VIII.  A  New  Tribe,  Ursinieae." '! 

Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  76-85. 

"Tribal  Revisions  in  the  Asteraceae.  IX.  The  Relationship  of  Ischnea." '\ 

Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  153-158. 

.  "Tribal  Revisions  in  the  Asteraceae.  X.  The  Relationship  of  Plagio*' 

cheilus."  Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  159-162.  i 

.  "Tribal  Revisions  in  the  Asteraceae.  XI.  A  New  Tribe,  Eremothamneae 

Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  163-166. 


Robinson,  H.,  and  J.  Cuatrecasas.  "Synopsis  of  the  Genus  Philoglossa  (LiabiaC/'} 

Asteraceae."  Phytologia,  volume  26,  number  5  (1973),  pages  381-388. 
.  "The  Generic  Limits  of  Pluchea  and  Tessaria  (Inuleae,  Asteraceae." 

Phytologia,  volume  27,  number  4  (1973),  pages  277-285. 
Robinson,  H.,  and  C.  DelgadiHo  M.  "Neosharpiella,  a  New  Genus  of  Musd 

from  High  Elevations  in  Mexico  and  South  America."  The  Bryologist,  volumei 

76  (1973),  pages  536-540. 

342  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Robinson,  H.,  and  C.  F.  Reed,  "A  New  Species  of  Vernonia  from  Mexico."  Phy- 
tologia,  volume  27  (1973),  page  52. 

Sachet,  M.-H.  "The  Discovery  of  Lehronnecia  kokioides."  Bulletin,  Pacific  Trop- 
ical Botanical  Garden,  volume  3,  number  3  (1973),  pages  41-43. 

Sachet,  M.-H.,  and  F.  R.  Fosberg,  "Remarks  on  Halophila  (Hydrocharitaceae)." 
Taxon,  volume  22,  number  4  (1973),  pages  439-443. 

Shetler,  Stanwyn  G.  "Demythologizing  Biological  Data  Banking."  Taxon,  vol- 
ume 23,  number  1  (February  1974),  pages  71-100. 

.  "Nepenthales."  In  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  (March  1974). 

.  "Sarraceniales."  In  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  (March  1974). 

Shetler,  Stanwyn  G.,  Robert  W.  Read  (editors),  Larry  E.  Morse,  Fonda  R.  Hivick 
(assistant  editors),  Judith  E.  Monahan,  and  Thomas  E.  Kopfler  (analyst/pro- 
grammers). "International  Index  of  Current  Research  Projects  in  Plant  Sys- 

1    tematics.  Number  7."  Flora  North  America  Report,  number  71  (December 

:    1973),  xxii  +  118  pages. 

Simpson,  Beryl  B.  "Contrasting  Modes  of  Evolution  in  Two  Groups  of  Perezia 

j  (Multisieae;  Compositae)  of  Southern  South  America."  Taxon,  volume  22 
(1973),  pages  525-536. 

.  "Women  in  Botany."  Plant  Science  Bulletin,  volume  19  (1973),  pages 


5kog,  L.  E.  "Conrad  Morton's  publication  on  the  Gesneriaceae."  The  Cloxinian, 
volume  24,  number  2  (1974),  pages  33-35. 

.  "A  New  Colombian  Species  of  Besleria  (Gesneriaceae)."  Phytologia, 

volume  27,  number  6  (1974),  pages  502-503. 

-.  "Valid  Publication  of  Nautilocalyx  picturatus  [Gesneriaceae]."  Baileya, 

volume  19,  number  3  (1974),  pages  118-122. 
Smith,  Lyman  B.  "Begonia  of  Venezuela."  Phytologia,  volume  27,  number  4 
:    (December  1973),  pages  209-227,  plates  1-9. 

.  "Eizi  Matuda."  Journal  of  the  Bromeliad  Society,  volume  24,  number  2 

\    (1974),  pages  59-62,  3  figures. 

"A  New  Bromeliad  Monograph."  Journal  of  the  Bromeliad  Society,  vol- 

ume 23,  number  4  (1973),  pages  127-129. 

'Vriesea  rubra,  the  Gay  Deceiver."  Journal  of  the  Bromeliad  Society, 

volume  24,  number  1  (1974),  pages  30-31,  2  figures. 

Smith,  Lyman  B.,  and  Edward  S.  Ayensu.  "Classification  of  the  Old  World 
Velloziaceae."  Kew  Bulletin,  volume  29,  number  1  (1974),  pages  183-207. 

Soderstrom,  T.  R.,  and  H.  F.  Decker.  "Calderonella,  a  New  Genus  of  Grasses 
and  Its  Relationship  to  the  Centrostecoid  Genera."  Annals  of  the  Missouri 
Botanical  Garden,  volume  60,  number  2  (1973),  pages  427-441. 

Steyskal,  G.  C,  H.  Robinson,  H.  Ulrich,  and  R.  L.  Hurley.  "Hydrophorus  Fallen, 
1823  (Insecta,  Diptera,  Dolichopodidae) :  Request  for  Suppression  Under  the 
Plenary  Powers  of  the  Designation  by  Macquart,  1827,  of  H.  Jaculus  Fallen 
as  Type  of  the  Genus  in  Favour  of  H.  Nebulosus  Fallen  in  Order  to  Conserve 
Consistent  Usage."  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  30  (1973), 

I    pages  118-120. 

rhomas,  John  H.,  and  Stanwyn  G.  Shetler.  "Wallace  Roy  Ernst,  1928-1971." 
Madrono,  volume  22,  number  4  (October  1973),  pages  207-213. 

Wasshausen,  Dieter  C.  "Two  Additional  New  Species  of  Aphelandra  (Acan- 
thaceae)."  Phytologia,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  393-396. 

.  "New  Combinations  in  Cultivated  Justicia   (Acanthaceae)."  Baileya, 

volume  19  (1973),  pages  1-3. 

Wurdack,  John  J.  "Certamen  Melastomataceis  XXII."  Phytologia,  volume  26, 
number  6  (September  1973),  pages  397-409. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  343 

.  "Uma    Nova    Melastomataceae    de    Minas    Gerais."    Museu    Botanica] 

Municipal,  Curitiba,  Parana,  Brasil,  Boletim,  numero  10  (October  1973),  pages; 

-.  "Melastomataceae."  Flora  de  Venezuela,  volume  8  (December  1973), 

pages  1-819  (Memecyleae,  pages  738-773  by  T.  Morley). 


Ayensu,  Edward  S.  "Plant  and  Bat  Interactions  in  West  Africa."  The  20th 
Annual  Systematic  Symposium  in  St.  Louis,  October  27,  1973.  Similar  lectures 
at  the  University  of  Ghana  and  the  University  of  Cape  Coast  in  November,  i 

.  "Edible  and  Sapogenin-Bearing  Yams,"  The  International  Institute  of 

Tropical  Agriculture  in  Ibadan,  Nigeria,  and  at  the  Crops  Research  Institute  j 
in  Kumasi,  Ghana,  November  1973. 

"Social  Responsibilities  of  West  African  Science  Association."  Con 

ference  in  Dakar,  Senegal,  March  1974, 

"Orchids."  Class  to  the  Smithsonian  Associates  (6  lectures),  January- 

February  1974. 

Eyde,  Richard  H.  "The  Bases  of  Angiosperm  Phylogeny."  At  the  annual  meeting 
of  the  American  Institute  of  Biological  Sciences,  Amherst,  Massachusetts, 
June  1974,  critically  examined  the  contribution  of  interpretive  floral  anatomy 
to  angiosperm  phylogeny. 

.  "Foibles,  Fallacies,  and  Famous  Figures  in  Floral  Morphology."  Botani- 
cal Society  of  Washington,  December  1973.  Address  traced  the  history  of  : 
current  theoretical  difficulties  in  floral  structure.  Subsequently  given  to  semi 
nar  groups  at  the  University  of  Delhi,  India   (February  1974),  and  at  thet 
University  of  Hawaii  (April  1974). 

Dahl,  Arthur  L.  "The  Roles  of  Algae  in  the  Coral  Reef  Ecosystem:  Generation  \ 
and  Control  of  Surface  Area."  International  Symposium  on  Indo-Pacific . 
Tropical  Reef  Biology,  June  1974. 

Fosberg,  F.  R.  "Terrestrial  Floras  of  Coral  Islands."  Second  International  Sym- 
posium on  Coral  Reefs,  Great  Barrier  Reef,  Australia,  July  1973. 

.  "Flora,  Fauna  and  Ecology  of  Ceylon."  The  Asia  Society.  December 

1973.  Similar  lectures  were  given  at  the  Brooklyn  Botanical  Garden  and  the  f 
West  Indies  Laboratory  of  Fairleigh  Dickinson  University. 

"Ecology  and  Conservation  of  Aldabra  Island."  University  of  Rich- 

mond, March  1974. 

Hale,  Mason  E.  "Use  of  the  Scanning-electron  Microscope  in  Lichen  Research." 
Duke  University,  March  1974. 

.  "Lichen  Structures  Viewed  with  the  Scanning-electron  Microscope."  In- 
ternational Symposium,  British  Systematics  Association,  Bristol,  England,  and  } 
at  the  University  of  Minnesota,  April  1974. 

Nicolson,  Dan  H.  Informal  seminars  on  nomenclature,  particularly  determining 
gender  of  specific  epithets  and  latinization  of  personal  names.  Four  lectures 
on  Greek  in  connection  with  determining  gender  of  generic  names.  All  these 
were  done  within  the  Department  of  Botany,  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Nowicke,  Joan  W.  "Pollen  Morphology  as  a  Systematic  Tool."  University  of  \ 
Ceylon,  July  1973. 

Read,  Robert  W.  "Phalaenopsis  and  Other  Orchid  Things."  National  Capitol 
Orchid  Society,  September  1973. 

.  "House  Plants  from  African  Violets  to  Zamia."  Cheverly  Garden  Club, 

Maryland,  October  1973. 

'Here  a  Palm,  There  a  Palm."  Balboa  Park,  San  Diego,  California,  for 

the  Western  Chapter  of  the  Palm  Society,  March  1974.  An  illustrated  lecture 
on  palms  around  the  world,  their  variability  and  hardiness. 

344  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

.  "Spring  Flower  Botany,  or  Basic  Botany  for  Beginners."  Classes  for 

the  Smithsonian  Associates,  April-June  1974. 
Shetler,  Stanwyn  G.  "Botanical  Exploration  in  Alaska."  Summer  program  for 

exceptional  high  school  students,  Mary  Baldwin  College,  Staunton,  Virginia, 

July  11,  1973. 
.  "Status  of  Flora  North  American  Program."  Special  Interest  Group  on 

Flora  North  America,  International  Congress  of  Systematic  and  Evolutionary 

Biology  (ICSEB),  University  of  Colorado,  Boulder,  August  7,  1973. 

-.  "Demythologizing  Biological  Data  Banking."  Symposium  on  "Computer 

Revolution  in  Systematics,"  ICSEB,  August  10,  1973. 

"Problems  of  Handling  Infraspecific  Variation  in  a  Floristic  Data  Bank. 

Special  Interest  Group  on   "The  Taxonomic  Treatment  of  Infraspecific  In- 
formation," ICSEB,  August  11, 1973. 

"A  Generalized  Descriptive  Data  Bank  as  a  Basis  for  Computer-Assisted 

Identification."  Symposium  on  "Automatic  Identification,"  King's   College, 
Cambridge  University,  Cambridge,  England,  September  28,  1973. 

"The  Flora  North  America  Information  System."  Symposium  on  use 

of  EDP  in  the  herbarium,  sponsored  by  the  NATO  Eco-Sciences  Panel  and 
organized  by  the  Royal  Botanical  Gardens,  Kew,  England,  October  4,  1973. 
"The  Pageant  of  Spring  Wildflowers  in  the  Potomac  Valley."  Lecture 

series  jointly  sponsored  by  the  Audubon  Naturalist  Society  of  the  Central 
Atlantic  States  and  the  Smithsonian  Associates,  National  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  Washington,  D.C.,  February  18, 1974. 

"The  Pageant  of  Spring  Wildflowers  in  the  Potomac  Valley."  Spon- 

sored jointly  by  the  Audubon  Naturalist  Society  and  the  Reston  Homeowner's 
Association  at  Reston,  Virginia,  March  4,  1974. 

"Plant  Exploration  in  Alaska."  Photographers  in  Industry  of  Greater 

Pittsburgh,  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania,  March  20,  1974. 

"Plant  Exploration  in  Alaska,"  Philadelphia  Botanical  Club,  Academy 

of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania.  March  28, 1974. 

Guest  lecturer  in  course,  "Introduction  to  Landscape   Architecture." 

Continuing  Education  for  Women  Center,  George  Washington  University, 

Washington,  D.C.: 

.  "The  Landscape  in  the  Ecosystem."  January  24,  1974. 

.  "The  Ecological  Values  of  Natural  Green  Space."  January  31,  1974. 

Field  trip  to  Suitland  Bog,  Suitland,  Maryland,  to  demonstrate  by  ex- 

ample some  of  the  ecological  values  of  natural  green  space.  February  16,  1974. 

Simpson,  Beryl  B.  "Pleistocene  Changes  in  the  Montane  Flora  of  South 
America."  International  Congress  of  Evolutionary  and  Systematic  Biology 
in  Boulder,  Colorado,  July  1973. 

.  "The  Late  Tertiary  and  Cenozoic  History  of  South  America."  Inter- 
national Conference  on  South  American  Biogeography,  Harvard  University, 
November  1973. 

Skog,  Lawrence  E.  "Birds,  Bats,  and  Gesneriads."  Graduate  seminar  course  at 
George  Mason  University,  February  27,  1974,  and  again  on  May  29,  1974,  at 
Northern  Virginia  Community  College. 

.  "Angiosperm  Evolution  in  Response  to  Animal  Pollinators."  Plant  mor- 
phology course  at  George  Mason  University,  Fairfax,  Virginia,  May  6,  1974. 
"The  genus  Cesneria  in  the  West  Indies."  National  Convention  of  the 

American  Gloxinia  and  Gesneriad  Society  at  Hampstead,  New  York,  June  29, 
Soderstrom,  Thomas  R.  "Primitive  Forest  Grasses  and  Evolution  of  the  Bam- 
busoideae."  First   International   Congress   of  Systematic   and   Evolutionary 
Biology,  Boulder,  Colorado,  August  1973. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  345 

.  "Flowering  Phenomena  in  Bamboos."  University  of  Puerto  Rico,  Maya- 

guez,  March  1974. 
Wurdack,  John  J.  "Phytogeography  of  Tropical  South  America"  and  "Mela- 

stomataceae."  Tropical  Botany  Course,  Fairchild  Tropical  Garden,  Florida, 

July  7,  1973,  conducted  jointly  by  Florida  Atlantic  University  and  Florida 

International  University. 
.  "Plants  of  the  Venezuelan  Andes."  Botanical  Society  of  Washington, 

February  5, 1974. 

Department  of  Entomology 

Baumann,  Richard  W.  "Studies  on  Utah  Stoneflies  (Plecoptera)."  Great  Basin 
Naturalist,  volume  33  (1973),  pages  91-108. 

• .  "New  Megaleuctra  from  the  Eastern  United  States  (Plecoptera:  Leuc- 

tridae)."  Entomological  News,  volume  84  (1974),  pages  247-250. 

Clarke,  J.  F.  Gates.  "Recent  Smithsonian  Accessions."  Journal  of  the  Lepidop- 
terists'  Society,  volume  27,  number  3  (1973),  pages  240-241. 

.  "The  Genus  Eumarozia  Heinrich  (Olethreutidae)."  Journal  of  the  Lepi- 

dopterists'  Society,  volume  27,  number  4  (1973),  pages  268-274. 

Duckworth,  W.  Donald,  and  Thomas  D.  Eichlin.  "New  Species  of  Clearwing 
Moths  (Lepidoptera:  Sesiidae)  from  North  America."  Proceedings  of  the 
Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  75  (1973),  pages  150-159. 

Erwin,  Terry  L.  "Phylogenetic,  Zoogeographic,  and  Bio-systematic  Studies  of 
Certain  Carabid  Ground  Beetles.  Grant  No.  5795 — Penrose  Fund  (1970), 
$1,000."  American  Philosophical  Society  Year  Book  1972  (1973),  pages  362- 

.  "Studies  of  the  Subtribe  Tachyina  (Coleoptera:  Carabidae:  Bembidiini), 

Part  I:  A  Revision  of  the  Neotropical  Genus  Xystosomus  Schaum."  Smith- 
sonian Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  140  (1973),  39  pages. 

-.  "Carabid  Beetles,  Mountain  Tops,  and  Trees."  Proceedings  of  the  En-  \ 

tomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  75,  number  1  (1973),  page  127. 
'A   Supplement    to    the    Bombardier   Beetles    of    North    and    Middle 

America:  New  Records  for  Middle  America  (Coleoptera:  Carabidae)."  Cole- 
opterists'  Bulletin,  volume  27,  number  2  (1973),  pages  79-82. 

Field,  William  D.  [Three  Book  Reviews]  "African  Butterflies."  Bulletin  of  the 
Entomological  Society  of  America,  volume  19  (1973),  pages  223-224. 

.  [Four  Book  Reviews]  Butterflies  of  the  Australian  Region  by  Bernard 

D'Abrera;  Australian  Butterflies  by  Charles  McCubbin;  Butterflies  of  Aus- 
tralia by  Ian  F.  B.  Common  and  Douglas  F.  Waterhouse;  Jamaica  and  Its 
Butterflies  by  F.  Martin  Brown  and  Bernard  Heineman.  Proceedings  of  the 
Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  75  (1974),  pages  486-488. 

Field,  William  D.,  Cyril  F.  Dos  Passos,  and  John  H.  Masters.  "A  Bibliography 
of  the  Catalogs,  Lists,  Faunal  and  Other  Papers  on  the  Butterflies  of  North 
America  North  of  Mexico  Arranged  by  State  and  Province  (Lepidoptera: 
Rhopalocera)."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  157  (1974), 
104  pages. 

Flint,  Oliver  S.,  Jr.  "Studies  of  Neotropical  Caddisflies,  XVI:  The  Genus  Aus- 
trotinodes  (Trichoptera:  Psychomyiidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  So- 
ciety of  Washington,  volume  86  (1973),  pages  127-142. 

.  "A  Replacement  Name  for  Smicridea  (R.)  minima  Flint  (Trichoptera: 

Hydropsy chidae)."  Proceeding's  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington, 
volume  75  (1973),  page  219. 

-.  "The  Megaloptera  of  Chile  (Neuroptera)."  Revista  Chilena  de  Entomol- 

ogia,  volume  7  (1973),  pages  31-45. 

346  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

.  "The  First  Molannid  Caddisfly  from  Ceylon,  Molanna  taprobane,  New 

Species  (Trichoptera:  Molannidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society 
of  Washington,  volume  86  (1973),  pages  517-524. 

"Studies  of  Neotropical  Caddisflies,  XVIII:  New  Species  of  Rhyaco- 

philidae  and  Glossosomatidae."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  num- 
ber 169  (1974),  30  pages. 

Harrison,  B.  A.  "Anopheles  (An.)  reidi,  a  New  Species  of  the  Barbirostris 
Species  Complex  from  Sri  Lanka  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Proceedings  of  the 
Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  75  (1973),  pages  365-371. 

."Notes  on  Some  Mosquito  Types  Deposited  in  France."  Mosquito  Sys- 
tematica, volume  5  (1973),  pages  277-279. 

Harrison,  B.  A.,  and  R.  Rattanarithikul.  "Comparative  Morphology  of  the  Early 
Larval  Instars  of  Aedes  aegypti  and  A.  seatoi  in  Thailand."  Mosquito  Sys- 
tematics,  volume  5  (1973),  pages  280-294. 

Harrison,  B.  A.,  J.  F.  Reinert,  E.  S.  Saugstad,  R.  Richardson,  and  J.  E.  Farlow. 
"Confirmation  of  Aedes  taeniorhynchus  in  Oklahoma."  Mosquito  System- 
atica, volume  5  (1973)  pages,  157-158. 

Harrison,  B.  A.,  and  J.  E.  Scanlon.  "Anopheles  (An.)  pilinotum,  a  New  Species 
Name  in  the  aitkenii  Complex  for  An.  insulaeflorum  from  the  Phihppines 
and  Eastern  Indonesia  (Diptera:  Cuhcidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  6 
(1974),  pages  32-40. 

Harrison,  B.  A.,  J.  E.  Scanlon,  and  J.  A.  Reid.  "A  New  Synonym  and  New  Species 
Name  in  the  Southeast  Asia  Anopheles  hyrcanus  Complex."  Mosquito  Sys- 
tematics, volume  5  (1973),  pages  263-268. 

Hochman,  Robert  H.,  and  John  F.  Reinert.  "Undescribed  Setae  in  Larvae  of 
Culicidae  (Diptera)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  6  (1974),  pages  1-10. 

Huang,  Y.-M.  "A  New  Species  of  Aedes  (Stegomyia)  from  Thailand  and  Notes 
on  the  mediopunctatus  Subgroup  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Proceedings  of  the 
Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  75  (1973),  pages  224-232. 

.  "A  Redescription  of  Aedes  (Stegomyia)  amaltheus  (de  Meillon  and 

Lavoipierre)    with    a    Note   on    Its   Assignment   to    the    aegypti   Group    of 
Species  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  6,  pages  27-31. 

Hurd,  Paul  D.,  Jr.,  A.  E.  Michelbacher,  and  E.  Gorton  Linsley.  "Ecology  of  the 
Squash  and  Gourd  Bee,  Peponapis  pruinosa,  on  Cultivated  Cucurbits  in  Cali- 
fornia (Hymenoptera:  Apoidea)."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology, 
number  168  (1974),  17  pages. 

Krombein,  Karl  V.  "Notes  on  North  American  Stigmus  Panzer  (Hymenoptera, 
Sphecoidea)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume 
86  (1973),  pages  211-230,  16  figures. 

.  "A  New  Campsomeriella  from  New  Ireland  (Hymenoptera:  Scoliidae)." 

Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  75  (1973), 
page  373. 

"Systematics  and  Distributional  Notes  on  Melanesian  Cerceris  (Hy- 

menoptera: Sphecidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Wash- 
ington, volume  75  (1974  [1973]),  pages  464-467,  1  figure. 

-.  [Book  review!  "Hymenopterorum  Catalogus.  Pars  8,  Palaeartic  Eumeni- 

u  I  J J — —  .        ^^»*».w^»v,       M.      %*M.^J      ^f       ^      UAUV.M.A    VAV.       L^UAAlt^XtA- 

dae,  by  J.  van  der  Vecht  and  F.  C.  J.  Fischer."  1972.  Bulletin  of  the  Entomo- 
logical Society  of  America,  volume  19  (1973),  page  125. 

-.  [Book  review]  "The  African  Compsomerinae  (Hymenoptera,  Scoliidae), 

by  J.  G.  Betrem,  1972  (1971)."  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of 
Washington,  volume  75  (1973),  page  250. 

.  [Book  review]  "Wasps:  An  Account  of  the  Biology  and  Natural  History 

of  Solitary  and  Social  Wasps,  by  J.  P.  Spradbery,  1973."  American  Scientist 
volume  62,  number  3  (1974),  page  350. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publicatioris  I  347 

Krombein,  Karl  V.,  James  F.  Mello,  and  James  J.  Crockett.  "The  North  American 

Hymenoptera  Catalog:  A  Pioneering  Effort  in  Computerized  Publication." 

Bulletin  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America,  volume  20  (1974),  pages 

24-29,  3  figures. 
Peyton,  E.  L.  "The  Identity  of  Aedes  Species  Unknown  of  Knight  and  Hull, 

1953."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  5  (1973),  pages  161-162. 
.  "Notes  on  the  Genus  Uranotaenia."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  5 

(1973),  pages  194-196. 
Rattanarithikul,  F.,  and  B.  A.  Harrison.  "An  Illustrated  Key  to  the  Anopheles 

Larvae  of  Thailand."  42  pages.  Bangkok:  Jintana  Printing  Ltd. 
Reinert,  J.  F.  "Aedes  consonensis,  a  New  Species  of  the  Subgenus  Neomacleaya 

from  South  Vietnam  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  5 

(1973),  pages  252-262. 

.  "Contributions   to  the  Mosquito  Fauna  of  Southeast  Asia.  XVIII.  A 

Reconsideration  of  Diceromyia  Theobald  with  the  Inclusion  of  Aedes  num- 
matus  Edwards  and  Aedes  pseudonummatus.  New  Species  (Diptera:  Culi- 
cidae.)" Contributions  of  the  American  Entomological  Institute,  volume  10 
(1973),  pages  22-40. 

"Contributions  to  the  Mosquito  Fauna  of  Southeast  Asia.  XIX.  Botha- 

ella,  a  New  Subgenus  of  Aedes  Meigen."   Contributions  of  the  American 
Entomological  Institute,  volume  10  (1973),  pages  1-51. 

"Terminology  and  Preparation  Techniques  of  the  Female  Genitalia  of 

Aedine  Mosquitoes  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  6 
(1974),  pages  46-56. 

Sirivanakarn,  S.  "The  Forms  of  Culex  (Culex)  bitaeniorhynchus  Giles  in  South- 
east Asia."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  5  (1973),  pages  235-251. 

Sirivanakarn,  S.,  and  T.  Kurihara.  "A  New  Species  of  Culex,  Subgenus  Culicio- 
myia  Theobald  from  Ceram,  Indonesia  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Proceedings 
of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  75  (1973),  pages  200-224. 

Spangler,  Paul  J.  "Aquatic  Coleoptera  Collected  by  the  Biospeleological  Expedi- 
tions to  Cuba  by  the  Academies  of  Science  of  Cuba  and  Romania."  Pages 
353-358  in  Orghidian  et  al.,  Resultats  des  Expeditions  Biospeologiques  Cuban- 
Roumaines  a  Cuba  1.  Bucarest,  Romania:  Editura  Academiei  Repuplicii  So- 
cialiste  Romania,  1973. 

.  "The  Bionomics,  Distribution,  and  Immature  Stages  of  the  Rare  Pre- 
dacious Water  Beetle,  Hoperius  planatus  (Coleoptera:  Dytiscidae)."  Proceed- 
ings of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  86,  number  36  (1973), 
pages  423-434. 

"The  Nomenclature,  Bionomics,  and  Distribution  of  Notaticus  fasciatus 

(Coleoptera:  Dytiscidae:  Aubehydrinae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  So- 
ciety of  Washington,  volume  66,  number  42  (1973),  pages  495-500. 

"A  Description  of  the  Larva  of  Celina  angustata  Aube  (Coleoptera: 

Dytiscidae)."  Journal  of  the  Washington  Academy  of  Sciences,  volume  63, 
number  4  (1974),  pages  165-168. 

"The  Rediscovery  of  Cylorygmus  lineatopunctatus  (Coleoptera:  Hydro- 

philidae:  Sphaeridiinae:  Rygmodini)."  Journal  of  the  Kansas  Entomological 
Society,  volume  47,  number  2  (1974),  pages  244-248. 

Spangler,  Paul  J.,  and  George  W.  Folkerts.  "The  Larva  of  Pachydrus  princeps 
(Coleoptera:  Dytiscidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washing- 
ton, volume  86,  number  29  (1973),  pages  351-356. 

.  "Reassignment  of  Colpius  inflatus  and  a  Description  of  its  Larva  (Cole- 
optera: Noteridae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington, 
volume  86,  number  29  (1973),  pages  501-510. 

348  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Spangler,  Paul  J.,  and  Robert  D.  Gordon.  "Descriptions  of  the  Larvae  of  some 
Predacious  Water  Beetles  (Coleoptera:  Dytiscidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Bio- 
logical Society  of  Washington,  volume  86,  number  22  (1973),  pages  261-278. 

Stewart,  Kenneth  W.,  Richard  W.  Baumann,  and  Bill  P.  Stark.  "The  Distribu- 
tion and  Past  Dispersal  of  Southwestern  United  States  Plecoptera."  Transac- 
tions of  the  American  Entomological  Society,  volume  99  (1974),  pages  507- 


Baumann,  Richard  W.  "The  Status  of  Neotropical  Plecoptera."  Lecture  at  Sym- 
posium, "Neotropical  Aquatic  Insects."  Entomological  Society  of  America, 
,     Annual  Meeting,  November  28, 1973. 

Clarke,  J.  F.  Gates.  "Pacific  Island  Expeditions."  Invitational  lecture,  second 
annual  Robert  A.  Hefner  Lecture  in  Zoology,  Miami  University,  Oxford, 
Ohio,  February  1974. 

Duckworth,  W.  Donald.  "Habitat  Considerations  in  the  Study  of  Tropical 
Rain  Forest  Lepidoptera."  Invitational  lecture  at  symposium,  "An  Introduc- 
tion to  the  Neotropics."  Lepidopterists'  Society,  Annual  Meeting,  June  23, 

Hurd,  Paul  D.,  Jr.  "Status  and  Role  of  Systematics  Collections  in  Entomological 
Research:  National  Collections."  Invited  Speaker.  Entomological  Society  of 
America,  Eastern  Branch  Meeting,  November  1,  1973. 

.   "Systematics   Collections   and   Collection   Management."  Conference 

Speaker.  Entomological  Society  of  America,  Annual  Meeting,  November  26, 

Krombein,  Karl  V.  "Computerization  and  Publication  of  Hymenoptera  of 
America  North  of  Mexico  —  Synoptic  Catalog."  Contributed  Paper.  1st  Inter- 
national Congress  of  Systematic  and  Evolutionary  Biology,  August  6,  1973. 

.  "Computerization  of  Catalog  of  North  American  Hymenoptera."  Con- 
tributed Paper.  Annual  Meeting,  Entomological  Society  of  America,  Novem- 
ber 28, 1973. 

"Biosystematic  Studies  of  the  Insects  of  Ceylon."  Leader,  invitational 

symposium.  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  December  6,  1973. 

-.  "Military  Entomology  Support  at  the  Smithsonian  Institution."  Invita- 

tional Address.  Tri-Service  Military  Entomology  Training  Conference,  Acad- 
emy of  Health  Sciences,  Fort  Sam  Houston,  Texas,  February  5,  1974. 
Spangler,  Paul  J.  "Adaptations  of  Insects  to  an  Aquatic  Environment."  Invita- 
tional  Lecture,  Monthly   Meeting  of  the  Maryland   Entomological   Society^ 
Baltimore,  Maryland,  January  18,  1974. 

Department  of  Invertebrate  Zoology 

Barnard,  J.  L.  "Revision  of  Corophiidae  and  Related  Families  (Amphipoda)." 
Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  151  (1973),  27  pages. 
.  "Gammaridean  Amphipoda  from  Australia,  Part  II."  Smithsonian  Con- 
tributions to  Zoology,  number  139  (1974),  148  pages. 

Bowman,  T.  E.  "Two  New  American  Species  of  Spelaeomysis  (Crustacea:  Mysi- 
dacea)  from  a  Mexican  Cave  and  Land  Crab  Burrows."  Association  for  Mexi- 
can Cave  Studies,  bulletin  5  (1973),  pages  13-20. 

.  "The  'Sea-flea'  Dolobrotus  mardeni  n.  gen,  n.  sp.,  a  Deep-Water  Lobster 

Bait  Scavenger  (Amphipoda:  Eusiridae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  So- 
ciety of  Washington,  volume  87,  number  14  (1974),  pages  129-138. 

Bowman,  T.  E.,  and  H.-E.  Gruner.  "The  Families  and  Genera  of  Hyperiidea." 
Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  146  (1973),  64  pages. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  349 

Bowman,  T.  E.,  with  J.  R.  Holsinger.  "A  New  Troglobitic  Isopod  of  the  Genus 
Lirceus  (Asellidae)  from  Southwestern  Virginia,  with  Notes  on  its  Ecology 
and  Additional  Cave  Records  for  the  Genus  in  the  Appalachians."  Interna- 
tional Journal  of  Speleology,  number  5  (1974),  pages  261-271. 

Bowman,  T.  E.,  with  M.  W.  Johnson.  "Distributional  Atlas  of  Calanoid  Cope- 
pods  in  the  California  Current  Region,  1949  and  1950."  California  Coopera- 
tive Oceanic  Fisheries  Investigations,  Atlas  number  19  (1973),  pages  1-239. 

Cressey,  R.,  and  H.  Boyle.  "Five  New  Bomolochid  Copepods  Parasitic  on  Indo- 
Pacific  Clupeid  Fishes."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  161 
(1974),  25  pages. 

Cressey,  R.,  and  C.  Patterson.  "Fossil  Parasitic  Copepods  from  a  Lower  Creta- 
ceous Fish."  Science,  volume  180  (1973),  pages  1283-1285. 

Hobbs,  H.  H.,  Jr.  "Three  New  Troglobitic  Decapod  Crustaceans  from  Oaxaca, 
Mexico."  Association  for  Mexican  Cave  Studies,  bulletin  5  (1973),  pages  25- 
38,  8  figures. 

.   "Two   New  Troglobitic   Shrimps    (Decapoda:   Alpheidae   and   Palae- 

monidae)."  Association  for  Mexican  Cave  Studies,  bulletin  5  (1973),  pages 
73-80,  3  figures. 

"New  Species  and  Relationships  of  the  Members  of  the  Genus  Falli- 

cambarus."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  86, 
number  40  (1973),  pages  461-481,  4  figures. 

'Synopsis   of    the    Families    and    Genera    of   Crayfishes    (Crustacea: 

Decapoda)."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  164  (1974),  iii  -|- 

32  pages,  27  figures. 
Hobbs,  H.  H.,  Jr.,  with  H.  H.  Hobbs  III.  "The  Genus  Sphaeromicola  (Ostracoda, 

Entocytheridae)  in  Mexico."  Association  for  Mexican  Cave  Studies,  bulletin  5 

(1973),  pages  39-42, 1  figure. 
Hope,  W.  D.  "Schistodera  Cobb,  1920  (Nematoda:  Enoplida),  a  Request  for 

Suppression;  Oxystomina  Filipjev,  1921,  Proposed  for  the  Official  List.  Bulle- 
tin of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  30,  number  2  (1973),  pages  102-103. 
.  "Nematoda."  Pages  391-469  in  Reproduction  of  Marine  Invertebrates, 

edited  by  Arthur  C.  Giese  and  John  S.  Pearse,  volume  1.  New  York:  Academic 

Press,  1974. 
Jones,  M.  L.,  and  C.  E.  Dawson.  "Salinity-Temperature  Profiles  in  the  Panama 

Canal  Locks."  Marine  Biology,  volume  21  (1973),  pages  86-90,  figures  1-4. 
Kirsteuer,  E.,  and  K.  Ruetzler.  "Additional  Notes  on  Tubiluchus  corallicola 

(Priapulida)  Based  on  Scanning  Electron  Microscope  Observations."  Marine 

Biology,  volume  20  (1973),  pages  78-87,  6  figures. 
Kornicker,  Louis  S.,  and  H.  V.  Howe.  "First  Report  of  the  Suborder  Myodo- 

copina  (Ostracoda)   from  the  Tertiary  (Eocene,  North  Carolina)  of  North 

America."  Journal  of  Paleontology,  September  1973,  pages  997-998,  1  figure. 
Perez  Farfante,  Isabel  C,  and  Harvey  R.  Bullis,  Jr.  "Western  Atlantic  Shrimps 

of  the  Genus  Solenocera,  with  Description  of  a  New  Species  (Crustacea: 

Decapoda:  Penaeidae)."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  153 

(1973),  33  pages. 
Rehder,  Harald  A.   "Comment  on  the  Proposals  Concerning  Family  Names 

Cassidae  and  Harpidae.  Z.N.(S)  1938."  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature, 

volume  30  (1973),  page  1. 
.  "Nipponaphera  Habe,  1961  (Gastropoda) :  Proposed  Designation  of  a 

Type-Species  under  the  Plenary  Powers.  Z.N.(S.)  2007."  Bulletin  of  Zoological 

Nomenclature,  volume  30  (1973),  pages  37-38. 

"Paul  Bartsch,  1871-1960."  Pages  1-9  in  Florence  A.  Ruhoff,  "Bibliog- 

raphy and  Zoological  Taxa  of  Paul  Bartsch."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  ' 
Zoology,  number  143  (1973). 

350  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


.   Comments  on   the  Type-Species   of  Lucina   (Mollusca:   Pelecypoda). 

Z.N.  (S.)  2001.  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  30  (1973),  pages 

-.  "The  Family  Harpidae  of  the  World."  Indo-Pacific  Mollusca,  volume  3 

(1973),  pages  207-274,  figures  183-247. 

"On  the  Genus  Volutocorbis  with  Descriptions  of  Two  New  Species 

from  South  Africa."  The  Nautilus,  volume  88  (1974),  pages  33-37,  figures  1-8. 
'Comment  on  the  Request  for  the  Designation  of  a  Type-Species  of 

Tutufa  Jousseaume,  1881."  Z.N.(S.)  2021.  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomencla- 
ture, volume  30  (1974),  2  pages. 
Rehder,  Harald  A.,  and  Clifton  S.  Weaver.  "A  New  Species  of  Volutocorbis 

from  South  Africa."  The  Nautilus,  volume  88  (1974),  pages  31-32,  figures  1-8. 
Rice,  M.   E.  "Morphology,  Behavior,   and  Histogenesis  of  the   Pelagosphera 

Larva  of  Phascolosoma  agassizii  (Sipuncula)."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to 

Zoology,  number  132  (1973),  51  pages. 
Roper,  C.  F.  E.  "Vertical  and  Seasonal  Distribution  of  Pelagic  Cephalopods  in 

the  Mediterranean  Sea:  Preliminary  Report."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Mala- 

cological  Union  for  1973  (1974),  pages  27-30. 
Rosewater,  Joseph.  "A  Source   of  Authors  and  Dates  for  Family  Names  of 

Gastropods."  The  Veliger,  volume  16,  number  2  (October  1973),  page  243. 
■ .  "More  on  Penis  Shedding  Among  Littorina."  New  York  Shell  Club 

Notes,  number  196  (November  1973),  page  7. 

'Studies    on   Ascension    Island    Marine    Mollusks."   Bulletin    of   the 

American  Malacological  Union  for  1973,  pages  30-32. 

"Phylogeny  of  Littorinidae."  The  Littorinid  Tidings.  Occasional  News- 

letter of  the  Littorinidae  Research  Croup,  issue  number  1  (1974),  pages  10-11. 
Ruetzler,  K.  "Principles  of  Sponge  Distribution  in  Indo-Pacific  Coral  Reefs." 

Proceedings  of  the  Symposium  on  Corals  and  Coral  Reefs,  1969,  Marine 

Biological  Association  of  India,  pages  315-332,  6  figures,  5  tables,  1972. 
.  "The  Burrowing  Sponges  of  Bermuda."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to 

Zoology,  number  165  (1974),  32  pages,  26  figures,  1  table. 
Ruetzler,  K.,  and  G.  Rieger.  "Sponge  Burrowing:  Fine  Structure  of  Cliona  lampa 

Penetrating  Calcareous  Substrata."  Marine  Biology,  volume  21  (1973),  pages 

144-162, 11  figures,  2  tables. 
Stansbery,  D.  H.  "A  Preliminary  Report  on  the  Naiad  Fauna  of  the  Clince 

River  in  the  Southern  Appalachian  Mountains  of  Virginia  and  Tennessee 

(Mollusca:  Bivalvia:  Unionidae)."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Malacological 

Union  for  1972  (1973),  pages  20-22. 

.  "Why  Preserve  Rivers?"  Explorer,  volume  15,  number  13  (1973),  pages 


'Dams  and  the  Extinction  of  Aquatic  Life."  Bulletin  of  the  Garden  Club 

of  America,  volume  61,  number  1,  (1973),  pages  43-46. 

-.  "Identification  of  Subfossil  Shell  from  Salts  Cave."  Chapter  18  in  P.  J. 

Watson,  editor.  Archaeology  of  Salts  Cave,  Kentucky.  1974. 

-.  "The  Pleuroceridae  and  Unionidae  of  North  Fork  Holston  River  above 

Saltville,  Virginia."  Bulletin  of  the  American  Malacological  Union  for  1973 
(1974),  pages  33-36. 
Williams,  A.  B.  "Allactaea  lithostrota,  a  New  Genus  and  Species  of  Crab 
(Decapoda:  Xanthidae)   from  North  Carolina,  U.S.A."  Proceedings   of  the 
Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  87,  number  3  (1974),  pages  19-26. 


Chace,  Fenner  A.  (with  Drs.  Rosewater  and  Pawson) :  Invertebrate  Zoology 
Seminar  on  Ascension  Island. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  351 

Hobbs,  Horton  H.  "The   Crayfish."  Seminar  for  Science   teachers  in  Fairfax 

Public  School  System,  March  1974. 
.  "Adaptations  and  Convergence  in  American  Crayfishes."  International 

Symposium  on  Crayfishes,  Baton  Rouge,  Louisiana,  April  8,  1974. 
Hope,  W.  Duane.  "Gutless  wonders  of  the  deep."  First  International  Congress 

of  Systematic  and  Evolutionary  Biology,  Boulder,  Colorado,  August  6,  1973. 
Jones,  Meredith  L.  "Gatun  Lake  as  a  Freshwater  Barrier  in  the  Panama  Canal." 

American  Malacological  Union  meetings,  Newark,  Delaware,  June  26,  1973. 
.  Marine  Biology  Class,  University  of  Panama,  November  1973,  Informal 

discussion  of  ecological  parameters  (with  slides). 

"On  the  Systematics  of  the  Magelonidae."  Southern  California  Acad- 

emy of  Sciences  meetings,  Fullerton,  California,  May  4,  1974. 

Pawson,  David  L.  "Antarctic  Biology."  James  Madison  High  School,  November 

Pettibone,  Marian  H.  "Revisionary  Studies  on  the  Aphroditoid  Polychaetes." 
Southern  California  Academy  of  Sciences  meetings.  May  4,  1974. 

Roper,  Clyde  F.  E.  "Oceanographic  expeditions."  Public  lecture,  Fredericksburg, 

.  "Phylogeny  and  Diversity  in  Recent  Cephalopoda."  International  Col- 
loquium on  Molluscan  Phylogeny,  London,  April  1974. 

-.  "Diversity  and  Biology  of  Cephalopods."  Western  Society  of  Malacolo- 

gists  Banquet  Address,  Pomona,  California,  June  1974. 

"Vertical    Distribution    of    Mediterranean    Cephalopods."    American 

Malacological  Union  Annual  Meeting,  University  of  Delaware,  June  1974. 

Roper,  Clyde  F.  E.,  and  Rosewater,  Joseph.  Two  lectures,  one  demonstration 
(tour  of  Mollusk  collections),  one  field  trip  to  Chincoteague,  Virginia,  during 
course  on  Marine  Malacology  to  a  class  of  approximately  20  adults,  July  5- 
August  1, 1973,  sponsored  by  Smithsonian  Associates. 

Rosewater,  Joseph.  Two  lectures  on  Ecology  of  Marine  Mollusks  to  class  in 
Biology  of  Mollusks,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  Decem- 
ber 4-6, 1973. 

.  "A  Malacological  Expedition  to  Molluccas  Islands."  Evening  lecture, 

Boston  Malacological  Club,  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Harvard  Uni- 
versity, Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  February  5,  1974. 

"Mollusks  of  Ascension  Island,  South  Atlantic  Ocean."  Invertebrate 

Zoology  Seminar,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  March  27,  1974. 

"A  Malacological  Expedition  to  Molluccas  Islands."  Smithsonian  Asso- 

ciates, National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  April  4,  1974. 

-.  "Phylogeny  of  Littorinidae."  Colloquium  on  Molluscan  Phylogeny,  Bed- 

ford College,  London,  England,  April  3-4, 1974. 

'A  Malacological   Expedition  to   the  Molluccas  Islands."  Pittsburgh 

Shell  Club,  Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania,  June  1, 1974. 

Stansbery,  David  H.  "North  American  Unionid  Mollusks:  Vanishing  Ameri- 
cans." Paleontological  Society  of  Washington  (December  1973),  National 
Capital  Shell  Club  (January  1974),  Invertebrate  Zoology  Seminar  (March 

.  "Symposium  on  Organisms  and  Biological  Communities  as  Indicators 

of  Environmental  Quality."  Participant,  Ohio  State  University,  March  1974. 
At  same  symposium,  he  also  presented  a  paper  entitled  "Unionid  Mollusks ): 
as  Environmental  Indicators." 

Department  of  Mineral  Sciences 

Appleman,  D.  E.,  with  R.  T.  Helz.  "Poikilitic  and  Cumulate  Textures  in  Rock . 
77017,  a  Crushed  Anorthositic  Gabbro."  In  Lunar  Science  V,  Lunar  Science '; 
Institute,  pages  322-324, 1974. 

352  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Clarke,  Roy  S.,  Jr.  (editor).  "The  Meteoritical  Bulletin,  no.  52."  Meteoritics, 
volume  9  (1974),  pages  101-121. 

Clarke,  Roy  S.,  Jr.,  and  Joseph  I.  Goldstein.  "Phosphide  Growth  in  Coarse 
Structured  Iron  Meteorites"  (abstract).  Meteoritics,  volume  8  (1973),  pages 

Desautels,  P.  E.  "Collectors  Series:  Rocks  and  Minerals."  200  pages.  Grosset 
and  Dunlap. 

.  "The  National  Collection  of  Gems  in  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  1965 

to  1974."  Lapidary  Journal,  pages  84-100, 1974. 

"Majestic  Jewels  Find  a  New  Setting  at  Smithsonian."  Smithsonian 

(June  1974),  pages  36-43. 

"Gems  in  the  Smithsonian"  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  63  pages. 

44  color  plates,  5  black  and  white,  1972.  [Not  previously  reported  in  staff  list.] 

Fredriksson,  K.,  P.  Brenner,  J.  Nelen,  A.  Noonan,  A.  Dube,  and  A.  Reid.  "Com- 
parative Studies  of  Impact  Glasses  and  Breccias."  Lunar  Science  V,  pages 
245-247,  1974. 

Fredriksson,  K.,  A.  Dube,  D.  Milton,  and  M.  S.  Balasundaram.  "Lonar  Lake, 
India:  An  Impact  Crater  in  Basalt."  Science,  volume  180  (1973),  pages  862- 
864, 1973. 

Fredriksson,  K.,  A.  Noonan,  and  J.  Nelen.  "Meteoritic,  Lunar,  and  Lonar  Impact 
Chondrules."  The  Moon,  volume  7  (1973),  pages  574-582. 

Fredriksson,  K.,  with  A.  M.  Reid,  R.  J.  Williams,  and  E.  K.  Gibson,  Jr.  "A  Re- 
fractory Glass  Chondrule  in  the  Vigarano  Chrondrite.  Meteoritics,  volume  9 
(1974),  pages  35-45. 

Fudali,  R.  F.  "Genesis  of  the  Melt  Rocks  at  Tenoumer  Crater,  Mauritania." 
Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  74,  number  14  (1974),  pages  2115- 

.  "Origin  of  the  Analcime-bearing  Rocks  at  Richat,  Sciences  de  la  Terre, 

Memoire  28."  Contributions  a  I'Etude  de  I'Accident  Circulaire  des  Richat, 
pages  97-106, 1973. 

'Roter  Kamm:  evidence  for  an  impact  origin."  Meteoritics,  volume  8, 

number  3  (1973),  pages  245-257. 

Fudali,  R.  F.,  and  W.  A.  Cassidy.  "Gravity  Reconnaissance  at  Richat,  Sciences 
de  la  Terre,  Memoire  28."  Contributions  a  I'Etude  de  I'Accident  Circulaire 
\      des  Richat,  pages  77-81,  1973. 

Fudali,  R.  F.,  D.  P.  Gold,  and  J.  J.  Gurney.  "The  Pretoria  Salt  Pan:  Astrobleme 
or  Cryptovolcano?"  Journal  of  Geology,  volume  81,  number  4  (1973),  pages 

Jarosewich,  E.,  with  R.  H.  Gibbs,  Jr.,  and  H.  L.  Windor.  "Heavy  Metal  Con- 
centration in  Museum  Fish  Specimens:  Effect  on  Preservatives  and  Time." 
Sciences,  volume  160  (1973),  pages  475-477. 

Jarosewich,  E.,  with  B.  Mason.  "The  Barea,  Dyarrl  Island,  and  Emery  Meteorites 
and  Review  of  the  Mesosiderites."  Mineralogical  Magazine,  volume  39  (1973), 
pages  204-217. 

Mason,  B.  "Chemistry  of  the  Moon's  Surface."  Chemistry  in  Britain,  volume  9 
(1973),  pages  456-461. 

.  "Manganese  Silicate  Minerals  from  Broken  Hill,  New  South  Wales." 

Journal  of  the  Geological  Society  of  Australia,  volume  20,  pages  397-404, 

Mason,  B.,  with  R.  O.  Allen.  "Minor  and  Trace  Elements  in  some  Meteoritic 
Minerals."  Geochimica  et  Cosmochimica  Acta,  volume  37  (1973),  pages  1435- 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  353 

Mason,  B.,  and  R.  O.  Allen.  "Minor  and  Trace  Elements  in  Augite,  Hornblende, 

and  Pyrope  Megacrysta  from  Kakanui,  New  Zealand."  New  Zealand  Journal 

of  Geology  and  Geophysics,  volume  16  (1973),  pages  935-947. 
Mason,  B.,  with  G.  T.  Faust,  J.  J.  Fahey,  and  E.  J.  Dwornik.  "The  Disintegration 

of  the  Wolf  Creek  Meteorite  and  the  Formation  of  Pecoraite,  the  Nickel 

Analog  of  Clinochrysotile."  United  States   Geological  Survey  Professional 

Paper,  number  384  (1973),  pages  107-135. 
Mason,  B.,  S.  Jacobson,  J.  A.  Nelen,  W.  G.  Melson,  and  T.  Simkin.  "Regolith 

Compositions  from  the  Apollo  17  Mission."  Lunar  Science  V,  pages  493-495, 

Mason,  B.,  with  J.  C.  Laul,  and  R.  A.  Schmitt.  "Breccias  64435,  63335,  and 

63355."  Lunar  Science  V,  pages  435-437, 1974. 
Mason,  B.,  and  P.  M.  Martin.  "Minor  and  Trace  Element  Distribution  in  Meli- 

lite  and  Pyroxene  from  the  Allende  Meteorite."  Earth  and  Planetary  Science 

Letters,  volume  22  (1974),  pages  141-144. 
Moreland,  G.,  with  G.  H.  Conrad,  P.  F.  Hlava,  J.  A.  Green,  R.  B.  Moore,  E. 

Dowty,  M.  Prinz,  K.  Keil,  C.  E.  Nehru,  and  T  E.  Bunch.  "Electron  Microprobe 

Analyses  of  Lithic  Fragments  and  Their  Minerals  from  Luna  20  Fines.  Special 

Publication  12,  UNM  Institute  of  Meteoritics,  1973. 
Moreland,  G.,  with  E.  Dowty,  M.  Prinz,  C.  E.  Nehru,  R.  B.  Moore,  K.  Keil, 

P.  F.  Hlava,  and  J.  A.  Green.  "Electron  Microprobe  Analyses  of  Minerals 

from  Apollo  15  Mare  Basalt  Rake   Samples.  Special  Publication  9,  UNM. 

Institute  of  Meteoritics,  1973. 
Simkin,  T.,  with  J.  E.  Case,  S.  L.  Ryland,  and  K.  A.  Howard.  "Gravitational 

Evidence  for  a  Low-Density  Mass  Beneath  the  Galapagos  Islands."  Science, 

volume  181  (1973),  pages  1040-1042. 
.  "Gravity  Anomalies  in  the  Galapagos  Islands  Area."  Science,  volume 

184  (1974),  pages  808-809. 
Simkin,  T.,  with  J.  Filson,  and  L-K.  Leu.  "Seismicity  of  a  Caldera  Collapse: 

Galapagos  Islands  1968."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  78,  num- 
ber 35  (1973),  pages  8591-8622. 
Simkin,  T.,  W.  G.  Reeder,  and  C.  MacFarland.  "Galapagos   Science:  1972  Status 

and  Needs."  Galapagos  Science  1972  Conference,  pages  i-ix  -f-  1-87,  1972. 
Switzer,  G.  S.  "Memorial  to  Martin  L.  Ehrmann,  August  9,  1903-May  18,  1972." 

American  Mineralogist,  volume  59  (1974),  pages  414-415. 

.  "The  Diamond  Industry  in  1972."  Jewelers  Circular  Keystone,  1973. 

Switzer,  G.  S.,  with  T.  Simkin,  A.  F.  Noonan,  B.  Mason,  J.  A.  Nelen,  and  W.  G. 

Melson.  "Composition  of  Apollo  16  Fines  60051,  60052,  64811,  64812,  67711, 

67712,  68821,  and  68822."  Geochimica  et  Cosmochimica  Acta,  Proceedings  of 

the  Fourth  Lunar  Science  Conference,  volume  4,  number  1  (1974),  pages  279- 

White,  J.  S.,  Jr.  "Memorial  of  Kent  Combs  Brannock,  July  20,  1923-February  21, 

1973."  American  Mineralogist,  volume  59  (1974),  pages  411-413. 
.  "Extreme  Symmetrical  Distortion  of  Pyrite  from  Naica,  Mexico."  Min- 

eralogical  Record,  volume  4  (1974),  pages  267-270. 
White,  J.  S.,  Jr.,  P.  B.  Leavens,  J.  E.  Arem,  J.  A.  Nelen,  and  R.  W.  Thomssen. 

"Brannockite,  a  New  Tin  Silicate."  Mineralogical  Record,  volume  4  (1973), 

pages  73-76. 
White,  J.  S.,  Jr.,  and  J.  A.  Nelen.  "Tetrawickmanite,  Tetragonal  MnSN(OH)6,  a 

New  Mineral  from  North  Carolina,  and  the  Stottite  Group."  Mineralogical 

Record,  volume  4  (1973),  pages  24-30. 


Appleman,  Daniel  E.  "Current  Geological  Research."  National  Conference  of 

354  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Explorer  Scout  Presidents. 

.  "Careers  in  Geology."  Oakton  High  School. 

'New  Minerals  from  the  Moon."  Mineralogical  Society  of  the  District 

of  Columbia. 

Desautels,  Paul  E.  American  Federation  of  Mineral  Societies,  Convention  and 
Show,  Charlotte,  North  Carolina,  July  1973. 

.  Midwest  Federation  of  Mineral  Societies,  Convention  and  Show,  Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio,  July  1973. 

Southern  Appalachian  Gem  and  Mineral  Society,  Meeting  and  Show, 

Spruce  Pine,  North  Carolina,  August  1973. 

-.  Baltimore  Mineral  Society,  Annual  Micromounting  Symposium,  Balti- 

more, Maryland,  September  1973. 

-.  Congressional  Wives  Club,  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Octo- 

ber 1973. 

.  Philadelphia  Mineral  Society,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  October  1973. 

Mineral  Society  of  Southern  California  Meeting  and  Show,  Pasadena, 

California,  October  1973. 

.  Nassau  Mineral  Club,  Long  Island,  New  York,  November  1973. 

Delaware  Valley  Mineral  Society,  Woodbury,  New  Jersey,  November 


.  Opening  of  new  Edelsteinbourse  Museum,  Idar-Oberstein,  West  Ger- 
many, November  1973. 

-.  Question  and  answer  session  by  telephone  hookup  to  Waco  Gem  and 

Mineral  Society,  Waco,  Texas,  December  1973. 
.  Pacific  Micromount  Conference,  Santa  Monica,  California,  February 


.  "Unveiling  of  New  Mineral  Postage  Stamps."  Tucson,  Arizona,  Febru- 
ary 1974. 

.  Tucson  Gem  and  Mineral  Society,  Annual  Meeting,  Tucson,  Arizona, 

February  1974. 

American  Machine  Tool  Manufacturer's  Association,  Annual  Meeting, 

Puerto  Rico,  March  1974. 

First  Annual  Mineral  Conference,  Rochester  Academy  of  Sciences,  Can- 

andaigua.  New  York,  April  1974. 

.  Smithsonian  Associates,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  May  1974. 

School  Librarian's  Association  of  Northern  Virginia,  Fort  Meyer,  Vir- 

ginia, May  1974. 

.  Ward's  Natural  Science  Establishment,  Rochester,  New  York,  May  1974. 

-.  Baltimore  Mineral  Society  Annual  Banquet,  Sparrow's  Point,  Maryland, 

June  1974. 

California  Federation  of  Mineral  Societies,  Convention  and  Show,  San 

Mateo,  California,  June  1974. 

Dunn,  Pete  J.  Northshore  Rock  and  Mineral  Club  of  Massachusetts,  January 

.  Greater  Boston  Mineral  Show,  April  1974. 

.  Baltimore  Mineral  Society,  October  1973. 

.  New  England  Gem  and  Mineral  Show,  June  1973. 

Fredriksson,  Kurt.  "The  Lonar  Impact  Crater."  The  Commission  for  the  Geo- 
logical Map  of  the  World,  Calcutta,  February  1974. 

.  "Carbonaceous  Matrix  in  Ordinary  Chondrites."  Meeting  of  the  Group 

for  the  Analysis  of  Carbon  Compounds  in  Carbonaceous  Chondrites  and 
Lunar  Sample,  Stanford  University,  October  1973. 

Jarosewich,  Eugene,  with  R.  T.  Dodd.  "H  and  L  Group  Xenoliths  in  the  St.  Mes- 
min  LL  Group  Chondrite."  AGU  Meeting,  Washington,  D.C.,  April  1974. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  355 

.  "Chemical  Analysis  of  Carbon  and  Sulfur  in  Carbonaceous  Meteorites." 

Stanford  University,  October  1973. 
Mason,  Brian  H.  "Minor  and  Trace  Elements  in  the  Allende  Meteorite."  Paper, 

Geology  Department,  University  of  Melbourne,  July  1973. 
.  "Manganese  Silicate  Minerals  from  Broken  Hill,  Australia."  Paper, 

Geological  Society  of  Australia,  Victoria  Division,  July  1973;  Research  School 

of  Earth  Sciences,  Australian  National  University,  July  1973. 

.  "Lunar  Geochemistry."  Museu  Nacional,  Rio  de  Janeiro,  October  1973. 

.  Geology  Club,  State  University  of  New  York  at  Crockfort,  February 


"Regolith  Compositions  from  the  Apollo  16  Mission."  Paper,  Fifth 

Lunar  Science  Conference,  Houston,  Texas,  March  1974. 

-.  "Kimberlite  Geochemistry."  International  Conference  on  Kimberlites, 

Cape  Town,  September  1973. 

"High-titanium  Lunar  Basalts:  a  Possible  Source  in  the  Allende  Mete- 

orite." Geological  Society  of  Washington,  May  1974. 
Simkin,  Thomas  E.  "Recent  Volcanism  in  the  Galapagos."  Swarthmore  College, 

January  1974. 

.  AAAS  Annual  Meeting,  March  1974. 

.  Pick  and  Hammer  Club,  U.S.  Geological  Survey,  Menlo  Park,  March 


.  Prince  Georges  County  Gem  and  Mineral  Club,  April  1974. 

.  "Tonga  Pumice  Eruption."  Geological  Society  of  Washington,  October 


Switzer,  George  S.  "Gemology."  Smithsonian  Associates,  autumn  1973. 

White,  John  S.  "Mineralogical  Travelogue."  National  Show,  American  Federa- 
tion of  Mineral  Societies,  Charlotte,  North  Carolina,  July  1973. 

.  "Minerals  of  the  Foote  Spodumene  Mine."  Midwest  Federation  Show, 

Cincinnati,  Ohio,  July  1973. 

"Minerals  of  the  Foote  Mineral  Company's  Spodumene  Mine,  Kings 

Mountain,  North  Carolina."  The  Philadelphia  Mineralogical  Society,  Media, 
Pensylvania,  December  1973. 

"Mineral  Names."  Mineral  Show,   St.  Petersburg  Gem  and  Mineral 

Club,  Florida,  March  1974. 

"M  and  M,  the  Museum  and  the  Magazine."  Mineral  Show,  St.  Peters- 

burg Gem  and  Mineral  Club,  Florida,  March  1974. 

"The  Minerals  of  the   Foote  Mineral  Company's  Spodumene  Mine." 

Banquet,  Walker  Mineral  Club,  Toronto,  May  1974. 

-"Changing  Trends   in  Mineral  Collecting."  Mineral   Show,  Cincinnati, 

Ohio,  May  1974. 

Department  of  Paleobiology 

Adey,  W.  "Temperature  Control  of  Reproduction  and  Productivity  in  a  Sub 

arctic  Coralline  Alga."  Phycologia,  volume  12  (1973),  pages  111-118. 
Adey,  W.,  and  P.  J.  Adey.  "Studies  on  the  Biosystematics  and  Ecology  of  the   j 

Epilithic  Crustose  Corallinaceae  of  the  British  Isles."  British  Phycologial  Jour- 

nal,  volume  8  (1973),  pages  343-407. 
Benson,  R.  H.  "Ostracodal  View  of  the  Messinian  Salinity  Crisis.  Messinian 

Events   in   the  Mediterranean."   Ceodynamics  Scientific  Report  Number  7, 

pages  235-243.  Amsterdam:  Nerth  Holland  Publishing  Company,  1973. 
.  "The  Role  of  Ornamentation  in  the  Design  and  Function  of  the  Ostra- 

code  Carapace."  In  Commemorative  Volume  to  H.  V.  Howe.  Baton  Rouge: 

Louisiana  State  University  Press,  1974. 

356  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Boardman,  R.  S.,  and  A.  H.  Cheetham.  "Degrees  of  Colony  Dominance  in  Steno- 
laemate  and  Gymnolaemate  Bryozoa."  In  Boardman  and  Cheetham,  editors. 
Animal  Colonies:  Development  and  Function  Through  Time,  pages  121-220, 
13  plates,  27  figures.  Dowden,  Hutchinson  and  Ross  Publishing  Company, 
October  1973. 

Boardman,  R.  S.,  A.  H.  Cheetham,  and  W.  A.  Oliver,  Jr.  "Introducing  Colonial- 
ity."  Preface  In  Boardman  and  Cheetham,  editors.  Animal  Colonies:  Devel- 
opment and  Function  Through  Time.  Dowden,  Hutchinson  and  Ross  Publish- 
ing Company,  October  1973. 

Buzas,  M.  A.  "Vertical  Distribution  of  Ammobaculites  in  the  Rhode  River, 
Maryland."  Journal  of  Foraminiferal  Research,  1974. 

Cifelli,  R.  "Observations  on  Globigerina  pachyderma  (Ehrenberg)  and  G.  in- 
compta  Cifelli  from  the  North  Atlantic."  Journal  of  Foraminiferal  Research, 
volume  3  (1973),  pages  157-166. 

Coates,  A.  C,  and  E.  G.  Kauffman.  "Stratigraphy,  Paleontology,  and  Paleo- 
environment  of  a  Cretaceous  Coral  Thicket,  Lamy,  New  Mexico."  Journal  of 
Paleontology,  volume  47,  number  5  (1973),  pages  953-968,  4  figures,  plate  1. 

Cooper,  G.  A.,  and  R.  E.  Grant.  "Permian  Brachiopods  of  West  Texas,  II."  Smith- 
sonian Contributions  to  Paleobiology,  number  15  (1974),  pages  233-793,  plates 

Emry,  Robert  J.  "Stratigraphy  and  Preliminary  Biostratigraphy  of  the  Flagstaff 
Rim  Area,  Natrona  County,  Wyoming."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Paleo- 
biology, number  18  (1973),  43  pages. 

.  [Review]  "The  Age  of  Mammals,"  by  Bjorn  Kurten,  Columbia  Univer- 
sity Press,  New  York  (1972).  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume  54,  pages  1024- 

Emry,  Robert  J.,  and  Mary  R.  Dawson.  "Nonomys,  New  Name  for  the  Cricetid 
(Rodentia,  Mammalia)  Genus  Nanomys  Emry  and  Dawson."  Journal  of  Pale- 
ontology, volume  47  (1973),  page  1003. 

Grant,  R.  E.,  and  G.  A.  Cooper.  "Brachiopods  and  Permian  Correlations."  In 
The  Permian  and  Triassic  Systems  and  Their  Mutual  Boundary,  Memoir  2, 
pages  572-595,  7  figures.  Calgary,  Alberta:  Canadian  Society  of  Petroleum 
Geologists,  1973. 

Kauffman,  E.  G.  "Cretaceous  Bivalvia."  Pages  353-383,  10  figures,  in  Hallam, 
editor.  Atlas  of  Paleobiogeography.  Amsterdam:  Elsevier  Publishing  Com- 
pany, 1973. 

.  "A  Brackish  Water  Biota  from  the  Upper  Cretaceous  Harebell  Forma- 
tion of  Northwestern  Oklahoma."  Journal  of  Paleontology,  volume  47,  num- 
ber 3  (1973),  pages  436-446,  2  figures,  plate  1. 

"Stratigraphic   Evidence  for  Cretaceous   Eustatic   Changes."  Abstract 

Program  (1973),  page  687,  Annual  Meeting  of  Geological  Society  of  America, 


.  "Extinction  Patterns  in  the  Cretaceous."  Ibid,  page  687. 

.  "Evolutionary  Rates  and  Biostratigraphy."  Ibid,  page  688. 

"The  Value  of  Benthonic  Bivalvia  in  Cretaceous  Biostratigraphy  of  the 

Western  Interior."  Program  and  Abstracts  (1973),  Colloquium  on  Cretaceous 
Systematics  of  Western  Interior  North  America,  Geological  Association  of 
Canada,  Saskatoon,  Saskatchewan,  page  40. 

"Biostratigraphy."  Pages  117-121,  1  figure,  in  McGraw-Hill  Yearbook 

of  Science  and  Technology,  1974. 
Kauffman,  E.  G.,  and  N.  F.  Sohl.  "Structure  and  Evolution  of  Antillean  Cre- 
taceous Rudist  Frameworks."  97  pages,  24  figures,  in  Festschrift  fiir  Hans 
Kugler,  Natural  History  Museum,  Basel,  1974. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  357 

Kennedy,  W.  J.,  E.  G.  Kauffman,  and  H.  C.  Klinger.  "Upper  Cretaceous  Inverte- 
brate Faunas  from  Durban,  South  Africa."  Transactions  of  the  Geological 
Society  of  South  Africa,  pages  97-111,  1  figure,  plates  1-6,  1974. 

Kier,  P.  M.  "A  New  Silurian  Echinoid  Genus  from  Scotland."  Paleontology,  vol- 
ume 16,  part  4  (1973),  pages  651-663,  3  figures,  plates  80-83. 

.  "The  Echinoderms  and  Permian-Triassic  Time."  In  The  Permian  and 

Triassic  Systems  and  Their  Mutual  Boundary,  Memoir  2,  766  pages.  Calgary, 
Alberta:  Canadian  Society  of  Petroleum  Geologists,  1973. 

"Evolutionary  Trends  and  Their  Functional  Significance  in  the  Post- 

Paleozoic  Echinoids."  Journal  of  Paleontology,  volume  48,  number  2,  Memoir 
5  (1974),  96  pages,  78  figures,  1  table,  1  chart. 

Rupke,  N.  A.,  D.  J.  Stanley,  and  R.  Stuckenrath.  "Late  Quarternary  Rates  of 
Abyssal  Mud  Deposition  in  the  Western  Mediterranean  Sea."  Marine  Geol- 
ogy, volume  16  (1974), 

Stanley,  D.  J.  "Basin  Plains  in  the  Eastern  Mediterranean:  Significance  in  Inter- 
preting Ancient  Marine  Deposits.  I.  Basin  Depth  and  Configuration."  Marine 
Geology,  volume  15  (1973),  pages  295-307. 

.  "Modern  Flysch  Sedimentation  in  a  Mediterranean  Island  Arc  Setting." 

In  Dott  and  Shaver,  editors,  Geosynclinal  Sedimentation,  SEPM  Special  Publi- 
cation 19, 1974). 

-.  "Basin  Plains  in  the  Eastern  Mediterranean:  Significance  in  Interpret- 

ing Ancient  Deposits.  II.  Basin  Distribution."  C.R.P.-S.N.P.A.  Journal,  vol- 
ume 8  (1974). 

-.  "Dish  Structures  and  Sand  Flow  in  Ancient  Submarine  Valleys,  French 

Maritime  Alps."  C.R.P.-S.N.P.A.  Journal,  volume  8  (1974). 

'Pebbly  Mud  Transport  in  the  Head  of  Wilmington  Canyon."  Marine 

Geology,  volume  16  (1974). 
Stanley,  D.  J.,  H.  Got,  O.  Leenhardt,  and  Y.  Weiler.  "Subsidence  of  the  Western 

Mediterranean  Basin  in  the  Plio-Quaternary:  Further  Evidence."  Geology, 

volume  2  (1974). 
Wear,  C.  M.,  D.  J.  Stanley,  and  J.  E.  Boula.  "Shelfbreak  Physiography  between 

Wilmington    and   Norfolk    Canyons,   Mid-Atlantic    Continental   Margin.    I. 

Physiography."  Marine  Technical  Society  Journal,  volume  8  (1974). 

Department  of  Vertebrate  Zoology 

Aldrich,  John  W.  "Disparate  Sex  Ratios  in  Waterfowl."  Pages  482-489  in  Breed- 
ing Biology  of  Birds,  Proceedings  of  a  Symposium  on  Breeding  Behavior  and 
Reproductive  Physiology  in  Birds,  Denver,  Colorado,  February  1972.  Wash- 
ington, D.C. :  National  Academy  of  Sciences,  1973. 

.  [Review]  "The  Snipes :  a  Study  of  the  Genus  Capella,"  Leslie  M.  Tuck. 

Arctic,  volume  26,  number  4  (1973),  pages  343-344. 

-.  (Review]  "Grouse  and  Quails  of  North  America,"  Paul  A.  Johnsgard. 

Auk,  volume  91,  number  2  (1974),  pages  439-441. 

Ali,  Salim,  and  S.  Dillon  Ripley.  "Robins  to  Wagtails."  Handbook  of  the  Birds 
of  India  and  Pakistan,  volume  9,  xvi  -f  306  pages,  10  plates,  80  maps,  numer- 
ous line  drawings.  London:  Oxford  University  Press,  1973. 

Ash,  John  S.,  and  George  E.  Watson.  "Locustella  naevia  in  Ethiopia."  Bulletin  of 
the  British  Ornithologists'  Club,  volume  94,  number  1  (1974),  pages  39-40. 

Bury,  R.  Bruce.  "Western  Plethodon:  Systematics  and  Biogeographic  Relation- 
ships of  the  Elongatus  Group."  Abstract,  HISS  News  Journal,  volume  1, 
pages  56-57. 

.  "The  Cascade  Frog,  Rana  cascadae,  in  the  North  Coast  Range  of  Cali- 
fornia." Northwest  Science,  volume  47,  number  4  (1973),  pages  228-229,  1 

358  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Bury,  R.  Bruce,  and  R.  Marlow.  "The  Desert  Tortoise.  Will  It  Survive?"  National 
Parks  and  Conservation  Magazine,  volume  47,  number  6  (June  1973),  pages 
9-12,  5  figures. 

Bury,  R.  Bruce,  and  M.  Martin.  "Comparative  Studies  on  the  Distribution  and 
Foods  of  Plethodontid  Salamanders  in  the  Redwood  Region  of  Northern  Cali- 
fornia." Journal  of  Herpetology,  volume  7,  number  4  (1973),  pages  331-335, 
3  tables. 

Bury,  R.  Bruce,  and  J.  Wofheim.  "Aggressive  Behavior  in  Free-Living  Pond 
Turtles  (Clemmys  marmorata)."  BioScience,  volume  23,  number  11  (Novem- 
ber 1973),  pages  659-662,  4  figures,  2  tables. 

Busack,  Stephen.  "Morocco,  My  Way."  Carnegie  Magazine,  volume  47,  number 
2  (February  1973),  pages  77-82,  9  figures. 

Clapp,  Roger,  and  Richard  Banks.  "Birds  Imported  into  the  United  States  in 
1970."  U.  S.  Department  of  the  Interior,  Bureau  of  Sport  Fisheries  and  Wild- 
life, Special  Scientific  Report  —  Wildlife,  Number  164, 102  pages. 

Cohen,  Daniel  M.  "Zoogeography  of  the  Fishes  of  the  Indian  Ocean."  Pages 
451-463  in  The  Biology  of  the  Indian  Ocean,  Ecological  Studies  3.  Springer- 
Verlag,  1973. 

.  "Viviparous  Ophidioid  Fish  Genus  Calamopteryx:  New  Species  from 

Western  Atlantic  and  Galapagos."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of 
Washington,  volume  86,  number  28  (September  1973),  pages  339-350. 

"Families  Argentinidae,  Bathylagidae,  Opisthoproctidae,  Bregmacero- 

tidae,  Eretmophoridae,  Melanonidae,"  in  Check-List  of  the  Fishes  of  the 
North-eastern  Atlantic  and  of  the  Mediterranean,  volume  1,  pages  152-157, 
321-327.  Paris:  UNESCO,  1973. 

"The  Gadoid  Fish  Genus  Halargyreus  (Family  Eretmophoridae)  in  the 

Southern  Hemisphere."  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society  of  New  Zealand,  volume 
3,  number  4  (1974),  pages  629-634. 

"The  Ophidioid  Fish  Genus  Luciobrotula  in  the  Hawaiian  Islands. 

Pacific  Science,  volume  28  (1974). 

Collette,  Bruce  B.  "Daector  quadrizonatus,  a  Valid  Species  of  Freshwater  Ven- 
omous Toadfish  from  the  Rio  Truando,  Columbia,  With  Notes  on  Additional 
Material  of  Other  Species  of  Daector."  Copeia,  number  2  (May  1973),  pages 

.  "The  Garfishes  (Hemiramphidae)  of  Australia  and  New  Zealand."  Rec- 
ords of  the  Australian  Museum,  volume  29,  number  2  (1974),  pages  11-105, 
figures  1-23. 

-.  "Potamorrhaphis  petersi,  a  New  Species  of  Freshwater  Needlefish  (Be- 

lonidae)  from  the  Upper  Orinoco  and  Rio  Negro."  Proceedings  of  the  Biologi- 
cal Society  of  Washington,  volume  87,  number  5  (1974),  pages  31-40,  figures 

'Hyporhamphus  australis  X  Hy.  melanochir,  a  Hybrid  Halfbeak  (Hemi- 

ramphidae) from  Australia."  Fishery  Bulletin,  volume  71,  number  1  (January 

1973),  pages  318-321. 
Crombie,  Ronald  I.  "Comment  on  the  Proposed  Suppression  of  Hyla  crucialis 

(Amphibia)."  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  30,  part  1  (July 

1973),  pages  4-6. 
.  "The  Ecology,  Behavior,  and  Systematics  of  Jamaican  Hylid  Frogs." 

Yearbook  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society  for  1973  (March  1974),  pages 

Eisenberg,  John  F.,  and  Richard  W.  Thorington,  Jr.  "A  Preliminary  Analysis  of 

a  Neotropical  Mammal  Fauna."  Biotropica,  volume  5  (1973),  pages  150-161, 

1  figure,  6  tables. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  359 

Farrand,  John,  Jr.,  and  Storrs  L.  Olson.  "The  Correct  Spelling  of  Scopoli's  Spe- 
cific Name  for  the  Malaysian  Crested  Wood  Partridge  (Rollulus)."  Bulletin  of 
the  British  Ornithologists'  Club,  volume  93  (June  20, 1973),  pages  53-54. 

Gardner,  Alfred  L.  "The  Occurrence  of  Streptoprocne  zonaris  albicincta  and 
Ara  militaris  in  Chiapas,  Mexico."  Condor,  volume  74,  number  4  (winter 
1972),  pages  480-481.  [Not  previously  reported.] 

.  "The  Systematics  of  the  Genus  Didelphis  (Marsupialia:  Didelphidae)  in 

North  and  Middle  America."  Special  Publications  The  Museum  Texas  Tech 
University,  number  4  (July  1973),  81  pages,  14  figures,  7  tables. 

Gibbs,  Robert  H,,  Jr.,  E.  Jarosewich,  and  Herbert  L.  Windom.  "Heavy  Metal  Con- 
centrations in  Museum  Fish  Specimens:  Effects  of  Preservatives  and  Time." 
Science,  volume  184,  number  4135  (1974),  pages  475-477. 

Gibbs,  Robert  H.,  Jr.,  and  James  E.  Morrow.  "Astronesthidae,"  in  Check-list  of 
the  Fishes  of  the  North-eastern  Atlantic  and  of  the  Mediterranean,  volume  1, 
pages  126-129.  Paris:  UNESCO,  1973. 

Heyer,  W.  Ronald.  "Systematics  of  the  Marmoratus  Group  of  the  Frog  Genus 
Leptodactylus  (Amphibia,  Leptodactylidae)."  Contributions  in  Science,  num- 
ber 251  (November  9,  1973),  50  pages,  29  figures. 

.  "Ecological  Interactions  of  Frog  Larvae  at  a  Seasonal  Tropical  Location 

in  Thailand."  Journal  of  Herpetology,  volume  7,  number  4  (November  21, 
1973),  pages  337-361. 

"Relationships  of  the  marmoratus  Species  Group   (Amphibia,  Lepto- 

dactylidae) Within  the  Subfamily  Leptodactylinae."  Contributions  in  Science, 
number  253  (February  12,  1974),  46  pages,  7  figures,  4  tables. 

-.  "Vanzolinius,  a  New  Genus  Proposed  for  Leptodactylus  discodactylus 

(Amphibia,  Leptodactylidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Wash- 
ington, volume  87,  number  11  (April  25,  1974),  pages  81-90. 

"Niche  Measurements  of  Frog  Larvae  from  a  Seasonal  Tropical  Loca- 

tion in  Thailand."  Ecology,  volume  55,  number  3  (May  1974),  pages  651-656. 

Johnson,  Robert  Karl,  and  Daniel  M.  Cohen.  "Revision  of  the  Chiasmodontid 
Fish  Genera  Dysalotus  and  Kali,  with  Descriptions  of  Two  New  Species." 
Archiv  ftir  Fisehereiwissenschaft,  volume  24,  number  1  (1974). 

Jones,  Clyde,  and  Robert  D.  Fisher.  "Comments  on  the  Type-Specimen  of  Neo- 
toma  desertorum  sola  Merriam  1894  (Mammalia:  Rodentia)."  Proceedings  of 
the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  86,  number  37  (December  14, 
1973),  pages  435-438. 

Jones,  Clyde,  and  R.  Suttkus.  "Colony  Structure  and  Organization  of  Pipistrel- 
lus  subflavus  in  Southern  Louisiana."  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume  54, 
number  4  (November  1973),  pages  962-968,  6  tables. 

King,  W.  B.  "Conservation  Status  of  Birds  of  Central  Pacific  Islands."  Wilson 
Bulletin,  volume  85  (1973),  pages  89-103. 

.  "Wedge-tailed  Shearwater  (Puffinus  pacificus),"  in  King,  editor.  Pelagic 

Studies  of  Seabirds  in  the  Central  and  Eastern  Pacific  Ocean.  Smithsonian 
Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  158  (1974),  pages  53-95. 

King,  W.  B.,  and  J.  L.  Lincer.  "DDE  Residues  in  the  Endangered  Hawaiian  Dark- 
rumped  Petrel  (Pterodroma  phaeopygia  sandwichensis)."  Condor,  volume  75 
(1973),  pages  460-461. 

Lachner,  Ernest  A.  "Echeneididae,"  in  Check-list  of  the  Fishes  of  the  North- 
eastern Atlantic  and  of  the  Mediterranean,  volume  1,  pages  637-640.  Paris: 
UNESCO,  1973. 

Marshall,  N.  B.,  and  D.  M.  Cohen.  "Order  Anacanthini  (Gadiformes),  Charac- 
ters and  Synopsis  of  Families,"  in  Fishes  of  The  Western  North  Atlantic,  Part 
6.  Memoir  Sears  Foundation  for  Marine  Research,  number  1,  part  6  (Sep- 
tember 1973),  pages  479-495. 

360  /  Smithsoriian  Year  1974 

Melendez,  Luis  V.,  Muthiah  D.  Daniel,  Nerval  W.  King,  Fernando  C.  Calvo, 
Horacio  H.  Barahona,  Richard  W.  Thorington,  Jr.,  Douglas  A.  Jackman,  and 
Jill  Cadwallader.  "Isolation  and  in  vitro  Characterization  of  a  Herpesvirus 
from  Field  Mouse  (Microtus  pennsylvanicus) ."  Laboratory  Animal  Science, 
volume  23,  number  3  (1973),  pages  385-390,  4  figures,  1  table. 

Nielsen,  J0rgen  G.,  and  Daniel  M.  Cohen.  "A  Review  of  the  Viviparous  Ophidi- 
oid  Fishes  of  the  Genera  Bythites  Reinhardt  and  Abythites  New  (Pisces,  Oph- 
idioidei)."  Steenstrupia,  volume  3  (1973),  pages  71-88. 

Olson,  Storrs  L.  "Evolution  of  the  Rails  of  the  South  Atlantic  Islands  (Aves: 
Rallidae)."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  152  (August  14, 
1973),  53  pages. 

.  "A  Plumage  Aberration  of  Cariama  cristata."  Auk,  volume  90  (October 

1, 1973),  pages  912-914. 

-.  "A  Study  of  the  Neotropical  Rail  Anurolimnas  castaneiceps   (Aves: 

Rallidae)  with  a  Description  of  a  New  Subspecies."  Proceedings  of  the  Bio- 
logical Society  of  Washington,  volume  86  (December  14,  1973),  pages  403-412. 
-.  "A  Classification  of  the  Rallidae."  The  Wilson  Bulletin,  volume  85  (De- 

cember 31, 1973),  pages  381-416. 

'A  Reappraisal  of  the  Fossil  Heron  Palaeophoyx  columbiana  McCoy." 

Auk,  volume  91  (January  29, 1974),  pages  179-180. 

'Tantalus  milneedwardsii  Shufeldt  —  a  Synonym  of  the  Miocene  Pheas- 

ant Miophasianus  altus  (Milne-Edwards)."  The  Wilson  Bulletin,  volume  86, 
number  2  (May  8,  1974),  pages  110-113. 

[Review]  "Preliminary  Observations  on  the  Phylogenesis  of  Thegosis," 

G.  A.  Tunnicliffe.  Bird-Banding,  volume  45  (spring  1974),  page  188. 

"A  Melanistic  White-tailed  Tropicbird."  Condor,  volume  76  (May  30, 

1974),  pages  217-218. 

-.  "The  Pleistocene  Rails  of  North  America."  Condor,  volume  76  (May 

30, 1974),  pages  169-174. 

-.  "Purple  Gallinule  Carrying  Young."  Florida  Field  Naturalist,  volume  2 


Olson,  Storrs  L.,  and  John  Farrand,  Jr.  "Rhegminornis  Restudied:  a  Tiny  Mio- 
cene Turkey."  The  Wilson  Bulletin,  volume  86,  number  2  (May  8,  1974). 
pages  114-120. 

Randall,  John  E.,  and  Victor  G.  Springer.  "The  Indo-Pacific  Labrid  Fish  Genera 
Labrichthys  and  Diproctacanthus  with  Description  of  a  New  Related  Genus, 
Larabicus."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  86, 
number  23  (September  28, 1973),  pages  279-297. 

Riopelle,  A.,  and  Clyde  Jones.  "Field  Studies  of  Primates  in  Rio  Muni,  West 
Africa."  National  Geographic  Society  Research  Report,  1966  Projects  (1973), 
pages  219-223. 

Ripley,  S.  Dillon.  "Afterword:  On  First  Entering  Evelyn's  Laboratory."  in 
Growth  by  Intussusception.  Ecological  Essays  in  Honor  of  G.  Evelyn  Hutchin- 
son. Transactions  of  The  Connecticut  Academy  of  Sciences,  volume  44  (1972), 
pages  439-441. 

.  "Museums  and  the  Natural  Heritage."  Museum,  UNESCO,  volume  25, 

number  1/2  (1973),  pages  10-14. 

"Conservation  Comes  of  Age."  Contribution  number  7,  pages  151-162, 

in  Aspects  of  Science-Technology,  General  Readings  3.  Tokyo:  Kenkyusha 
Ltd.,  1973. 

.  "From  Plumes  to  Pollution."  Birds,  volume  4,  number  11  (1973),  pages 


Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  361 

.  [Review]  "A  Catalogue  of  the  Ellis  Collection  of  Ornithological  Books 

in  the  University  of  Kansas  Libraries."  The  Auk,  volume  90,  number  4  (1973), 
pages  930-931. 

-.  "Foreward"  in  Birds  of  the  Tropics.  London:  Orbis  Publishing,  1973. 

Ripley,  S.  Dillon,  and  Storrs  L.  Olson.  "Re-identification  of  Rallus  pectoralis 
deignani."  Bulletin  of  the  British  Ornithologists'  Club,  volume  93,  number  3 
(September  20, 1973),  page  115. 

Schlitter,  Duane  A.  "A  New  Species  of  Gerbil  from  South  West  Africa  with  Re- 
marks on  Cerbillus  tytonis  Bauer  and  Niethammer,  1959  (Rodentia:  Ger- 
billinae)."  Bulletin  of  the  Southern  California  Academy  of  Sciences,  volume 
72,  number  1  (April  1973),  pages  13-18, 1  figure,  1  table. 

Schlitter,  Duane  A.,  and  Henry  W.  Setzer.  "New  Rodents  (Mammalia:  Cricet- 
idae,  Muridae)  from  Iran  and  Pakistan."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  So- 
ciety of  Washington,  volume  86,  number  14  (May  31,  1973),  pages  163-174. 

Skarr,  R.,  Roger  Clapp,  and  Richard  Banks.  "Re-evaluation  of  some  Montana 
Bird  Records."  Condor,  volume  75,  number  1  (spring  1973),  pages  132-133. 

Stephens,  John  S.,  and  Victor  G.  Springer.  "Clinid  Fishes  of  Chile  and  Peru, 
with  Description  of  a  New  Species,  Myxodes  ornatus,  from  Chile."  Smith- 
sonian Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  159  (January  21, 1974),  24  pages. 

Watson,  George  E.  "Seabird  Colonies  in  the  Islands  of  the  Aegean  Sea."  Na- 
tional Geographic  Society  Research  Reports,  1966  Projects  (1973),  pages 

.  "The  Correct  Gender  of  Daption  Stephens  1826."  The  Auk,  volume  91, 

number  2  (April  1974),  pages  419-421. 

Watson,  George  E.,  J.  Phillip  Angle,  and  M.  Ralph  Browning.  "First  North 
American  Record  of  Little  Bunting  in  Eastern  Chukchi  Sea."  The  Auk,  vol- 
ume 91,  number  2  (April  1974),  page  417. 

Weske,  John.  "Nest  of  Poor-will  in  Cimarron  County,  Oklahoma."  Bulletin  of 
the  Oklahoma  Ornithological  Society,  volume  6,  number  3  (September  1973), 
page  22. 

Wetmore,  Alexander.  "The  Egg  of  a  Collared  Forest-Falcon."  The  Condor,  vol- 
ume 76,  number  1  (1974),  page  103. 

.  "A  Pleistocene  Record  for  the  White-Winged  Scoter  in  Maryland."  The 

Auk,  volume  90,  number  4  (1973),  pages  910-911. 

Wilson,  Don  E.  "Reproduction  in  Neotropical  Bats."  Periodicum  Biologorum, 
volume  75  (1973),  pages  215-217,  3  figures. 

.  "Wasps  as  a  Defense  Mechanism  of  Katydids."  The  American  Midland 

Naturalist,  volume  89,  number  2  (April  1973),  pages  451-455,  3  figures,  1 
table.  [Not  previously  reported.] 

-.  "The  Systematic  Status  of  Perognathus  merriami  Allen."  Proceedings  of 

the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  86,  number  15  (May  31,  1973), 

pages  175-192.  [Not  previously  reported.] 
Wilson,  Don  E.,  and  Ronald  H.  Pine.  "Baiting  for  Toads."  Copeia,  number  1 

(March  8, 1974),  page  252. 
Wilson,  Don  E.,  and  Richard  K.  LaVal.  "Myotis  nigricans."  Mammalian  Species, 

number  39,  3  pages.  May  1974. 


Heaney,  Lawrence  R.,  and  Richard  W.  Thorington,  Jr.  "The  Limb  Proportions 
of  Squirrels,  Sciuridae."  Annual  Meeting  of  the  American  Society  of  Mam- 
malogists,  June  3, 1974. 

Olson,  Storrs  L.  "The  Past  and  Present  Birdlife  of  Fernando  de  Noronha  Island, 
South  Atlantic  Ocean."  American  Ornithologists'  Union,  Provincetown,  Mas- 
sachusetts, October  9, 1973. 

362  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974  \ 


.  "A  Tody  from  the  Oligocene  of  Wyoming."  Cooper  Ornithological  So- 
ciety, Flagstaff,  Arizona,  May  11,  1974. 

Thorington,  Richard  W.,  Jr.,  and  Robert  Vorek.  "Observations  on  the  Taxon- 
omy and  Skeletal  Development  of  the  Night  Monkey,  Aotus."  Fifth  Annual 
Assembly  of  the  New  England  Regional  Primate  Research  Center,  Harvard 
Medical  School,  May  13, 1974. 

Watson,  George  E.,  and  George  J.  Divoky.  "Marine  Birds  in  the  Beaufort  Sea." 
Symposium  on  Beaufort  Sea  Coastal  and  Shelf  Research,  Arctic  Institute  of 
North  America,  San  Francisco,  California,  January  1974. 


Block,  Judith  A.  "Hand-rearing  Seven-banded  Armadillos  (Dasypus  septemcinc- 
tus)  at  the  National  Zoological  Park,  Washington."  International  Zoo  Year- 
book, volume  14  (1974),  pages  210-214. 

Buechner,  H.  K.  "The  Sociable  'Leo  serengeti'.  "  Quarterly  Review  of  Biology, 
volume  48  (1973),  pages  625-627. 

Buechner,  H.  K.,  and  H.  D.  Roth.  "The  Lek  System  in  Uganda  Kob  Antelope." 
American  Zoologist,  volume  14  (1973),  pages  143-160. 

Buechner,  Helmut  K.,  H.  R.  Stroman,  and  William  A.  Xanten  Jr.  "Breeding  Be- 
havior of  Sable  Antelope  (Hippotragus  niger)."  International  Zoo  Yearbook, 
volume  14  (1974),  pages  133-136. 

Bush,  M.,  R.  M.  Heller,  and  A.  E.  James.  "Atlanto-Axial  Subluxation  in  a  Dog." 
Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Medical  Association,  volume  163,  num- 
ber 5  (1973),  pages  473-474. 

Bush,  M.,  R.  J.  Montali,  and  A.  E.  James.  "Alveolar  Cell  Carcinoma  in  a  Cat." 
Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Medical  Association,  volume  162,  number 
7  (1973),  pages  573-574. 

.  "Subcapsular  Hematomas  Associated  with  Renal  Lymphoma  in  a  Cat: 

A  Radiographic  Study."  Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Radiology  So- 
ciety, XIV  (1973),  pp.  27-31. 

Bush,  M.,  R.  J.  Montali,  C.  W.  Gray,  and  L.  M.  Neeley.  "Caesarean  Section  in  a 
Bongo  Antelope."  Journal  of  the  American  Veterinary  Medical  Association, 
volume  163,  number  6  (1973),  pages  552-553. 

Bush,  M.,  R.  J.  Montali,  L.  M.  Neeley,  C.  W.  Gray,  and  A.  E.  James.  "Pyometra 
with  Peritonitis  in  a  Lioness  (Panthera  leo)."  Journal  of  Zoo  Animal  Medi- 
cine, volume  5,  number  1  (1974),  pages  21-23. 

Collins,  Larry  R.  Monotremes  and  Marsupials,  A  Reference  for  Zoological  Insti- 
tutions. 323  pages.  Washington,  D.C.:  Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1973. 

Collins,  Larry  R.,  and  James  K.  Page,  Jr.  Ling-Ling  and  Hsing-Hsing,  Year  of 
the  Panda.  New  York:  Doubleday/Anchor  Press,  1973. 

Eisenberg,  J.  F.  "Mammalian  Social  Systems:  Are  Primate  Social  Systems 
Unique?"  Symposium  of  IV  International  Congress  of  Primatology,  Karger, 
Basel,  volume  1  (1973),  pages  232-249. 

.  "Reproduction  in  Two  Species  of  Spider  Monkeys,  Ateles  fusciceps  and 

A.  geoffroyi."  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume  55  (1974),  pages  955-957. 

[Review]  Motivation  of  Human  and  Animal  Behavior,  by  K.  Lorenz  and 

P.  Leyhausen.  New  York:  Von  Nostrand  Reinhold  Company,  1973.  Journal  of 
Mammalogy,  volume  55  (1974),  page  253. 

[Review]  The  Cheetah,  The  Biology,  Ecology,  and  Behavior  of  an  En- 

dangered Species,  by  R.  L.  Eaton.  New  York:  Van  Nostrand  Reinhold  Com- 
pany, 1974.  Smithsonian,  volume  5  (April  1974),  pages  86-87. 
Eisenberg,  J.  F.,  and  E.  Maliniak.  "The  Reproduction  of  the  Genus  Microgale  in 
Captivity."  International  Zoo  Yearbook,  volume  14  (1974),  pages  108-110. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  363 

malogy,  volume  55  (1974),  pages  224-227. 

[Review]  The  Ecology  of  Stray  Dogs,  by  Alan  Beck.  Baltimore:  York 

Press,  1973.  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume  55  (1974),  pages  250-251. 

[Review]  The  Spotted  Hyena,  by  Hans  Kruuk.  Chicago  and  London: 

University  of  Chicago  Press,  1972.  Animal  Behaviour,  volume  21  (1973),  pages 
Kleinman,  D.  C,  and  J.  F.  Eisenberg.  "Comparisons  of  Canid  and  Felid  Social 
Systems  from  an  Evolutionary  Perspective."  Animal  Behaviour,  volume  21 
(1973),  pages  637-659. 

Montgomery,  G.  C,  W.  W.  Cochran,  and  M.  E.  Sunquist.  "Radiolocating  Arbo- 
real Vertebrates  in  Tropical  Forest."  Journal  of  Wildlife  Management,  vol- 
ume 37,  number  3  (1973),  pages  426-428. 

Montgomery,  G.  G.,  S.  A.  Rand,  and  M.  E.  Sunquist.  "Postnesting  Travels  of 
Iguanas  from  a  Nesting  Aggregation."  Copeia,  volume  3  (1973),  pages  620- 

Montgomery,  G.  G.,  and  M.  E.  Sunquist.  "Contact-Distress  Calls  of  Young 
Sloths."  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume  55  (1974),  pages  211-213. 

Murphy,  M.  R.  "Relative  Importance  of  Tactual  and  Nontactual  Stimuli  in 
Eliciting  Lordosis  in  the  Female  Golden  Hamster."  Behavioral  Biology,  vol- 
ume 2  (1974),  pages  115-120. 

.   "Sexual   Preferences   of  Turkish,   Syrian,   and   Romanian   Hamsters." 

American  Zoologist,  volume  13  (1973),  page  1260. 

Perry,  John,  and  Peter  Kibbee.  "The  Capacity  of  American  Zoos."  International 
Zoo  Yearbook,  volume  14  (1974),  pages  240-247. 

Rudran,  R.  "Adult  Male  Replacement  in  One-Male  Troops  of  Purple-Faced 
Langurs  (Presbytis  senex  senex)  and  Its  Effect  on  Population  Structure." 
Folia  Primatology,  volume  19  (1973),  pages  166-192. 

.  "The  Reproductive  Cycles  of  Two  Subspecies  of  Purple-Faced  Langurs 

(Presbytis  senex)  with  Relation  to  Environmental  Factors."  Folia  Primatologyr 
volume  19  (1973),  pages  41-60. 

364  /  Smithsoriian  Year  1974 

Eisenberg,  J.  F.,  and  R.  W.  Thorington,  Jr.  "A  Preliminary  Analysis  of  a  Neo- 
tropical Mammal  Fauna."  Biotropica,  volume  5  (1973),  pages  150-161. 

Elliott,  R.,  E.  Smith,  and  M.  Bush.  "Preliminary  Report  on  Hematology  of  Birds 
of  Prey."  Journal  of  Zoo  Animal  Medicine,  volume  5,  number  2  (1974),  pages 

Greenwell,  G.  A.  (Contributor).  "Helping  Ducklings  Out  of  the  Egg."  Pages  99-  \ 
102  in  Raising  Wild  Ducks  in  Captivity,  edited  by  Dayton  Hyde.  New  York: 
E.  P.  Dutton  &  Company,  1974. 

.  "Imprinting."  Pages  139-141  in  Raising  Wild  Ducks  in  Captivity,  edited 

by  Dayton  Hyde.  New  York:  E.  P.  Dutton  &  Company,  1974. 

-.  "Waterfowl  Predators  Versus  'Robin's  Roost.'  "  Pages  196-200  in  Rais- 

ing Wild  Ducks  in  Captivity,  edited  by  Dayton  Hyde.  New  York:  E.  P.  Dut- 
ton &  Company,  1974. 

James,  A.  E.,  E.-P.  Strecker,  and  M.  Bush.  "A  Catheter  Technique  for  the  Pro- 
duction of  Communication  Hydrocephalus."  Radiology,  volume  106,  number 
2  (1973),  pages  437-439. 

Kleiman,  Devra.  "Activity  Rhythms  in  the  Giant  Panda  (Ailuropoda  melano- 
leuca):  An  Example  of  the  Use  of  Checksheets  for  Recording  Behaviour  in 
Zoos."  International  Zoo  Yearbook,  volume  14  (1974),  pages  165-169. 

.  "Estrous  Cycles  and  Behavior  of  Captive  Tigers."  The  World's  Cats, 

edited  by  R.  L.  Eaton.  Volume  2  (1974),  pages  60-75. 

-.  "Scent-Marking  in  the  Binturong,  Arctictis  binturong."  Journal  of  Mam- 

Sauer,  R.  M.  "Mystery  Case  No.  3:  Pulmonary  Osteoarthropathy  in  a  Lion." 
Journal  of  Comparative  Pathology,  volume  5,  number  2  (May  1973),  page  4. 
[Not  previously  reported.] 

Squire,  R.  A.,  M.  Bush,  E.  C.  Melby,  L.  M.  Neeley,  and  B.  Yarborough.  "Clinical 
and  Pathologic  Study  of  Canine  Lymphoma:  Clinical  Staging,  Cell  Classifi- 
cation, and  Therapy."  Journal  of  the  National  Cancer  Institute,  volume  51, 
number  2  (1973),  pages  565-574. 

Strecker,  E.  -P.,  B.  Konigsmark,  M.  Bush,  and  A.  E.  James.  "Cerebrospinal  Fluid 
Flow  Alterations  in  the  Dog  with  Chemical  Meningitis."  Investigative  Radi- 
ology, volume  8,  number  1  (1973),  pages  33-42. 

Sunquist,  M.  E.,  and  G.  G.  Montgomery.  "Activity  Patterns  of  a  Translocated 
Silky  Anteater  (Cyclopes  didactylus)."  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume  54, 
number  3  (1973),  page  782. 

Weeks,  Sam  E.,  and  Mitchell  Bush.  "Sexing  Ratities."  International  Zoo  Year- 
book, volume  14  (1974),  pages  141-142. 

Wilson,  S.,  and  D.  G.  Kleiman.  "Eliciting  Play:  A  Comparative  Study  (Octodon, 
Octodontomys,  Pediolagus,  Phoca,  Choeropsis,  Ailuropoda)."  American 
Zoologist,  volume  14  (1974),  pages  341-370. 

Wolf,  Muriel  D.,  and  Lee  D.  Schmeltz.  "Identification  and  Medical  Treatment 
of  Snake  Bites."  Clinical  Proceedings,  volume  30,  number  3  (1974),  pages 

Wurster-Hill,  D.  H.,  and  C.  W.  Gray.  "Giemsa  Banding  Pattern  and  the  Chro- 
mosomes of  12  Species  of  Cats  (Felidae)."  Cytogenetics  and  Cell  Genetics, 
volume  17,  number  6  (1973). 

Zook,  B.  C.  "Lead  Intoxication  in  Urban  Dogs."  Clinical  Toxicology,  volume  6 
(March  1973),  pages  377-388.  [Not  previously  reported.] 

.  "Lead  Poisoning  in  Urban  Pet  and  Zoo  Animals."  Clinical  Toxicology 

Bulletin,  volume  3  (May  1973),  pages  91-100.  [Not  previously  reported.] 

Zook,  B.  C,  J.  F.  Eisenberg,  and  E.  McLanahan.  "Some  Factors  Affecting  the 
Occurrence  of  Lead  Poisoning  in  Captive  Primates."  Journal  of  Medical 
Primatology,  volume  62  (December  1973),  pages  206-217. 

Zook,  B.  C,  and  R.  M.  Sauer.  "Leucoencephalomyelosis  in  Nonhuman  Primates 
Associated  with  Lead  Poisoning."  Journal  of  Wildlife  Diseases,  volume  9 
(January  1973),  pages  61-63.  [Not  previously  reported.] 

Zook,  B.  C,  R.  M.  Sauer,  M.  Bush,  and  C.  W.  Gray.  "Lead  Poisoning  in  Zoo- 
Dwelling  Primates."  American  Journal  of  Physical  Anthropology,  volume 
28,  number  2  (March  1973),  pages  415-424.  [Not  previously  reported.] 


Arthur,  Michael  A.,  and  Keith  L.  Simmons.  "Bottom  Current  Activity  Between 

the   Antarctic   and   Australian   Continent:    Distribution   and   Effects    EOS." 

Transactions  of  American  Geophysical  Union,  volume  55,  number  4,  page 

372, 1974. 
Higgins,  Robert  P.   "Kinorhyncha."  In  A.  C.  Giese  and  J.  I.   Pearse,  editors. 

Reproduction  of  Marine  Invertebrates,  volume  1,  546  pages.  N.Y. :  Academic 

Press,  1974. 
Houbrick,  Richard  S.  "Bruguiere  (1789),  (Gastropoda):  Proposed  Preservation 

by  Designation  of  a  Type-Species  under  the  Primary  Powers.  Z.  N.  (S.)  2032." 

Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  30,  number  1,  pages  104-107, 

.  "Gross  Studies  on  the  Genus  Cerithium  (Gastropoda  Prosobranchia) 

with  Notes  on  Ecology  and  Microhabitats."  Nautilus,  volume  88,  number  1, 

pages  14-27, 1974. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  365 

.  "Studies  on  the  Reproductive  Biology  of  the  Genus  Cerithium  (Gas- 
tropoda: Prosobranchia)  in  the  Western  Atlantic."  Bulletin  Marine  Science, 
volume  23,  number  4,  pages  874-904, 1974. 

Center  for  Short-Lived  Phenomena 

"A  Plan  for  the  Implementation  of  the  United  Nations  Global  Environmental 
Monitoring  System  (GEMS)."  Smithsonian  Institution,  May  1974. 

Asher,  R.  A.,  M.  M.  Miller,  J.  McCracken,  and  C.  Petrie.  "An  Unusual  Glacier 
Cave  in  the  Lemon  Glacier,  Alaska — An  Englacial  Drainage  and  Reservoir 
System."  April  1974. 

Citron,  R.  "International  Environmental  Monitoring  Programs — A  Directory." 
Smithsonian  Institution,  January  1974. 

"CSLP  1973,  Annual  Report  and  Review  of  Events."  June  1974. 

"Directory  of  National  and  International  Pollution  Monitoring  Programs;  Pre- 
liminary Results  of  a  Worldwide  Survey  Prepared  for  the  United  Nations 
Environmental  Program."  3  volumes.  Smithsonian  Institution,  February  1974. 

Romano,  R.,  and  C.  Sturiale.  "Preliminary  Report  on  the  Eruption  of  Mt.  Etna 
of  January-March  1974."  May  21, 1974. 


Butzer,  Karl  W.,  G.  J.  Fock,  R.  Stuckenrath,  and  A.  Zilch.  "Paleo-hydrology 
of  Late  Pleistocene  Lakes  in  the  Alexandersfontein  Pan,  Kimberley,  South 
Africa."  Nature,  volume  243  (1973),  pages  328-330. 

Butzer,  Karl  W.,  David  M.  Helgren,  G.  J.  Fock,  and  Robert  Stuckenrath. 
"Alluvial  Traces  of  the  Lower  Vaal  River,  South  Africa:  A  Reappraisal  and 
Reinvestigation."  Journal  of  Geology,  volume  81  (1973),  pages  341-362. 

Craker,  L.  E.,  F.  B.  Abeles,  and  W.  Shropshire,  Jr.  "Light-induced  Ethylene 
Production  in  Sorghum."  Plant  Physiology,  volume  51  (1973),  pages  1082- 

Faust,  Maria.  "Structure  of  the  Periplast  of  Cryptomonas  ovata  var.  Palustris." 
Journal  of  Phycology,  volume  10  (1974),  pages  121-124. 

Faust,  Maria,  and  Elisabeth  Gantt.  "Effect  of  Light  Intensity  and  Glycerol  on| 
the  Growth,  Pigment  Composition  and  Ultrastructure  of  Chroomonas  sp." 
Journal  of  Phycology,  volume  9  (1973),  pages  489-495. 

Goldberg,  B.,  and  W.  H.  Klein.  "Radiometer  to  Monitor  Low-Levels  of  Ultra- 
violet Irradiance."  Applied  Optics,  volume  13  (1974),  pages  493-496. 

Gray,  Brian,  C.  A.  Lipschultz,  and  E.  Gantt.  "Phycobilisomes  from  a  Blue-Green; 
Algae,  Nostoc  sp."  Journal  of  Bacteriology,  volume  116  (1973),  pages  471-478. 

Honeycutt,  Richard  C,  and  M.  M.  Margulies.  "Protein  Synthesis  in  Chlamy- 
domonas  reinhardi."  Journal  of  Biological  Chemistry,  volume  248  (1973), 
pages  6145-6153. 

Lyons,  John  B.,  and  James  E.  Mielke.  "Holocene  History  of  a  Portion  of  North- 
ernmost Ellesmere  Island."  Arctic,  volume  26  (1973),  pages  314-323.  | 

Margulies,  Maurice  M.  "An  Evaluation  of  the  Evidence  Concerning  the  Sites 
of  Synthesis  of  Chloroplast  Proteins."  Atti  del  Seminario  di  Studi  Biologici, 
Univ.  of  Bari,  Italy,  volume  V  (1973),  pages  81-90. 

Margulies,  Maurice  M.,  and  Allan  Michaels,  with  the  technical  assistance  of 
H.  Lee  Tiffany.  "Ribosomes  Bound  to  Chloroplast  Membranes  in  Chlamy- 
domonas  reinhardi."  Journal -of  Cell  Biology,  volume  60  (1974),  pages  65-77. 

Shropshire,  W.,  Jr.  "Photoinduced  Parental  Control  of  Seed  Germination  and 
the  Spectral  Quality  of  Solar  Radiation."  Solar  Energy,  volume  15  (1973), 
pages  99-105. 

366  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974. 

.  "Stimulus-Response  Systems  of  Phycomyces  blakesleeanus."  Chapter, 

pages   553-568,  in  Mycology  Guidebook,  Mycological  Society  of  America, 
edited  by  Russell  B.  Stevens.  University  of  Washington  Press,  1974. 


Aannestad,  P.  A.,  and  G.  B.  Field.  "Hot  H2  and  Interstellar  Shocks."  Astro- 
physical  Jourrtal  (Letters),  volume  186  (1973),  pages  L29-L32. 

Aksnes,  K.  "Mutual  Phenomena  of  the  Galilean  Satellites,  1973-74"  (Letter). 
Sky  arid  Telescope,  volume  45  (1973),  pages  271  and  294. 

.  "Orbit  Improvement  from  Satellite  Imaging  Data  Obtainable   from 

Outer  Planet  Missions."  Celestial  Mechanics,  volume  8  (1973),  pages  99-110. 
"On  the  Choice  of  Reference  Orbit,  Canonical  Variables,  and  Pertur- 

bation Method  in  Satellite  Theory"  (abstract).  Celestial  Mechanics,  volume  8 
(1973),  page  259. 

"Mutual  Phenomena  of  Jupiter's  Galilean  Satellites,  1973-74."  Icarus, 

volume  21  (1974),  pages  100-111. 

'Ephemeris  for  Neptune  II  (Nereid)."  International  Astronomical  Union 

Circular,  number  2665  (1974). 

"Flygande  Tallerkar  25  ar  Etter,  Del  I  (25  Years  of  Flying  Saucers, 

Part  I)."  Naturen,  volume  98  (1974),  pages  35-47. 

Austin,  J.  A.,  D.  H.  Levy,  C.  A.  Gottlieb,  and  H.  E.  Radford.  "The  Microwave 
Spectrum  of  the  HCO  Radical."  Journal  of  Chemical  Physics,  volume  60 
(1974),  pages  207-215. 

Avni,  Y.,  J.  N.  Bahcall,  P.  C.  Joss,  D.  Q.  Lamb,  E.  Schreier,  and  H.  Tananbaum. 
"Upper  Limit  on  2.5-Second  Pulsations  from  Hercules  X-1."  Astrophysical 
Journal  (Letters),  volume  188  (1974),  pages  L35-L36. 

Bahcall,  J.  N.,  and  E.  M.  Kellogg.  "Radio  Stars  and  X-Ray  Sources."  Nature, 
Physical  Science,  volume  244  (1973),  pages  135-136. 

Ball,  J.  A.,  J.  A.  Wheeler,  and  E.  L.  Fireman.  "Photoabsorption  and  Charge 
Oscillation  of  the  Thomas-Fermi  Atom."  Reviews  of  Modern  Physics,  vol- 
ume 45  (1973),  pages  333-352. 

Becklin,  E.  E.,  J.  A.  Frogel,  D.  E.  Kleinmann,  G.  Neugebauer,  S.  E.  Persson,  and 
C.  G.  Wynn-Williams.  "Infrared  Emission  from  the  Southern  H  II  Region 
H2-3."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  187  (1974),  pages  487-490. 

Beichman,  C.  A.,  and  E.  J.  Chaisson.  "Possible  Evidence  for  a  Large  Magnetic 
Field  in  the  Orion  Infrared  Nebula."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume 
190  (1974),  pages  L21-L24. 

Black,  J.  H.,  E.  J.  Chaisson,  J.  A.  Ball,  H.  Penfield,  and  A.  E.  Lilley.  "X  9-cm  CH 
Emission  from  Comet  Kohoutek  (1973f)."  International  Astronomical  Union 
Circular,  number  2621  (1974). 

Black,  J.  H.,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "The  Cosmic  Abundance  of  Deuterium."  Astro- 
physical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  184  (1973),  pages  L101-L104. 

.  "The  Formation  of  CH  in  Interstellar  Clouds."  Astrophysical  Letters, 

volume  15  (1973),  pages  79-82. 

Black,  J.  H.,  and  G.  G.  Fazio.  "Production  of  Gamma  Radiation  in  Dense  Inter- 
stellar Clouds  by  Cosmic-Ray  Interactions."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters), 
volume  185  (1973),  pages  L7-L11. 

Bottcher,  C,  and  K.  K.  Docken.  "Autoionizing  States  of  the  Hydrogen  Mole- 
cule." Journal  of  Physics  B  (Atomic  and  Molecular  Physics),  volume  7  (1974), 
pages  L5-L8. 

Brinckman,  A.  C,  D.  R.  Parsignault,  E.  Schreier,  H.  Gursky,  E.  Kellogg,  H. 
Tananbaum,  and  R.  Giacconi.  "Correlation  Analysis  of  X-Ray  Emission  from 
Cygnus  X-1."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  188  (1974),  pages  603-608. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  367 

Brownlee,  D.  E.,  and  P.  W.  Hodge.  "Ablation  Debris  and  Primary  Micrometeo- 
roids  in  the  Stratosphere."  Pages  1139-1151  in  M.  J.  Rycroft  and  S.  K.  Run- 
corn, editors.  Space  Research  XIII.  Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag,  1973. 

Brownlee,  D.  E.,  P.  W.  Hodge,  and  W.  Bucher.  "The  Physical  Nature  of  Inter- 
planetary Dust  as  Inferred  by  Particles  Collected  at  35  km."  Pages  291-295 
in  C.  L.  Hemenway,  P.  M.  Millman,  and  A.  F.  Cook,  editors.  Evolutionary 
and  Physical  Properties  of  Meteoroids,  Proceedings  of  the  International 
Astronomical  Union's  Colloquium  No.  13.  NASA  SP-319,  1973. 

Cameron,  A.  G.  W.  "Major  Variations  in  Solar  Luminosity?"  Reviews  of  Geo- 
physics and  Space  Physics,  volume  11  (1973),  pages  505-510. 

.  "Interstellar  Grains  in  Museums?"  Pages  545-547  in  J.  M.  Greenberg 

and  H.  C.  van  de  Hulst,  editors.  Interstellar  Dust  and  Related  Topics,  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  International  Astronomical  Union  Symposium  No.  52.  Dor- 
drecht, Holland:  D.  Reidel  Publishing  Company,  1973. 

"Abundances  of  the  Elements  in   the  Solar  System."  Space  Science 

Reviews,  volume  15  (1973),  pages  121-146. 

"Cosmic  Rays  from  Supernovae  and  Comments  on  the  Vela  X  Pre- 

Supernova."  Pages  74-88  in  S.  P.  Maran,  J.  C.  Brandt,  and  T.  P.   Stecher, 
editors.  The  Cum  Nebula  and  Related  Problems.  NASA  SP-332,  1973. 

-.  "The  Role  of  Dust  in  Cosmogony."  Presented  at  The  Dusty  Universe 

Symposium  honoring  Dr.  Fred  L.  Whipple,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Ob- 
servatory, Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  October  1973. 

'Are  Large  Time  Differences  in  Meteorite  Formation  Real?"  Nature, 

volume  246  (1973),  pages  30-32. 

Carleton,  N.,  editor.  Astrophysics,  Part  A:  Optical  and  Infrared,  volume  12  in 
Methods  of  Experimental  Physics.  New  York:  Academic  Press,  1974. 

Carleton,  N.  P.,  and  W.  A.  Traub.  "Observations  of  Spatial  and  Temporal 
Variations  in  the  Jovian  H2  Quadrupole  Lines."  Presented  at  the  International 
Astronomical  Union  Symposium  No.  65,  Exploration  of  the  Planetary  System, 
Torun,  Poland,  September  1973. 

.  "A  Search  for  H2O  and  CH4  in  Comet  Kohoutek."  Presented  at  the  I 

Planetary  Sciences  Division  Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society, 
Palo  Alto,  California,  April  1974. 

Carleton,  N.  P.,  W.  A.  Traub,  and  J.  Noxon.  "A  Search  for  Martian  Dayglow  | 
Resulting  from  Ozone  Photolysis."  Presented  at  the  Planetary  Sciences  Di- 
vision Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  Palo  Alto,  California, 
April  1974. 

Carlsten,  J.  L.,  T.  J.  Mcllrath,  and  W.  H.  Parkinson.  "Measurement  of  the 
Photoionization  Cross  Section  from  the  Laser-Populated  ^D  Metastable 
Levels  in  Barium."  Journal  of  Physics  B  (Atomic  and  Molecular  Physics), 
volume  7  (1974),  pages  L244-L248. 

Chaffee,  F.  H.,  Jr.  "Line  Spectra  in  Interstellar  Clouds.  I.  The  Perseus  2  Cloud." 
Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  189  (1974),  pages  427-440. 

Chaisson,  E.  J.  "Heavy-Element  Recombination  Lines."  Presented  at  the  141st 
Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  Tucson,  Arizona,  December 
1973;  abstract  in  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  5 
(1973),  page  451. 

.  "Microwave  Spectroscopic  Mapping  of  Gaseous  Nebulae.  III.  Hydro- 
gen, Helium,  and  Carbon  in  Orion  A."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  186 
(1973),  pages  545-553. 

"Microwave  Spectroscopic  Mapping  of  Gaseous  Nebulae.  IV.  Excited 

Hydrogen  in  Sagittarius  B2."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  186  (1973),  pages 

368  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

.  "On  the  Recombination-Line  Observations  toward  Supernova  3C  391." 

Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  189  (1974),  pages  69-72. 

-.  "A  Correlation  Study  of  Carbon  Ions  and  Hydroxyl  Molecules  toward 

Galactic  Nebulae."  Astronomical  Journal,  volume  79  (1974),  pages  555-564. 

Chaisson,  £.  J.,  and  C.  J.  Lada.  "Recombination  Lines  from  H  I  Gas  toward 
Orion  A."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  189  (1974),  pages  227-237. 

Coleman,  P.  L.,  A.  N.  Bunner,  W.  L.  Kraushaar,  D.  McCammon,  F.  O.  William- 
son, E.  Kellogg,  and  D.  Koch.  "X-Ray  Spectrum  of  the  Tycho  Supernova." 
Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  185  (1973),  pages  L121-L125. 

Colombo,  G.,  F.  A.  Franklin,  and  L  L  Shapiro.  "On  the  Formation  of  the  Orbit- 
Orbit  Resonance  of  Titan  and  Hyperion."  Astronomical  Journal,  volume  79 
(1974),  pages  61-72. 

Cook,  A.  F.  "A  Working  List  of  Meteor  Streams."  Pages  183-191  in  C.  L.  Hemen- 
way,  P.  M.  Millman,  and  A.  F.  Cook,  editors.  Evolutionary  and  Physical  Prop- 
erties of  Meteoroids,  Proceedings  of  the  International  Astronomical  Union's 
Colloquium  No.  13.  NASA  SP-319, 1973. 

Cook,  A.  F.,  G.  Forti,  R.  E.  McCrosky,  A.  Posen,  R.  B.  Southworth,  and  J.  T. 
Williams.  "Combined  Observations  of  Meteors  by  Image-Orthicon  Tele- 
vision Camera  and  Multistation  Radar."  Pages  23-44  in  C.  L.  Hemenway, 
P.  M.  Millman,  and  A.  F.  Cook,  editors.  Evolutionary  and  Physical  Properties 
of  Meteoroids,  Proceedings  of  the  International  Astronomical  Union's  Col- 
loquium No.  13.  NASA  SP-319,  1973. 

Cook,  A.  F.,  C.  L.  Hemenway,  P.  M.  Millman,  and  A.  Swider.  "An  Unusual 
Meteor  Spectrum."  Pages  153-159  in  C.  L.  Hemenway,  P.  M.  Millman,  and 
A.  F.  Cook,  editors.  Evolutionary  and  Physical  Properties  of  Meteoroids, 
Proceedings  of  the  International  Astronomical  Union's  Colloquium  No.  13. 
NASA  SP-319, 1973. 

Dalgarno,  A.  "The  Z-Dependence  of  Oscillator  Strengths."  Nuclear  Instruments 

and  Methods,  volume  110  (1973),  pages  183-188. 
Dalgarno,  A.,  J.  H.  Black,  and  J.  C.  Weisheit.  "Ortho-Para  Transitions  in  Hj 

and  the  Fractionation  of  HD."  Astrophysical  Letters,  volume  14  (1973),  pages 

Dalgarno,  A.,  E.  Herbst,  S.  Novick,  and  W.  Klemperer.  "Radio  Spectrum  of 

H2D  +  ."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  183  (1973),  pages  L131-L133. 
Dalgarno,  A.,  M.  Oppenheimer,  and  R.  S.  Berry.  "Chemiionization  in  Interstellar 

Clouds."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  183  (1973),  pages  L21-L24. 
Dalgarno,  A.,  M.  Oppenheimer,  and  J.  H.  Black.  "Formation  of  Formaldehyde 

in  Interstellar  Clouds."  Nature,  Physical  Science,  volume  145  (1973),  pages 

Dalgarno,  A.,  and  K.  M.  Sando.  "The  Extreme  Wings  of  Atomic  Emission  and 

Absorption  Lines."  Comments  on  Atomic  and  Molecular  Physics,  volume  4 

(1973),  pages  29-33. 

Davis,  R.  J.  "The  Astronomical  Data  File  for  the  Celescope  Catalog."  Presented 
at  the  142nd  Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  Lincoln,  Ne- 
braska, March  1974;  abstract  in  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical 
Society,  volume  6  (1974),  page  218. 

.  "The  Celescope  Survey  and  the  Galactic  Distribution  of  Interstellar 

Absorption."  Presented  at  the  Royal  Society  Discussion  Meeting,  Astronomy 
in  the  Ultraviolet,  London,  England,  April  1974. 

Dickinson,  D.  F.  "Who  Lives  between  the  Clouds?"  The  Alcalde,  July  1973, 

pages  14-18. 
.  "Water  Vapor  in  Infrared  Stars"  (abstract).  Bulletin  of  the  American 

Astronomical  Society,  volume  5  (1973),  page  318. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  369 

Docken,  K.  K.,  and  T.  P.  Schafer.  "Spectroscopic  Information  on  Ground-State 
Afj,  Kti,  Xci  from  Interatomic  Potentials."  Journal  of  Molecular  Spectro- 
scopy, volume  46  (1973),  pages  454-459. 

Fazio,  G.  G.  "Observations  of  High-Energy  Gamma  Rays."  Pages  153-164  in 
F.  W.  Stecker  and  J.  I.  Trombka,  editors,  Gamma-Ray  Astrophysics.  NASA 
SP-339, 1973. 

.  "X-Ray  and  Gamma^Ray  Detection  by  Means  of  Atmospheric  Inter- 
actions: Fluorescence  and  Cerenkov  Radiation."  Pages  315-359  in  N.  Carleton, 
editor.  Astrophysics,  Part  A:  Optical  and  Infrared,  volume  12  in  Methods 
of  Experimental  Physics.  New  York:  Academic  Press,  1974. 

Fazio,  G.  G.,  D.  E.  Kleinmann,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  L.  Wright,  and  F.  J.  Low.  "A 
Balloon-Borne  1-Meter  Telescope  for  Far-Infrared  Astronomy."  Presented 
at  the  Symposium  on  Telescope  Systems  for  Balloon-Borne  Research,  NASA 
Ames  Research  Center,  Moffett  Field,  California,  February  1974. 

Fazio,  G.  G.,  D.  E.  Kleinmann,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  L.  Wright,  M.  Zeilik  II,  and 
F.  J.  Low.  "High-Resolution  Maps  of  H  II  Regions  at  Far-Infrared  Wave- 
lengths." Presented  at  the  8th  ESLAB  Symposium,  Frascati,  Italy,  June  1974. 

Field,  G.  B.  "Interstellar  Atoms,  Molecules,  and  Dust."  Presented  at  the  Inter- 
national Astronomical  Union  Extraordinary  General  Assembly,  Warsaw, 
Poland,  September  1973. 

.  "Intergalactic  Gas."  Presented  at  the  International  Astronomical  Union 

Symposium  No.  63,  Confrontation  between  Cosmological  Theories  and  Ob- 
servational Data,  Krakow,  Poland,  September  1973. 

"The  Composition  of  Interstellar  Dust."  Presented  at  The  Dusty  Uni- 

verse Symposium  honoring  Dr.  Fred  L.  Whipple,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical 
Observatory,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  October  1973. 

-.  "Missing  Mass  in  the  Universe."  Pages  289-317  in  Fundamental  Inter- 

actions in  Physics  and  Astrophysics,  volume  3  in  Studies  in  the  Natural  Sci- 
ences. New  York:  Plenum  Publishing  Corporation,  1973. 

"On  Interstellar  Depletion."  Presented  at  the  141st  Meeting  of  the 

American  Astronomical  Society,  Tucson,  Arizona,  December  1973;  abstract 
in  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  6  (1974),  page  262. 

'Intergalactic  Matter  in  Clusters  of  Galaxies."  Presented  at  the  High- 

Energy  Astrophysics  Division  Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical  So- 
ciety, Tucson,  Arizona,  December  1973;  abstract  in  Bulletin  of  the  American 
Astronomical  Society,  volume  6  (1974),  page  275. 

"Interstellar  Abundances:  Gas  and  Dust."  Astrophysical  Journal,  vol- 

ume 187  (1974),  pages  453-459 

Field,  G.  B.,  H.  Arp,  and  J.  Bahcall.  The  Redshift  Controversy,  Frontiers  in 
Physics  Lecture  Note  Series.  Reading,  Massachusetts:  W.  A.  Benjamin,  Inc., 

Fireman,  E.  L.  "Interstellar  Absorption  of  X-Rays."  Astrophysical  Journal,  vol- 
ume 187  (1974),  pages  57-60. 

.  "History  of  the  Lunar  RegoUth  from  Neutrons"  (abstract).  Pages  230- 

233  in  Lunar  Science  V.  Houston,  Texas:  Lunar  Science  Institute,  1974. 

Fireman,  E.  L.,  J.  D'Amico,  and  J.  DeFelice.  "Radioactivities  versus  Depth  in 
Apollo  16  and  17  Soil."  Pages  2131-2144  in  Proceedings  of  the  Fourth  Lunar 
Science  Conference,  Geochimica  et  Cosmochimica  Acta,  supplement  4,  vol- J 
ume  2.  New  York:  Pergamon  Press,  1973.  ■ 

Fireman,  E.  L.,  and  F.  Steinbrunn.  "Radiochemical  Measurements  of  Muons 
Underground."  Pages  1729-1733  in  13th  International  Cosmic  Ray  Confer-' 
ence,  volume  1.  Denver,  Colorado:  University  of  Denver,  1973 

370  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 


Fisher,  R.  R.,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  M.  Reeves,  E.  J. 
Schmahl,  J.  G.  Timothy,  J.  E.  Vemazza,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "Surge  Observa- 
tions from  ATM/Skylab."  Presented  at  the  Fifty-Fifth  Annual  Meeting  of 
the  American  Geophysical  Union,  Washington,  D.  C.,  April  1974;  abstract 
in  Transactions,  American  Geophysical  Union,  volume  55  (1974),  page  408. 

Forman,  W.,  and  W.  Liller.  "Optical  Studies  of  UHURU  Sources.  V.  A  Prime 
Candidate  for  the  'Transient'  X-Ray  Source  2U  1543-47."  Astrophysical 
Journal  (Letters),  volume  183  (1973),  pages  L117-L119. 

Forti,  G.  "A  Determination  of  Meteor  Mass  Distribution  from  Meteor  Echoes." 
Pages  9-12  in  C.  L.  Hemenway,  P.  M.  Millman,  and  A.  F.  Cook,  editors. 
Evolutionary  and  Physical  Properties  of  Meteoroids,  Proceedings  of  the  Inter- 
national Astronomical  Union's  Colloquium  No.  13.  NASA  SP-319,  1973. 

Foukal,  P.  K.,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  M.  Reeves,  E.  J.  Schmahl,  J.  G. 
Timothy,  J.  E  Vernazza,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "A  Study  of  the  Active  Region 
McMath  12417  with  the  Harvard  ATM  EUV  Spectrometer."  Presented  at  the 
141st  Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  Tucson,  Arizona, 
December  1973;  abstract  in  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society, 
volume  5  (1973),  pages  432-433. 

Franklin,  F.  A.  "The  Structure  of  Saturn's  Rings  Based  on  Optical  and  Dynami- 
cal Considerations."  Presented  at  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Ad- 
ministration Workshop  on  Saturn's  Rings,  Jet  Propulsion  Laboratory,  Pasa- 
dena, California,  August  1973. 

Gaposchkin,  E.  M.  "Literal  Algebra  for  Satellite  Dynamics."  Presented  at  the 
17th  International  COSPAR  Meeting,  Sao  Paulo,  Brazil,  June  1974. 

Garton,  W.  R.  S.,  E.  M.  Reeves,  F.  S.  Tomkins,  and  B.  Ercoli.  "Rydberg  Series 
and  Autoionization  Resonances  in  the  Sc  I  Absorption  Spectrum."  Proceed- 
ings of  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  volume  333  (1973),  pages  1-16. 

Gerdes,  C,  C.  Y.  Fan,  and  T.  C.  Weekes.  "The  Primary  Cosmic  Ray  Spectrum 
from  2  X  10"  ev  to  10'*  ev."  Pages  219-224  in  13th  International  Cosmic 
Ray  Conference,  volume  1.  Denver,  Colorado:  University  of  Denver,  1973. 

Giacconi,  R.  "Binary  X-Ray  Sources."  Presented  at  the  International  Astro- 
nomical Union  Symposium  No.  64,  Gravitational  Radiation  and  Gravitational 
Collapse,  Warsaw,  Poland,  September  1973. 

.  "Progress  in  X-Ray  Astronomy."  Physics  Today,  volume  26,  number  5 

(1973),  pages  38-47. 

"Observational  Results  on  Compact  Galactic  X-Ray  Sources."  Pre- 

sented at  the  16th  International  Solvay  Congress  on  Physics,  Brussels,  Bel- 
gium, September  1973. 

Giacconi,  R.,  H.  Gursky,  E.  Kellogg,  R.  Levinson,  E.  Schreier,  and  H.  Tanan- 
baum.  "Further  X-Ray  Observations  of  Hercules  X-1  from  UHURU."  Astro- 
physical  Journal,  volume  184  (1973),  pages  227-236. 

Giacconi,  R.,  S.  Murray,  H.  Gursky,  E.  Kellogg,  E.  Schreier,  T.  Matilsky,  D. 
Koch,  and  H.  Tananbaum.  "The  Third  UHURU  Catalog  of  X-Ray  Sources." 
Astrophysical  Journal  Supplement  Number  237,  volume  27  (1974),  pages 

Gingerich,  O.  "From  Copernicus  to  Kepler:  Heliocentrism  as  Model  and  as 
Reality."  Proceedings  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society,  volume  117 
(1973),  pages  513-522. 

.  "Copernicus  and  Tycho."  Scientific  American,  volume  229  (1973),  pages 


"History  of  Astronomy  (Report  of  lAU  Commission  No.  41)."  Transac- 

tions of  the  International  Astronomical  Union,  volume  XVA  (1973),  pages 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publicatiorjs  I  371 

.  "A  Fresh  Look  at  Copernicus."  Pages  154-178  in  R.  M.  Hutchins,  M.  J. 

Adier,  and  J.  Van  Doren,  editors.  The  Great  Ideas  Today  1973.  Chicago,  Illi- 
nois: Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  Inc.,  1973. 

'H.  Levitt."  Pages  105-106  in  Dictionary  of  Scientific  Biography,  volume 

8.  New  York:  Scribner's,  1973. 

"A.  C.  Maury."  Pages  194-195  in  Dictionary  of  Scientific  Biography, 

volume  9.  New  York:  Scribner's,  1974. 

"P.  Mechain."  Pages  250-252  in  Dictionary  of  Scientific  Biography,  vol- 

ume 9.  New  York:  Scribner's,  1974. 

"C.  Messier."  Pages  329-331  in  Dictionary  of  Scientific  Biography,  vol- 

ume 9.  New  York:  Scribner's,  1974. 

"Astronomical  Maps."  Pages  223-232  in  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  vol- 

ume 2.  Chicago,  Illinois:  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  Inc.,  1974. 

"Harlow   Shapley:   Twentieth-Century   Copernicus?"   Harvard  Maga- 

zine, volume  76,  number  9  (1974),  pages  18-23. 

Goad,  L.  E.,  and  E.  J.  Chaisson.  "Observations  of  Radio-Recombination  Lines 
in  Planetary  Nebulae."  Memoires  Societe  Royale  des  Sciences  de  Liege,  series 
6,  volume  V  (1973),  pages  115-119. 

Golub,  L.,  A.  S.  Krieger,  J.  K.  Silk,  and  G.  S.  Vaiana.  "Time  Variations  of  Solar 
X-Ray  Bright  Points."  Presented  at  the  International  Astronomical  Union/ 
COSPAR  Symposium  No.  68,  Solar  Gamma  X-Ray  and  EUV  Radiation, 
Buenos  Aires,  Argentina,  June  1974. 

Gorenstein,  P.,  P.  Bjorkholm,  B.  Harris,  and  F.  R.  Harnden,  Jr.  "Soft  X-Ray 
Flux  of  the  Coma  Cluster  of  Galaxies."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  vol- 
ume 183  (1973),  pages  L57-L61. 

Grindlay,  J.  E.,  and  G.  G.  Fazio.  "Cosmic  Gamma-Ray  Bursts  from  Relativistic 
Dust  Grains."  Pages  296-308  in  I.  B.  Strong,  editor.  Proceedings  of  the  Con- 
ference on  Transient  Cosmic  Gamma-  and  X-Ray  Sources  (LA-5505-C).  Los 
Alamos,  New  Mexico:  Los  Alamos  Scientific  Laboratory,  1974. 

.  "Cosmic  Gamma-Ray  Bursts  from  Relativistic  Dust  Grains."  Astro- 
physical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  187  (1974),  pages  L93-L96. 

Grindlay,  J.  E.,  R.  Hanbury  Brown,  J.  Davis,  and  L.  Allen.  "First  Results  of  a 
Southern  Hemisphere  Search  for  Gamma  Ray  Sources  at  E7  ^  3  X  10"  eV." 
Pages  439-444  in  13th  International  Cosmic  Ray  Conference,  volume  1.  Den- 
ver, Colorado:  University  of  Denver,  1973. 

Grindlay,  J.  E.,  and  Helmken,  H.  "Cosmic  Ray  Composition  at  >10"  eV  from 
Muon/Electron  Ratios  in  EAS."  Pages  202-207  in  13th  International  Cosmic 
Ray  Conference,  volume  1.  Denver,  Colorado:  University  of  Denver,  1973. 

Grindlay,  J.  E.,  H.  F.  Helmken,  R.  Hanbury  Brown,  J.  Davis,  and  L.  R.  Allen. 
"Observations  of  Southern  Sky  Gamma  Ray  Sources  at  E7  ~  3  X  10"  eV." 
Presented  at  the  8th  ESLAB  Symposium,  Frascati,  Italy,  June  1974. 

Grindlay,  J.  E.,  H.  F.  Helmken,  and  T.  C.  Weekes.  "Observations  of  NP  0532 
at  10"-10'2  eV  Gamma  Ray  Energies."  Presented  at  the  8th  ESLAB  Sym- 
posium, Frascati,  Italy,  June  1974. 

Grindlay,  J.  E.,  H.  F.  Helmken,  T.  C.  Weekes,  G.  G.  Fazio,  and  F.  Boley. 
"Gamma-Ray  Observations  at  E7  >  5  X  10"  ev  of  the  Pulsars  NP  0532  and 
CP  0950."  Pages  36-40  in  13th  International  Cosmic  Ray  Conference,  volume 
1.  Denver,  Colorado:  University  of  Denver,  1973. 

Gurman,  J.  B.,  G.  L.  Withbroe,  and  J.  W.  Harvey.  "A  Comparison  of  EUV 
Spectroheliograms  and  Photo^pheric  Magnetograms."  Solar  Physics,  volume 
34  (1974),  pages  105-111. 

Gursky,  H.  "X-Ray  Astronomy — A  New  View  of  the  Sky  from  Space."  The 
Science  Teacher,  volume  40,  number  3  (1973),  pages  32-35. 

372  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

.  "The  X-Ray  Emission  from  Rich  Clusters  of  Galaxies."  Publications  of 

the  Astronomical  Society  of  the  Pacific,  volume  85  (1973),  pages  493-502. 
.  "Neutron  Stars  and  Black  Holes."  Presented  at  the  Astronomical  So- 

ciety of  the  Pacific  Meeting,  San  Francisco,  California,  February  1974. 

"Observation  of  Galactic  X-Ray  Sources."  Pages  291-341  in  C.  DeWitt 

and  B.  S.  DeWitt,  editors.  Black  Holes.  New  York:  Gordon  &  Breach,  Science 

Publishers,  Inc.,  1973. 
Gursky,  H.,  and  E.  Schreier.  "The  Galactic  X-Ray  Sources."  Presented  at  the 

American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  Symposium  on  Black 

Holes  and  Neutron  Stars,  San  Francisco,  California,  February  1974. 
Gursky,  H.,  and  D.  Schwartz.  "Deductions  of  the  X-Ray  Emissivity  of  the 

Universe  from  Observations  of  the  Diffuse  X-Ray  Background."  Presented 

at  the  International  Astronomical  Union  Symposium  No.  63,  Confrontation 

between  Cosmological  Theories  and  Observational  Data,  Krakow,  Poland, 

September  1973. 
Hallam,  M.,  and  A.  H.  Marcus.  "Stochastic  Coalescence  Model  for  Terrestrial 

Planetary  Accretion."  Icarus,  volume  21  (1974),  pages  66-85. 
Haramundanis,  K.   "Interstellar  Extinction  in   the   Ultraviolet  from  Emission 

Stars."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  185  (1973),  pages  L87-L88. 
Harvey,  P.  M.,  I.  Gatley,  M.  W.  Werner,  J.  H.  Elias,  N.  J.  Evans  II,  B.  Zucker- 

man,  G.  Morris,  T.  Sato,  and  M.  M.  Litvak.  "Dust  and  Gas   in  the  Orion 

Molecular  Cloud:  Observations  of  1-Millimeter  Continuum  and  2-Centimeter 

H2CO  Emission."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  189  (1974),  pages 

Hawkins,  G.  S.  "Prehistoric  Astronomy."  Bulletin  of  the  Atomic  Scientists, 

volume  29  (1973),  pages  58-64. 
.  "Micrometeorite  and  Cosmic  Dust  Data  near  the  Earth's  Orbit."  Pages 

1159-1164  in  M.  J.  Rycroft  and  S.  K.  Runcorn,  editors.  Space  Research  XIII. 

Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag,  1973. 

"Astro-Archaeology — Scientific    Knowledge    Shown    by    Prehistoric 

Man."    Pages    F60-F62    in    Pears    Cyclopaedia,    82nd    edition.    New    York: 
Schocken  Books,  Inc.,  1973. 

"James  Bradley,  a  Biography."  In  Encyclopaedia  Britannica.  Chicago, 

Illinois:  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  Inc.,  1973. 

Hayes,  D.  S.,  D.  W.  Latham,  and  S.  H.  Hayes.  "The  Absolute  Flux  of  Vega  in 
the  Near  Infrared"  (abstract).  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society, 
volume  5  (1973),  page  347. 

Hegyi,  D.  J.,  W.  A.  Traub,  and  N.  P.  Carleton.  "Cosmic  Background  Radiation 
at  1.32  Millimeters."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  190  (1974),  pages  543- 

Helmken,  H.  F.,  G.  G.  Fazio,  E.  O'Mongain,  and  T.  C.  Weekes.  "A  Three-Year 
Search  for  Periodic  Gamma-Ray  Emission  in  the  10"— 10'^  eV  Energy  Region 
from  NP  0532.  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  184  (1973),  pages  245-250. 

Helmken,  H.  F.,  P.  Gorenstein,  and  H.  Gursky.  "Hard  X-Ray  Burst  Detector 
with  High  Angular  Resolution."  Pages  253-259  in  I.  B.  Strong,  editor.  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Conference  on  Transient  Cosmic  Gamma-  and  X-Ray  Sources 
(LA-5505-C).  Los  Alamos,  New  Mexico:  Los  Alamos  Scientific  Laboratory, 

Helmken,  H.,  and  J.  Hoffman.  "Pulsed  Gamma-Ray  Flux  from  NP  0532  at 
E  ^  15  MeV."  Pages  31-35  in  13th  International  Cosmic  Ray  Conference, 
volume  1.  Denver,  Colorado:  University  of  Denver,  1973. 

Helmken,  H.  F.,  T.  C.  Weekes,  and  G.  G.  Fazio.  "Search  for  10"-ev  Periodic 
Gamma-Ray   Emission  from  NP  0532."  Pages   48-50   in  13th  International 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  373 

Cosmic  Ray  Conference,  volume  1.  Denver,  Colorado:  University  of  Denver, 

Hemenway,  C.  L.,  P.  M.  Millman,  and  A.  F.  Cook,  editors.  Evolutionary  and 
Physical  Properties  of  Meteoroids,  Proceedings  of  the  International  Astro- 
nomical Union's  Colloquium  No.  13.  NASA  SP-319,  1973. 

Hodge,  P.  W.  "The  Recent  Evolutionary  History  of  the  Cluster  System  of  the 
Large  Magellanic  Cloud."  Astronomical  Journal,  volume  78  (1973),  pages 

.  "A  Second  Survey  of  H  II  Regions  in  Galaxies."  Astrophysical  Journal 

Supplement  Number  239,  volume  27  (1974),  pages  113-120. 

Hodge,  P.  W.,  and  P.  Flower.  "A  Color-Magnitude  Diagram  for  the  Rich  Cluster 
NGC  2164  in  the  Large  Magellanic  Cloud."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  185 
(1973),  pages  829-841. 

Hodge,  P.  W.,  and  D.  W.  Smith.  "The  Structure  of  the  Fornax  Dwarf  Galaxy." 
Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  188  (1974),  pages  19-25. 

Hodge,  P.  W.,  and  F.  W.  Wright.  "Particles  around  the  Boxhole  Meteorite  Cra- 
ter." Meteoritics,  volume  8  (1973),  pages  315-320. 

.  "The  Transparency  of  the  Small  Magellanic  Cloud."  Presented  at  the 

141st  Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  Tucson,  Arizona,  De- 
cember 1973;  abstract  in  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society, 
volume  5  (1973),  page  448. 

Holt,  S.  S.,  E.  A.  Boldt,  P.  J.  Serlemitsos,  S.  S.  Murray,  R.  Giacconi,  E.  M.  Kellogg, 
and  T.  A.  Matilsky.  "On  the  Nature  of  the  Unidentified  High  Latitude  UHURU 
Sources."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  188  (1974),  pages  L97-L101. 

Huber,  M.  C.  E.,  A.  K.  Dupree,  L.  Goldberg,  R.  W.  Noyes,  W.  H.  Parkinson, 
E.  M.  Reeves,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "The  Harvard  Experiment  on  OSO-6:  In- 
strumentation, Calibration,  Operation,  and  Description  of  Observations." 
Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  183  (1973),  pages  291-312. 

Huber,  M.  C.  E.,  P.  V.  Foukal,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  M.  Reeves,  E.  J.  Schmahl,  J.  G. 
Timothy,  J.  E.  Vernazza,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "Observations  of  a  Coronal 
Hole  Boundary  in  the  Extreme  Ultraviolet."  Presented  at  the  141st  Meeting  of 
the  American  Astronomical  Society,  Tucson,  Arizona,  December  1973;  ab- 
stract in  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  5  (1973), 
page  446. 

Huber,  M.  C.  E.,  E.  M.  Reeves,  and  J.  G.  Timothy.  "Photometric  Calibration  of 
an  Extreme-Ultraviolet  Spectroheliometer  for  the  Skylab  Mission."  Pages  33- 
54  in  B.  J.  Thompson  and  R.  R.  Shannon,  editors.  Space  Optics,  Proceedings 
of  the  Ninth  International  Congress  of  the  International  Commission  for 
Optics.  Washington,  D.C. :  National  Academy  of  Sciences,  1974. 

Jacchia,  L.  G.  "Variations  in  Thermospheric  Composition:  A  Model  Based  on' 
Mass-Spectrometer  and  Satellite-Drag  Data."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Re- 
search, volume  79  (1974),  pages  1923-1927. 

.  "New  Models  of  the  Thermosphere  and  Exosphere."  Presented  at  the 


17th  International  COSPAR  Meeting,  Sao  Paulo,  Brazil,  June  1974. 

Jacchia,  L.  G.,  I.  G.  Campbell,  and  J.  W.  Slowey.  "A  Study  of  the  Diurnal  Varia 
tion  in  the  Thermosphere  as  Derived  by  Satelhte  Data."  Planetary  and  Space 
Science,  volume  21  (1973),  pages  1825-1834. 

Jacchia,  L.  G.,  and  J.  W.  Slowey.  "A  Study  of  the  Variations  in  the  Thermo 
sphere  Related  to  Solar  Activity."  Pages  343-348  in  M.  J.  Rycroft  and  S.  K. 
Runcorn,  editors.  Space  Research  XIII.  Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag,  1973. 

Jacchia,  L.  G.,  J.  W.  Slowey,  and  I.  G.  Campbell.  "An  Analysis  of  the  Solar- 
Activity  Effects  in  the  Upper  Atmosphere."  Planetary  and  Space  Science,  vol- 
ume 21  (1973),  pages  1835-1842. 

374  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Kahler,  S.,  A.  S.  Krieger,  J.  K.  Silk,  R.  Simon,  A.  F.  Timothy,  and  G.  S.  Vaiana. 
"Studies  of  the  Dynamic  Structure  and  Spectra  of  Solar  X-Ray  Flares."  Pre- 
sented at  the  International  Astronomical  Union/COSPAR  Symposium  No.  68, 
Solar  Gamma  X-Ray  and  EUV  Radiation,  Buenos  Aires,  Argentina,  June  1974. 

Kalkofen,  W.  "Complete  Linearization  of  the  Integral  Equations  in  Radiative 
Transfer."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  188  (1974),  pages  105-119. 

.  "A  Comparison  of  Differential   and  Integral   Equations  of  Radiative 

Transfer."  Journal  of  Quantitative  and  Spectroscopic  Radiative  Transfer,  vol- 
ume 14  (1974),  pages  309-316. 

Kellogg,  E.,  S.  Murray,  R.  Giacconi,  H.  Tananbaum,  and  H.  Gursky.  "Clusters 
of  Galaxies  with  a  Wide  Range  of  X-Ray  Luminosities."  Astrophysical  Jour- 
nal (Letters),  volume  185  (1973),  pages  L13-L16. 

Kellogg,  E.,  H.  Tananbaum,  F.  R.  Harnden,  Jr.,  H.  Gursky,  R.  Giacconi,  and 
J.  Grindlay.  "The  X-ray  Structure  of  the  Vela  X  Region  Observed  from 
UHURU."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  183  (1973),  pages  935-940. 

Kleinmann,  D.  E.,  and  E.  L.  Wright.  "A  New  Infrared  Source  in  Ml7."  Astro- 
physical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  185  (1973),  pages  L131-L133. 

Kohl,  J.  L.,  and  W.  H.  Parkinson.  "Measurement  of  the  Neutral-Aluminum  Pho- 
toionization  Cross-Section  and  Parameters  of  the  3p  ''P"  —  3s3p^  ^Si/2  Auto- 
ionization  Doublet."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  184  (1973),  pages  641-652. 

."Absolute  Intensity  Calibration  of  a  High-Resolution  Rocket  Spectrom- 
eter." Pages  511-521  in  B.  J.  Thompson  and  R.  R.  Shannon,  editors.  Space 
Optics,  Proceedings  of  the  Ninth  International  Congress  of  the  International 
Commission  for  Optics.  Washington,  D.C.:  National  Academy  of  Sciences, 

Kornblum,  J.  J.,  E.  L.  Fireman,  M.  Levine,  and  A.  Aronson.  "Neutrons  in  the 
Moon."  Pages  2172-2182  in  Proceedings  of  the  Fourth  Lunar  Science  Confer- 
ence, Ceochimica  et  Cosmochimica  Acta,  supplement  4,  volume  2.  New  York: 
Pergamon  Press,  1973. 

Krieger,  A.  S.,  R.  C.  Chase,  M.  Gerassimenko,  S.  Kahler,  A.  F.  Timothy,  and 
G.  S.  Vaiana.  "Time  Variations  in  Coronal  Active  Regions  Structures."  Pre- 
sented at  the  International  Astronomical  Union/COSPAR  Symposium  No.  68, 
Solar  Gamma  X-Ray  and  EUV  Radiation,  Buenos  Aires,  Argentina,  June  1974. 

Kurucz,  R.  L.  "Stellar  Spectral  Synthesis  in  the  Ultraviolet."  Astrophysical  Jour- 
nal (Letters),  volume  188  (1974),  pages  L21-L22. 

.  "A  Preliminary  Theoretical  Line-Blanketed  Model  Solar  Photosphere." 

Solar  Physics,  volume  34  (1974),  pages  17-23. 

Lada,  C.  J.,  and  E.  J.  Chaisson.  "Microwave  Spectroscopic  Mapping  of  Gaseous 
Nebulae.  II.  Observations  of  Hydrogen  in  NGC  7538."  Astrophysical  Journal, 
volume  183  (1973),  pages  479-489. 

Lada,  C.  J.,  D.  F.  Dickinson,  and  H.  Penfield.  "Discovery  and  CO  Observations 
of  a  New  Molecular  Cloud  near  Ml7."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  vol- 
ume 189  (1974),  pages  L35-L37. 
^Latham,  D.  W.  "Report  on  the  Cambridge  Meeting  of  the  AAS  Working  Group 
on  Photographic  Materials  in  Astronomy,  Part  III."  American  Astronomical 
Society  Photo-Bulletin,  volume  5,  number  1  (1973),  pages  3-6. 

.  "Detective  Performance  of  Photographic  Plates."  Pages  221-235  in  N. 

Carleton,  editor.  Astrophysics,  Part  A:  Optical  and  Infrared,  volume  12  in 
Methods  of  Experimental  Physics.  New  York:  Academic  Press,  1974. 
Latham,  D.  W.,  and  W.  C.  Miller.  "Report  on  the  Ann  Arbor  Meeting  of  the 
AAS  Working  Group  on  Photographic  Materials  in  Astronomy,  Part  I."  Amer- 
ican Astronomical  Society  Photo-Bulletin,  volume  5,  number  1  (1973),  pages 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  375 

Latham,  D.  W.,  and  W.  Rice.  "Detective  Quantum  Efficiency  of  Kodak  Special 
Plate,  Type  127-02,  Relative  to  Kodak  Spectroscopic  Plate,  Type  Ila-F."  Amer- 
ican Astronomical  Society  Photo-Bulletin,  volume  5,  number  1  (1973),  pages 

Laughlin,  C,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "Nuclear-Charge-Expansion  Method  for 
(2s°2p''  —  2s"~'2p''''')  Transitions."  Physical  Review  A,  volume  8  (1973), 
pages  39-46. 

Laughlin,  C,  and  G.  A.  Victor.  "Model  Potential  Calculations  for  Two-Valence 
Electron  Systems."  Atomic  Physics,  volume  3  (1973),  pages  247-255. 

Lea,  5.  M.,  J.  Silk,  E.  Kellogg,  and  S.  Murray.  "Thermal-Bremsstrahlung  Inter- 
pretation of  Cluster  X-Ray  Sources."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume 
184  (1973),  pages  L105-L111. 

Lecar,  M.  "Computer  Simulation  of  Stellar  Systems."  Pages  143-147  in  S.  W. 
McCuskey,  editor.  Structure  and  Dynamics  of  the  Galactic  System,  A  Report. 
East  Cleveland,  Ohio:  Warner  and  Swasey  Observatory,  1973. 

Lecar,  M.,  and  F.  A.  Franklin.  "On  the  Original  Distribution  of  the  Asteroids. 
I."  Icarus,  volume  20  (1973),  pages  422-436. 

Lecar,  M.,  R.  Loeser,  and  J.  Cherniack.  "Numerical  Integration  of  Gravitational 
N-Body  Systems  with  the  Use  of  Explicit  Taylor  Series."  Pages  451-470  in 
D.  Bettis,  editor.  Numerical  Solution  of  Ordinary  Differential  Equations,  Lec- 
ture Notes  in  Mathematics  No.  362.  New  York:  Springer- Verlag,  1974. 

Lehr,  C.  G.  "The  Statistics  of  Laser  Returns  from  Cube-Corner  Arrays  on  Satel- 
lites." Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  Laser  Report,  number  5,  13 
pages,  1973. 

.  "Laser  Tracking  Systems."  Pages  1-52  in  M.  Ross,  editor.  Laser  Appli- 
cations, volume  2.  New  York:  Academic  Press,  1974. 

Lejeune,  G.,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "The  Red  Line  of  Atomic  Oxygen  at  Twilight." 
Planetary  and  Space  Science,  volume  21  (1973),  pages  1937-1943. 

Lester,  J.  B.  "The  ON9  V  Star  HD  201345."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  185 
(1973),  pages  253-264. 

Levitte,  D.,  J.  Columba,  and  P.  A.  Mohr.  "Reconnaissance  Geology  of  the  Amaro 
Horst,  Southern  Ethiopian  Rift."  Bulletin  of  the  Geological  Society  of  Amer- 
ica, volume  85  (1974),  pages  417-422. 

Levy,  H.  "Tropospheric  Budgets  for  Methane,  Carbon  Monoxide,  and  Related 
Species."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  78  (1973),  pages  5325- 

Litvak,  M.  M.  "Common  Molecular  Masers  in  Astronomy."  Page  15  in  Digest  of 
Technical  Papers,  VIII  International  Quantum  Electronics  Conference.  New 
York:  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronic  Engineers,  1974. 

Marsden,  B.  G.  "The  Next  Return  of  the  Comet  of  the  Perseid  Meteors."  Astro- 
nomical Journal,  volume  78  (1973),  pages  654-662. 

.  "Report  of  the  Central  Bureau  for  Astronomical  Telegrams  (Commis- 
sion No.  6)."  Transactions  of  the  International  Astronomical  Union,  volume 
XVA  (1973),  pages  15-17. 

"Daniel  Kirkwood."  Pages  384-387  in  Dictionary  of  Scientific  Biography, 

volume  7.  New  York:  Scribner's,  1973.  . 

"The  Recovery  of  Apollo."  Sky  and  Telescope,  volume  46  (1973),  pages  j 


"Comets  in  1972."  Quarterly  Journal  of  the  Royal  Astronomical  Society, 

volume  14  (1973),  pages  389-406. 

"Annual  Report  of  the  Central  Bureau  for  Astronomical  Telegrams.' 

International  Astronomical  Union  Information  Bulletin,  number  30  (1973),  i 
pages  8-10. 

376  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

.  "Percival  Lowell."  Pages  520-523  in  Dictionary  of  Scientific  Biography, 

volume  8.  New  York:  Scribner's,  1974. 

'Cometary  Motions."   Celestial  Mechanics,  volume  9    (1974),  pages 

Marsden,  B.  G.,  and  Z.  Sekanina.  "On  the  Distribution  of  'Original'  Orbits  of 

Comets  of  Large  Perihelion  Distance"  (abstract).  Bulletin  of  the  American 

Astronomical  Society,  volume  5  (1973),  page  361. 
.  "On  the  Distribution  of  'Original'  Orbits  of  Comets  of  Large  Perihelion 

Distance."  Astronomical  Journal,  volume  78  (1973),  pages  1118-1124. 

"Comets  and  Nongravitational  Forces.  VL  Periodic  Comet  Encke  1786- 

1971."  Astronomical  Journal,  volume  79  (1974),  pages  413-419. 
Marvin,  U.  B.  "The  Moon  after  Apollo."  Technology  Review,  July/ August 

(1973),  pages  12-23. 
.  "Ti-Rich  Lunar  Spherule  Aggregates"  (abstract).  Programs  of  the  1973 

Annual  Meeting  of  the  Geological  Society  of  America,  volume  5  (1973),  pages 


Continental  Drift,  the  Evolution  of  a  Concept.  Washington,  D.C. :  Smith- 

sonian Press,  1973. 

(with  Apollo  17   Preliminary  Examination  Team).   "Apollo   17  Lunar 

Samples :  Chemical  and  Petrographic  Description."  Science,  volume  182  (1973), 
pages  659-672. 

"Continental  Drift."  In  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  volume  3.  Chicago, 

Illinois:  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  Inc.,  1974. 

.  "La  Lune  apres  Apollo."  La  Recherche,  April  (1974),  pages  337-346. 

"Morphology  and  Surface  Mapping."  Pages  9-33  (plus  Appendices  A 

and  B,  pages  161-191)  in  Interdisciplinary  Studies  of  Samples  from  Boulder  I, 
Station  2,  Apollo  17.  Compilation  of  the  Studies  of  the  Consortium  Indomi- 
tabile,  volume  1. 1974. 

Marvin,  U.  B.,  and  D.  B.  Stoeser.  "The  Civet  Cat  Clast,  a  New  Variety  of  Lunar 
Norite."  Presented  at  the  Fifty-Fifth  Annual  Meeting  of  the  American  Geo- 
physical Union,  Washington,  D.C,  April  1974;  abstract  in  Transactions, 
American  Geophysical  Union,  volume  55  (1974),  pages  323-324. 

Marvin,  U.  B.,  J.  A.  Wood,  and  J.  Bower.  "Apollo  17  Stratigraphy:  Clues  from  a 
Boulder."  Presented  at  the  36th  Anuual  Meeting  of  the  Meteoritical  Society, 
Davos,  Switzerland,  August  1973;  abstract  in  Meteoritics,  volume  8  (1973), 
pages  412-413. 

Mazurek,  T.  J.,  J.  W.  Truran,  and  A.  G.  W.  Cameron.  "Electron  Capture  in  Car- 
bon Dwarf  Supemovae."  Astrophysics  and  Space  Science,  volume  27  (1974), 
pages  261-291. 

McCrosky,  R.  E.  "Cometary  Debris."  Presented  at  The  Dusty  Universe  Sym- 
posium honoring  Dr.  Fred  L.  Whipple,  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observa- 
tory, Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  October  1973. 

Megrue,  G.  H.  "Distribution  of  Gases  within  Apollo  15  Samples:  Implications 
for  the  Incorporation  of  Gases  within  Solid  Bodies  of  the  Solar  System."  Jour- 
nal of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  78  (1973),  pages  4875-4883. 

_Menzel,  D.  H.  "Concluding  Remarks."  Memoires  Societe  Royale  des  Sciences  de 
Liege,  series  6,  volume  V  (1973),  pages  491-495. 

.  "Science  Questions  Answered  by  DHM."  Highlights  for  Children,  vol- 
ume 28,  number  6  (1973),  page  22. 
.  "Copernicus."  Highlights  for  Children,  volume  28,  number  11  (1973), 

pages  10-12. 

"The  Year  of  the  Great  Comet."  Highlights  for  Children,  volume  29, 

number  1  (1974),  pages  38-39. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  377 

Menzel,  D.  H.,  and  W.  W.  Salisbury.  "Pulsar  Radiation  as  Magnetic-Dipole 
Synchrotron  Emission."  Memoires  Societe  Royale  des  Sciences  de  Liege,  series 
6,  volume  V  (1973),  page  219. 

Mertz,  L.  N.  "The  Gap  at  One  Second  in  the  Period  Distribution  of  Pulsars" 
(abstract).  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  5  (1973), 
pages  321. 

.  "Swept  Frequency  Excitation  for  Fourier  Transform  Spectrometry"  (Let- 
ter). Journal  of  Physics  E:  Scientific  Instruments,  volume  7  (1974),  page  228. 
'Rapid  Fluctuations  of  Large  Volume  Astronomical  Sources."  Nature, 

volume  247  (1974),  page  324. 

"Focusing  Behavior  of  Fresnel  Zone  Plates  Having  Various  Central 

Phases,"  Optics  Communications,  volume  11  (1974),  pages  148-149. 

Millman,  P.  M.,  A.  F.  Cook,  and  C.  L.  Hemenway.  "Image-Orthicon  Spectra  of 
Geminids  in  1969."  Pages  147-151  in  C.  L.  Hemenway,  P.  M.  Millman,  and 
A.  F.  Cook,  editors.  Evolutionary  and  Physical  Properties  of  Meteoroids,  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  International  Astronomical  Union's  Colloquium  No.  13.  NASA 
SP-319, 1973. 

Mitler,  H.  E.  "The  Cambridge  Cosmochemistry  Symposium."  Icarus,  volume  20 
(1973),  pages  54-71. 

Mohr,  P.  A.  "Comments  on  'Tectonic  History  of  the  Ethiopian  Rift  Deduced 
by  K-Ar  Ages  and  Paleomagnetic  Measures  of  Basaltic  Dikes,'  by  G.  H.  Meg- 
rue,  E.  Norton  and  D.  W.  Strangway."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  vol- 
ume 78  (1973),  pages  720-722. 

.  "Evolution  of  Danakil  Depression  (Afar,  Ethiopia)  in  Light  of  Radio- 
metric Age  Determinations:  A  Discussion."  Journal  of  Geology,  volume  81 
(1973),  pages  747-749. 

-.  "Structural  Geology  of  the  African  Rift  System :  Summary  of  New  Data 

from  ERTS-1  Imagery."  Presented  at  the  Third  ERTS  Symposium,  Washing- 
ton, D.C.,  December  1973. 

'Rift  Valleys."  Pages  841-846  in  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  volume  15. 

Chicago,  Illinois:  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  Inc.,  1974. 

"Structural  Setting  and  Evolution  of  Afar."  Presented  at  the  Symposium 

on  the  Afar  Region  of  Ethiopia  and  Related  Rift  Problems,  Bad  Bergzabern, 
Germany,  April  1974. 

"ENE-Trending  Lineaments  of  the  African  Rift  System."  Presented  at 

the  First  International  Conference  on  The  New  Basement  Tectonics,  Salt  Lake 

City,  Utah,  June  1974. 
Moran,  J.  M.  "Some  Characteristics  of  an  Operational  System  for  Measuring  ! 

UT  1  Using  Very  Long  Baseline  Interferometry."  Pages  73-82  in  M.  J.  Rycroft 

and  S.  K.  Runcorn,  editors.  Space  Research  XIII.  Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag, 

.  "Spectral-Line  Analysis  of  Very  Long-Baseline  Interferometric  Data." 

Proceedings  of  the  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronic  Engineers,  volume  61 

(1973),  pages  1236-1242. 

"Geodetic  and  Astrometric  Results  of  Very  Long-Baseline  Interfero- 

metric Measurements  of  Natural  Radio  Sources."  Presented  at  the  17th  Inter-: 

national  COSPAR  Meeting,  Sao  Paulo,  Brazil,  June  1974. 
Moran,  J.  M.,  G.  D.  Papadopoulos,  B.  F.  Burke,  K.  Y.  Lo,  P.  R.  Schwartz,  D.  L. . 

Thacker,  K.  J.  Johnston,  S.  H.  Knowles,  A.  C.  Reisz,  and  I.  I.  Shapiro.  "Very 

Long-Baseline  Interferometric  Observations  of  the  H2O  Sources  in  W49N, 

W3(OH),  Orion  A,  and  VY  Canis  Majoris."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume 

185  (1973),  pages  535-567. 
Morgan,  J.  W.,  U.  Krahenbuhl,  R.  Ganapathy,  E.  Anders,  and  U.  B.  Marvin. 

"Trace  Element  Abundances  and  Petrology  of  Separates   from  Apollo  15, 

378  /  Smithsoniari  Year  1974 

Soils."  Pages  1379-1398  in  Proceedings  of  the  Fourth  Lunar  Science  Confer- 
ence, Geochimica  et  Cosmochimica  Acta,  supplement  4,  volume  2.  New  York: 
Pergamon  Press,  1973. 

Murphy,  R.  E.,  and  K.  Aksnes.  "Polar  Cap  on  Europa."  Nature,  volume  244 
(1973),  pages  559-560. 

Noyes,  R.  W.,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  E.  M.  Reeves,  E.  J.  Schmahl,  J.  G. 
Timothy,  J.  E.  Vernazza,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "ATM  Observations  of  Solar 
Flares  in  the  Extreme  Ultraviolet."  Presented  at  the  141st  Meeting  of  the 
American  Astronomical  Society,  Tucson,  Arizona,  December  1973;  abstract 
in  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  5  (1973),  page  433. 

■ .  "ATM  Observations  of  Solar  Flares  in  the  Extreme  Ultraviolet."  Pre- 
sented at  the  Fifty-Fifth  Annual  Meeting  of  the  American  Geophysical  Union, 
Washington,  D.C.,  April  1974;  abstract  in  Transactions,  American  Geophysi- 
cal Union,  volume  55  (1974),  page  408. 

Oppenheimer,  M.,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "The  Chemistry  of  Sulphur  in  Interstellar 
Clouds."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  187  (1974),  pages  231-235. 

Papaliolios,  C,  and  P.  Horowitz.  "Results  of  a  Search  for  Optical  Pulsars.  II. 

Extragalactic  Supernovae."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  183  (1973),  pages 

Peterson,  L.  E.,  D.  A.  Schwartz,  and  J.  C.  Ling.  "Spectrum  of  Atmospheric 

Gamma  Rays  to  10  Mev  at  Latitude  40°."  Journal  of  Geophysical  Research, 

volume  78  (1973),  pages  7942-7958. 
Porter,  N.  A.,  T.  Delaney,  and  T.  C.  Weekes.  "Observations  of  the  Crab  Pulsar 

with  a  Wide-Angle  Atmospheric  Cherenkov  System."  Presented  at  the  8th 

ESLAB  Symposium,  Frascati,  Italy,  June  1974. 
Radford,  H.  E.,  K.  M.  Evenson,  and  C.  J.  Howard.  "HO2  Detected  by  Laser  Mag- 
netic Resonance."  Journal  of  Chemical  Physics,  volume  60   (1974),  pages 

Reeves,  E.  M.  "Solar  Physics  Investigations  on  Skylab."  Presented  at  the  142nd 

Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  Lincoln,  Nebraska,  March 

1974;  abstract  in  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  6 

(1974),  pages  225-226. 

.  "Payload  Operations  Presented  to  the  Crew  Functions  (Shuttle)  Work- 
shop." Presented  at  Johnson  Space  Center,  Houston,  Texas,  April  1974. 

'Solar  Perplexities:  A  View  from  Skylab."  Harvard  Today,  volume  17 

(1974),  pages  8-9. 

Reeves,  E.  M.,  R.  R.  Fisher,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  J. 
Schmahl,  J.  G.  Timothy,  J.  E.  Vernazza,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "EUV  Observa- 
tions of  Coronal  Holes  with  the  Harvard  ATM  Experiment."  Presented  at  the 
Fifty-Fifth  Annual  Meeting  of  the  American  Geophysical  Union,  Washington, 
D.C.,  April  1974;  abstract  in  Transactions,  American  Geophysical  Union,  vol- 
ume 55  (1974),  page  408. 

Reeves,  E.  M.,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  J.  Schmahl,  J.  G. 
Timothy,  J.  E.  Vernazza,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "Solar  EUV  Photoelectric  Obser- 
vations from  Skylab."  Presented  at  the  XVth  General  Meeting  of  the  Inter- 
national Astronomical  Union,  Sydney,  Australia,  August  1973. 

.  "Preliminary  Solar  Extreme  Ultraviolet  Observations  from  the  ATM 

with  the  Harvard  Instrument."  Presented  at  the  141st  Meeting  of  the  Ameri- 
can Astronomical  Society,  Tucson,  Arizona,  December  1973;  abstract  in  Bul- 
letin of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  5  (1973),  page  419. 

'Observations  of  the  Chromospheric  Network:   Initial  Results   from 

Apollo  Telescope  Mount."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  188  (1974), 
pages  L27-L29. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  379 

Reeves,  E.  M.,  R.  W.  Noyes,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "The  Scientific  Instruments." 
Pages  21-27  in  Skylab  and  the  Sun.  Washington,  D.C.:  National  Aeronautics 
and  Space  Administration,  1973. 

.  "The  Solar  Joint-Observing  Program."  Pages  30-34  in  Skylab  and  the 

Sun.  Washington,  D.C.:  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration,  1973. 
"Coordinated  Observing  Program."  Page  36  in  Skylab  and  the  Sun. 

Washington,  D.C. :  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration,  1973. 

Reeves,  E.  M.,  J.  G.  Timothy,  and  M.  C.  E.  Huber.  "The  Photoelectric  Spectro- 
heliometer  on  ATM."  Presented  at  the  Society  of  Photo-Optical  Instrumenta- 
tion Engineers  Seminar-in-Depth  on  Instrumentation  and  Astronomy  —  II, 
Tucson,  Arizona,  March  1974. 

Reisz,  A.  C.,  I.  I.  Shapiro,  J.  M.  Moran,  G.  D.  Papadopoulos,  B.  F.  Burke,  K.  Y. 
Lo,  and  P.  R.  Schwartz.  "W3(OH):  Accurate  Relative  Positions  of  Water- 
Vapor  Emission  Features."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  186  (1973),  pages 

Rieke,  G.  H.,  F.  J.  Low,  and  D.  E.  Kleinmann.  "High-Resolution  Maps  of  the 
Kleinmann-Low  Nebula  in  Orion."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume 
186  (1973),  pages  L7-L11. 

Schaefer,  M.  M.,  G.  B.  Rybicki,  and  M.  Lecar.  "A  Method  of  Computing  the 
Gravitational  Field  of  an  Axially  Symmetric  Flat  Galaxy."  Astrophysics  and 
Space  Science,  volume  25  (1973),  pages  357-372. 

Schild,  R.  E.  "A  Far-Ultraviolet  Flux  Difference  between  Hyades  and  Pleiades 
Stars."  Pages  29-33  in  B.  Hauck  and  B.  Westerlund,  editors.  Problems  of  Cali- 
bration of  Absolute  Magnitudes  and  Temperatures  of  Stars,  Proceedings  of 
the  International  Astronomical  Union  Symposium  No.  54.  Dordrecht,  Hol- 
land: D.  Reidel  Publishing  Company,  1973. 

Schild,  R.  E.,  F.  Chaffee,  J.  A.  Frogel,  and  S.  E.  Persson.  "The  Nature  of  Infrared 
Excesses  in  Extreme  Be  Stars."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  190  (1974), 
pages  73-83. 

Schild,  R.,  J.  B.  Oke,  and  L.  Searle.  "The  Energy  Distribution  of  the  Very  Red 
Star  in  NGC  6231."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  188  (1974),  pages  71-74. 

Schmahl,  E.  J.,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  M.  Reeves,  J.  G. 
Timothy,  J.  E.  Vernazza,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "Solar  Prominences  in  the  EUV 
as  Observed  from  ATM."  Presented  at  the  141st  Meeting  of  the  American 
Astronomical  Society,  Tucson,  Arizona,  December  1973;  abstract  in  Bulletin 
of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  5  (1973),  page  432. 

Schreier,  E.  J.  "Galactic  X-Ray  Sources."  Pages  650-667  in  H.  H.  Bingham,  M. 
Davier,  and  G.  R.  Lynch,  editors.  Proceedings  of  the  1973  Meeting  of  Division 
of  Particles  and  Fields.  Berkeley,  California:  American  Physical  Society,  1973. 

.  "Binary  X-Ray  Sources  and  the  Observational  Situation  of  Black  Holes." 

Presented  at  the  Lectures  at  the  International  School  of  Cosmology  and  Gravi- 
tation, Erice,  Sicily,  May  1974. 

Schwartz,  D.  "Geomagnetic  Background  Events  Observed  by  UHURU."  In  S. 
Holt,  editor.  Particle  Contamination  of  Low  Energy  X-Ray  Astronomy  Experi- 
ments. Goddard  Space  Flight  Center  Publication  No.  X-661-74-130,  1974. 

Schwartz,  D.,  and  H.  Gursky.  "The  X-Ray  Emissivity  of  the  Universe:  2-200 
keV."  Pages  15-36  in  F.  Stecker  and  J.  Trombka,  editors,  Gamma-Ray  Astro- 
physics. NASA  SP-339, 1973. 

Schwartz,  D.  A.,  and  L.  E.  Peterson.  "The  Spectrum  of  Diffuse  Cosmic  X-Rays 
Observed  by  050-3  between  7  and  100  keV."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume 
190  (1974),  pages  297-303. 

Sekanina,  Z.  "Existence  of  Icy  Comet  Tails  at  Large  Distances  from  the  Sun.' 
Astrophysical  Letters,  volume  14  (1973),  pages  175-180. 

380  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

.  "New  Evidence  for  Interplanetary  Boulders?"  Pages  199-207  in  C.  L. 

Hemenway,  P.  M.  Millman,  and  A.  F.  Cook,  editors.  Evolutionary  and  Physi- 
cal Properties  of  Meteoroids,  Proceedings  of  the  International  Astronomical 
Union's  Colloquium  No.  13.  NASA  SP-319,  1973. 

"The  Prediction  of  Anomalous  Tails  of  Comets."  Sky  and  Telescope, 

volume  47  (1974),  pages  374-377. 

Silk,  J.  K.,  S.  Kahler,  A.  S.  Krieger,  A.  F.  Timothy,  G.  S.  Vaiana,  and  D.  Webb. 
"Spatial  and  Spectral  Observations  of  Two  Solar  X-Ray  Flares."  Presented  at 
the  Spatial  ATM  Session  of  the  Open  Meeting  of  the  WG3  COSPAR  Meeting, 
Sao  Paulo,  Brazil,  June  1974. 

Sistla,  G.,  G.  Kojoian,  and  E.  J.  Chaisson.  "Microwave  Measurements  of  Plane- 
tary Nebulae."  Presented  at  the  141st  Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical 
Society,  Tucson,  Arizona,  December  1973;  abstract  in  Bulletin  of  the  Ameri- 
can Astronomical  Society,  volume  5  (1973),  page  424. 

Southworth,  R.  B.  "Recombination  in  Radar  Meteors."  Pages  13-21  in  C.  L. 
Hemenway,  P.  M.  Millman,  and  A.  F.  Cook,  editors.  Evolutionary  and  Physi- 
cal Properties  of  Meteoroids,  Proceedings  of  the  International  Astronomical 
Union's  Colloquium  No.  13.  NASA  SP-319,  1973. 

Steinbrunn,  F.,  and  E.  L.  Fireman.  "^®Ar  Production  Cross-Sections  in  Ti  for 
Solar-Proton  Effects  in  Lunar  Surface  Samples"  (abstract).  Pages  732-734  in 
Lunar  Science  V.  Houston,  Texas:  Lunar  Science  Institute,  1974. 

Stephens,  T.  L.,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "Kinetic  Energy  in  the  Spontaneus  Radiative 
Dissociation  of  Molecular  Hydrogen."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  186 
(1973),  pages  165-167. 

Stoeser,  D.  B.,  R.  W.  Wolfe,  U.  B.  Marvin,  J.  A.  Wood,  and  J.  F.  Bower.  "Petro- 
graphic  Studies  of  a  Boulder  from  the  South  Massif"  (abstract).  Pages  743- 
745  in  Lunar  Science  V.  Houston,  Texas:  Lunar  Science  Institute,  1974. 

Stoeser,  D.  B.,  R.  W.  Wolfe,  J.  A.  Wood,  and  U.  B.  Marvin.  "Petrology."  Pages 
35-109  in  Interdisciplinary  Studies  of  Samples  from  Boulder  1,  Station  2, 
Apollo  17.  Compilation  of  the  Studies  of  the  Consortium  Indomitabile,  vol- 
ume 1  (1974). 

Taylor,  G.  J.,  M.  J.  Drake,  M.  Hallam,  U.  B.  Marvin,  and  J.  A.  Wood.  "Apollo 
16  Stratigraphy:  The  ANT  Hills,  the  Cayley  Plains  and  a  Pre-Imbrian  Re- 
golith."  Pages  553-568  in  Proceedings  of  the  Fourth  Lunar  Science  Conference, 
Geochimica  et  Cosmochimica  Acta,  supplement  4,  volume  1.  New  York:  Per- 
gamon  Press,  1973. 

Timothy,  J.  G.,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  M.  Reeves,  E.  J. 
Schmahl,  J.  E.  Vernazza,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "Preliminary  Results  from 
ATM:  Observations  of  the  Earth's  Upper  Atmosphere."  Presented  at  the 
Fifty-Fifth  Annual  Meeting  of  the  American  Geophysical  Union,  Washington, 
D.C.,  April  1974;  abstract  in  Transactions,  American  Geophysical  Union, 
volume  55  (1974),  page  372. 

.  "Preliminary  Results  from  ATM:  The  Structure  of  Solar  EUV  Bright 

Points."  Presented  at  the  17th  International  COSPAR  Meeting,  Sao  Paulo, 
Brazil,  June  1974. 

"Preliminary  Results  from  ATM:  Measurements  of  the  Density  of  O2  in 

the  Earth's  Upper  Atmosphere."  Presented  at  the  17th  International  COSPAR 
Meeting,  Sao  Paulo,  Brazil,  June  1974. 

Timothy,  A.  F.,  A.  S.  Krieger,  R.  Petrasso,  J.  K.  Silk,  and  G.  S.  Vaiana.  "Struc- 
ture and  Dynamics  of  the  Quiet  X-Ray  Corona."  Presented  at  the  Spatial 
ATM  Session  of  the  Open  Meeting  of  the  WG3  COSPAR  Meeting,  Sao  Paulo, 
Brazil,  June  1974. 

Timothy,  J.  G.,  E.  M.  Reeves,  and  M.  C.  E.  Huber.  "The  Photoelectric  Spectro- 
heliometer  on  ATM."  Presented  at  the  Society  of  Photo-Optical  Instrumenta- 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  381 

tion  Engineers  Seminar-in-Depth  on  Instrumentation  in  Astronomy  —  II,  Tuc- 
son, Arizona,  March  1974. 

Traub,  W.  A.,  and  N.  P.  Carleton.  "Observations  of  O2,  HaO,  and  HD  in  Plane- 
tary Atmospheres."  Presented  at  the  International  Astronomical  Union  Sym- 
posium No.  65,  Exploration  of  the  Planetary  System,  Torun,  Poland,  Septem- 
ber 1973. 

.  "Detection  of  Interstellar  Lithium."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters), 

volume  184  (1973),  pages  L11-L14. 

"Observations  of  Spatial  and  Temporal  Variations  of  the  Jovian  H2 

Quadrupole  Lines."  Presented  at  the  Planetary  Sciences  Division  Meeting  of 
the  American  Astronomical  Society,  Palo  Alto,  California,  April  1974. 

Traub,  W.  A.,  N.  P.  Carleton,  and  D.  J.  Hegyi.  "Search  for  Deuterium  in  Orion 
and  Detection  of  High- Velocity  Features."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters), 
volume  190  (1974),  pages  L81-L84. 

Trauger,  J.  T.,  F.  L.  Roesler,  N.  P.  Carleton,  and  W.  A.  Traub.  "Observation  of 
HD  on  Jupiter  and  the  D/H  Ratio."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume 
184  (1973),  pages  L137-L141. 

Vaiana,  G.  S.  "Observations  of  the  X-Ray  Corona  with  S-054  X-Ray  Telescope." 
Presented  at  the  International  Astronomical  Union/COSPAR  Symposium  No. 
68,  Solar  Gamma  X-Ray  and  EUV  Radiation,  Buenos  Aires,  Argentina,  June 

.  "ATM  X-Ray  Telescope  Results."  Presented  at  the  Spatial  ATM  Ses- 
sion of  the  Open  Meeting  of  the  WG3  COSPAR  Meeting,  Sao  Paulo,  Brazil, 
June  1974. 

Vaiana,  G.  S.,  J.  M.  Davis,  R.  Giacconi,  A.  S.  Krieger,  J.  K.  Silk,  A.  F.  Timothy, 
and  M.  Zombeck.  "X-Ray  Observations  of  Characteristic  Structures  and  Time 
Variations  from  the  Solar  Corona:  Preliminary  Results  from  Skylab."  Astro- 
physical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  185  (1973),  pages  L47-L51. 

VanSpeybroeck,  L.,  E.  Kellogg,  S.  Murray,  and  S.  Duckett.  "Negative  Affinity 
X-Ray  Photocathodes."  Nuclear  Science,  volume  NS  21  (1974),  pages  408-415. 

Vernazza,  J.  E.,  E.  H.  Avrett,  and  R.  Loeser.  "Structure  of  the  Solar  Chromo- 
sphere. I.  Basic  Computations  and  Summary  of  the  Results."  Astrophysical 
Journal,  volume  184  (1973),  pages  605-631. 

Vernazza,  J.  E.,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  M.  Reeves,  E.  J. 
Schmahl,  J.  G.  Timothy,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "ATM  Observations  of  the  Time 
Dependent  Intensity  Fluctuations  in  the  Extreme  Ultraviolet."  Presented  at 
the  Solar  Physics  Division  Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society, 
Honolulu,  Hawaii,  January  1974;  abstract  in  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astro- 
nomical Society,  volume  6  (1974),  page  296. 

.  "ATM  Measurements  of  EUV  Intensity  Fluctuations."  Presented  at  the 

17th  International  COSPAR  Meeting,  Buenos  Aires,  Argentina,  June  1974. 

Vernazza,  J.  E.,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "The  Evolution  of  Solar  Active  Regions 
Based  on  8.6  mm  and  Other  Solar  Observations."  AFCRL  Scientific  Report 
No.  73-0643,  34  pages,  1973. 

Vessot,  R.  F.  C.  "A  Gravitational  Redshift  Rocket  Experiment."  Presented  at  the 
University  of  Toronto  Physics  Department  Colloquium,  Toronto,  Canada, 
April  1974. 

Vessot,  R.  F.  C,  and  M.  W.  Levine.  "Performance  Data  of  Space  and  Ground 
Hydrogen  Masers  and  Ionospheric  Studies  for  High-Accuracy  Comparisons 
between  Space  and  Ground  Clocks."  Presented  at  the  Twenty-Seventh  An- 
nual Frequency  Control  Symposium,  Atlantic  City,  New  Jersey,  June  1974. 

Victor,  G.  A.,  and  C.  Laughlin.  ''Model  Potential  Calculations  of  Be  I  and  Mg  I 
Oscillator  Strengths."  Nuclear  Instruments  and  Methods,  volume  110  (1973), 
pages  189-192.  ; 

382  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Weeks,  T.  C.  "A  Survey  of  Gamma-Ray  Sources  in  the  Galactic  Plane  at  Ener- 
gies of  10"  to  10'*  ev."  Pages  446-449  in  13th  International  Cosmic  Ray  Con- 
ference, volume  1.  Denver,  Colorado:  University  of  Denver,  1973. 

Weekes,  T.  C.,  and  G.  H.  Rieke.  "The  Atmospheric  Cherenkov  Technique  for 
Gamma  Ray  Astronomy."  Presented  at  the  8th  ESLAB  Symposium,  Frascati, 
Italy,  June  1974. 

Whipple,  F.  L.  "Accumulation  of  Chondrules  on  Asteroids"  (abstract).  Page  345 
in  C.  L.  Hemenway,  P.  M.  Millman,  and  A.  F.  Cook,  editors.  Evolutionary  and 
Physical  Properties  of  Meteroids,  Proceedings  of  the  International  Astronomi- 
cal Union's  Colloquium  No.  13.  NASA  SP-319,  1973. 

.  "Radial  Pressure  in  the  Solar  Nebula  Affecting  the  Motions  of  Plane- 

tesimals."  Pages  355-361  in  C.  L.  Hemenway,  P.  M.  Millman,  and  A.  F.  Cook, 
editors.  Evolutionary  and  Physical  Properties  of  Meteoroids,  Proceedings  of 
the  International  Astronomical  Union's  Colloquium  No.  13.  NASA  SP-319, 

-.  "Note  on  the  Number  and  Origin  of  Apollo  Asteroids."  The  Moon,  vol- 

ume 8  (1973),  pages  340-345. 

.  "Birth  and  Death  of  a  Comet."  Astronomy,  volume  2  (1974),  pages  4-19. 

"The  Nature  of  Comets."  Scientific  American,  volume  230  (1974),  pages 


Withbroe,  G.  L.  "ATM  EUV  Observations:  The  Corona  and  Transition  Region." 
Presented  at  the  Santa  Fe  Solar  Physics  Meeting,  Santa  Fe,  New  Mexico,  May 

Withbroe,  G.  L.,  R.  R.  Fisher,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  M. 
Reeves,  E.  J.  Schmahl,  J.  G.  Timothy,  and  J.  E.  Vemazza.  "Extreme  Ultra- 
violet Observations  Acquired  by  the  Harvard  ATM  Instrument."  Presented 
at  the  Fifty-Fifth  Annual  Meeting  of  the  American  Geophysical  Union,  Wash- 
ington, D.C.,  April  1974;  abstract  in  Transactions,  American  Geophysical 
Union,  volume  55  (1974),  page  408. 

Withbroe,  G.  L.,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  M.  Reeves,  E.  J. 
Schmahl,  J.  G.  Timothy,  and  J.  E.  Vernazza.  "Extreme  Ultraviolet  Solar  Obser- 
vations from  the  Harvard  ATM  Experiment."  Presented  at  the  Solar  Physics 
Division  Meeting  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  Honolulu,  Hawaii, 
January  1974;  abstract  in  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society, 
volume  6  (1974),  pages  297-298. 

Withbroe,  G.  L.,  and  J.  B.  Gurman.  "Models  of  the  Chromospheric-Coronal 
Transition  Layer  and  Lower  Corona  Derived  from  Extreme-Ultraviolet  Obser- 
vations." Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  183  (1973),  pages  279-289. 

Wood,  J.  A.  "The  Fine-Grained  Structure  of  Chondritic  Meteorites."  Presented 
at  the  Dusty  Universe  Symposium  honoring  Dr.  Fred  L.  Whipple,  Smithson- 
ian Astrophysical  Observatory,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  October  1973. 

.  "Bombardment  As  a  Cause  of  the  Lunar  Asymmetry."  The  Moon,  vol- 
ume 8  (1973),  pages  73-103. 

(with  Lunar  Sample  Analysis  Planning  Team).  "Lunar  Science  IV." 

Science,  volume  181  (1973),  pages  615-622. 

'The  Moon  after  Apollo:  Lunacies  Reconsidered."  Harvard  Today, 

winter  issue  (1974),  pages  6-7. 

"A  Survey  of  Lunar  Rock  Types  and  Comparison  of  the  Crusts  of 

Earth  and  Moon."  Presented  at  the  Soviet-American  Conference  on  Cosmo- 
chemistry  of  the  Moon  and  Planets,  Moscow,  June  1974. 
I  Wood,  J.  A.,  and  H.  E.  Mitler.  "Origin  of  the  Moon  by  a  Modified  Capture 
Mechanism,  or  Half  a  Loaf  is  Better  Than  a  Whole  One"  (abstract).  Pages 
851-853  in  Lunar  Science  V.  Houston,  Texas:  Lunar  Science  Institute,  1974. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  383 

Wright,  F.  W.  Particularized  Navigation  (How  to  Prevent  Navigation  Emergen- 
cies). Part  I,  Emergency  Booklet,  66  pages;  Part  II,  Emergency  Pamphlet,  51 
pages.  Cambridge,  Maryland:  Cornell  Maritime  Press,  Inc.,  1973. 


352.  G.  E.  O.  Giacaglia.  "Lunar  Perturbations  on  Artificial  Satellites  of  the 
Earth."  October  1, 1973. 

353.  E.  M.  Gaposchkin,  editor.  "1973  Smithsonian  Standard  Earth  (III)."  No- 
vember 28,  1973.  Part  I:  "Historical  Introduction,"  by  C.  A.  Lundquist 
and  F.  L.  Whipple.  Part  II:  "SAO  Network:  Instrumentation  and  Data 
Reduction,"  by  M.  R.  Pearlman,  J.  M.  Thorp,  C.  R.  H.  Tsiang,  D.  A. 
Arnold,  C.  G.  Lehr,  and  J.  Wohn.  Part  III:  "Satellite  Dynamics,"  by  E.  M. 
Gaposchkin.  Part  IV:  "Estimate  of  Gravity  Anomalies,"  by  M.  R.  William- 
son and  E.  M.  Gaposchkin.  Part  V:  "Determination  of  the  Geopotential," 
by  E.  M.  Gaposchkin,  M.  R.  Williamson,  Y.  Kozai,  and  G.  Mendes.  Part 
VI:  "Determination  of  Station  Coordinates,"  by  E.  M.  Gaposchkin,  J. 
Latimer,  and  G.  Veis. 

354.  L.  G.  Jacchia.  "Variations  in  Thermospheric  Composition:  A  Model  Based 
on  Mass-Spectrometer  and  Satellite-Drag  Data."  November  30,  1973. 

355.  R.  E.  Schild.  "Optical  and  Mechanical  Performance  of  the  Tillinghast 
60-Inch  Reflector,  Mt.  Hopkins  Observatory."  December  14,  1973. 

356.  J.  W.  Slowey.  "Radiation-Pressure  and  Air-Drag  Effects  on  the  Orbit  of 
the  Balloon  Satellite  1963  30D."  January  18,  1974. 

357.  M.  R.  Pearlman,  J.  L.  Bufton,  D.  Hogan,  D.  Kurtenbach,  and  K.  Goodwin. 
"SAO/NASA  Joint  Investigation  of  Astronomical  Viewing  Quality  at 
Mt.  Hopkins  Observatory:  1969-1971."  January  23,  1974. 

358.  P.  A.  Mohr.  "1973  Ethiopian-Rift  Geodimeter  Survey."  January  28,  1974. 

359.  R.  L.  Kurucz.  "Semiempirical  Calculation  of  gf  Values,  II:  Fe  I  (3d-l-4s)8 — 
(3d-|-4s)7  4p."  April  15, 1974. 


Goldstein,  Jan.  "Coordinating  Research  Nationwide:  Some  Help  For  Associa- 
tion Executives."  Association  Management  (February  1974),  pages  84-85. 

Hersey,  David  F.  "SSIE:  A  Unique  Data  Base."  Government  Publications  Re- 
view, volume  1,  number  2  (winter  1973),  pages  209-212. 

Hersey,  D.  F.,  W.  R.  Foster,  and  S.  Liebman.  "The  Smithsonian  Science  Informa- 
tion Exchange."  Chemical  Technology,  volume  3,  number  12  (December 
1973),  pages  733-738. 

Hersey,  D.  F.,  M.  Snyderman,  W.  R.  Foster,  B.  Hunt,  and  P.  Morgan.  "On-Line 
Retrieval  and  Machine-Aided  Indexing  in  a  Large  Data  Base  of  Ongoing 
Research  Information."  Proceedings  of  the  36th  Annual  Meeting  of  the 
American  Society  for  Information  Science,  volume  10  (October  1973),  pages 



Ospina,  H.  Mariano,  and  Robert  L.  Dressier.  Orquideas  de  las  Americas.  496 

pages.  Fondo  de  Publicaciones  Cientificas,  Medellin,  1974. 
Ricklefs,  Robert  E.  Ecology.  861  pages.  Newton,  Massachusetts:  Chiron  Press, 



Abele,  Lawrence  G.  "A  New  Species  of  Sesarma,  S.  (Holometopus)  rubinof- 
forum  from  the  Pacific  Coast  of  Panama  (Crustacea,  Decapoda,  Grapsidae)." 

384  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  86,  number  27 
(1973),  pages  333-338. 

"Taxonomy,  Distribution  and   Ecology  of  the  Genus  Sesarma  (Crus- 

tacea, Decapoda,  Grapsidae),  in  Eastern  North  America,  with  Special  Refer- 
ence to  Florida."  American  Midland  Naturalist,  volume  90,  number  2  (1973), 
pages  375-386. 

"Species  Diversity  of  Decapod  Crustaceans  in  Marine  Habitats."  Ecol- 

ogy, volume  55,  number  1  (1974),  pages  156-161. 

Abele,  Lawrence  G.,  and  Robert  H.  Gore.  "Selection  of  a  Lectotype  for  Mega- 
lobrachium  granuliferum  Stimpson,  1958  (Decapoda,  Forcellanidae)."  Crus- 
taceana,  volume  25,  number  1  (1973),  pages  105-106. 

Abele,  Lawrence  G.,  Michael  H.  Robinson,  and  Barbara  Robinson.  "Observa- 
tions on  Sound  Production  by  Two  Species  of  Crabs  from  Panama  (Decapoda, 
Gecarcinidae,  and  Pseudothelphusidae)."  Crustaceana,  volume   25,  number 

2  (1973),  pages  147-152. 

Bohlke,  James  E.,  and  John  E.  McCosker.  "Two  Additional  West  Atlantic  Gobies 

(Genus  Cobiosoma)  That  Remove  Ectoparasites  from  Other  Fishes."  Copeia, 

volume  3  (1973),  pages  609-610. 
Buckman,  Nancy  S.,  and  John  C.  Ogden.  "Territorial  Behavior  of  the  Striped 

Parrotfish  Scarus  croicensis  Bloch  (Scaridae)."  Ecology,  volume  54,  number 

6  (1973),  pages  1377-1382. 
Dressier,  Robert  L.  "Elleanthus  capitatus — A  Name  That  Must  be  Changed, 

or  Is  It?"  American  Orchid  Society  Bulletin,  volume  42  (1973),  pages  419-420. 
.  "Notas  sobre  el  Genero  Encyclia  en  Mexico."  Orquidea  (Mex),  volume 

3,  number  10  (1974),  pages  306-313. 
Dressier,  Robert  L.,  and  Eric  Hagsater.  "Una  Govenia  Nueva  del  Estado  de 

Jalisco:  Govenia  tequilana."  Orquidea  (Mix.),  volume  3  (1973),  pages  175- 

Dressier,  Robert  L.,  and  Glenn  E.  Pollard.  "Una  Nueva  Encyclia  del  sureste 

de  Mexico."  Orquidea  (Mex.),  volume  3  (1973),  pages  272-279. 
Elton,  Charles  S.  "The  Structure  of  Invertebrate  Populations  Inside  Neotropical 

Rain  Forest."  Journal  of  Animal  Ecology,  volume  42,  number  1  (1973),  pages 

Fleming,  Theodore  H.  "Numbers  of  Mammal  Species   in  North  and  Central 

American  Forest  Communities."  Ecology,  volume  54,  number  3  (1973),  pages 

Gliwicz,  J.  "A  Short  Characteristic  of  a  Population  of  Proechimys  semispinossus 

(Tomes,  1860) — a  Rodent  Species  of  the  Tropical  Rain  Forest."  Bulletin  de 

la  Academie  Polonaise  de  Sciences,  Series  Science  Biology,  cl.  2,  volume  21, 

number  6  (1973),  pages  413-418. 
Glynn,  Peter  William.  "Ecology  of  a  Caribbean  Coral  Reef.  The  Porites  Reef- 
Flat  Biotope:  Part  I.  Meteorology  and  Hydrography."  Marine  Biology,  volume 

20  (1973),  pages  297-318. 

.  "Ecology  of  a  Caribbean  Coral  Reef.  The  Porites  Reef-Flat  Biotope; 

Part  II.  Plankton  Community  with  Evidence  for  Depletion."  Marine  Biology, 
volume  22,  number  22,  number  1  (1973),  pages  1-21. 

Glynn,  Peter  W.,  and  Robert  H.  Stewart.  "Distribution  of  Coral  Reefs  in  the 
Pearl  Islands  (Gulf  of  Panama)  in  Relation  to  Thermal  Conditions."  Lim- 
nology and  Oceanography,  volume  18,  number  3  (1973),  pages  367-379. 

Gore,  Robert  H.,  and  Lawrence  G.  Abele.  "Three  New  Species  of  Porcellanid 
Crabs  (Crustacea,  Decapoda,  Porcellanidae)  from  the  Bay  of  Panama  and 
Adjacent  Caribbean  Waters."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science,  volume  23,  number 

3  (1973),  pages  559-573. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  385 

Graham,  Jeffrey  B.  "Heat  Exchange  in  the  Black  Skipjack,  and  the  Blood-Gas 
Relationship  of  Warm-Bodied  Fishes."  Proceedings  of  the  National  Academy 
of  Science,  volume  70,  number  7  (1973),  pages  1964-1967. 

.  "Terrestrial  Life  of  the  Amphibious  Fish  Mnierpes  macrocephalus." 

Marine  Biology,  volume  23  (1973),  pages  83-91. 

Hespenheide,  Henry  A.  "A  Novel  Mimicry  Complex:  Beetle  and  Flies."  Journal 
of  Entomology,  volume  48,  number  1  (1973),  pages  49-56. 

Kropach,  Chaim,  and  John  D.  Soule.  "An  Unusual  Association  between  an 
Ectoproct  and  a  Sea  Snake."  Herpetologica,  volume  29,  number  1  (1973), 
pages  17-19. 

Lang,  Judith.  "Interspecific  Aggression  by  Scleractinian  Corals:  2.  Why  the 
Race  Is  Not  Only  to  the  Swift."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science,  volume  23,  num- 
ber 2  (1973),  pages  260-279. 

Lehman,  John  T.,  and  James  W.  Porter.  "Chemical  Activation  of  Feeding  in  the 
Caribbean  Reef-Building  Coral  Montastrea  cavernosa."  Biological  Bulletin, 
volume  145  (1973),  pages  140-149. 

Leigh,  Egbert  G.  "The  Evolution  of  Mutation  Rates."  Genetics  Supplement, 
volume  73  (1973),  pages  1-18. 

Linares,  Olga  F.  "Current  Research:  Lower  Central  America."  American  An- 
tiquity, volume  38  (1973),  pages  234-235. 

.  "Excavaciones  en  Barriles  y  Cerro  Punta:  Nuevos  Datos  sobre  la  Epoca 

Formativa  Tardia  (0-500  D.C.)  en  el  Oeste  panamefio."  Actas  del  Tercer 
Simposio  de  Antropologia,  Arqueologia  y  Ethnohistoria  de  Panama,  Octubre 

"From  the  Late  Preceramic  to  the  Early  Formative  in  the  Intermediate 

Area:  Some  Issues  and  Methodologies."  First  Symposium  of  Archaeology 
and  History,  Puerto  Rico,  December  1973. 

[Review]  "Ngawbe:  Traditions  and  Change  among  the  Western  Guaymi 

of  Panama,"  by  Philip  D.  Young.  American  Anthropologist,  volume  75,  num- 
ber 4  (1973),  pages  1011-1012. 

[Review]  "Pre-Columbian  Man  Finds  Central  America:  The  Archaeo- 

logical Bridge,"  by  Doris  Stone.  American  Journal  of  Archaeology,  volume  77 
(1973),  pages  361-362. 

[Review]  "Revista  Espanola  de  Antropologia  Americana  (Trabajos  y 

conferencias),"  volume  6,  edited  by  Jose  Alcina  Franch.  American  Journal  of 
Archaeology,  volume  77  (1973),  pages  253-254. 

Lubin,  Yael  D.  "Web  Structure  and  Function:  The  Non-adhesive  Orb-Web  of 

Cyrtophora  moluccesis  (Doleschall)  (Aranaea:  Araneidae)."  Forma  et  Func- 

tio,  volume  6  (1973),  pages  337-358. 
Macurda,  Donald  B.,  and  David  L.  Meyer.  "Feeding  Posture  of  Modem  Stalked 

Crinoids."  Nature,  volume  247  (1974),  pages  394-396. 
Meyer,  David  L.  "Feeding  Behavior  and  Ecology  of  Shallow-Water  Unstalked 

Crinoids  (Echinodermata)  in  the  Caribbean  Sea."  Marine  Biology,  volume 

22,  number  2  (1973),  pages  105-129. 
Montgomery,  G.  G.,  W.  E.  Cochran,  and  M.  E.  Sunquist.  "Radiolocating  Ar- 
boreal Vertebrates  in  Tropical  Forest."  Journal  Wildlife  Management,  volume 

37,  number  3  (1973),  pages  426-428. 
Montgomery,  G.  G.,  A.  S.  Rand,  and  M.  E.  Sunquist.  "Post-Nesting  Movements 

of  Iguanas  from  a  Nesting  Aggregation."  Copeia,  volume  3  (1973),  pages 

Morton,  Eugene  S.  "On  the  Evolutionary  Advantages  and  Disadvantages  of 

Fruit  Eating  in  Tropical  Birds."  American  Naturalist,  volume  107  (1973), 

pages  8-22. 

386  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Moynihan,  Martin  H.  "The  Evolution  of  Behavior  and  the  Role  of  Behavior  in 

Evolution."  Breviora,  volume  415  (1973),  pages  1-29. 
Ogden,  John  C,  and  Nancy  S.  Buckman.  "Movements,  Foraging  Groups,  and 

Diurnal    Migrations    of    the    Striped    Parrotfish    Scarries    croicensis    Bloch 

(Scaridal)."  Ecology,  volume  54,  number  3  (1973),  pages  589-596. 
Oppenheimer,  John  R.   "Social  and  Communicatory  Behavior  in  the  Cebus 

Monkey."  Pages  251-271  in  C.  R.  Carpenter,  editor.  Behavioral  Regulators 

of  Behavior  in  Primates.  Lewisburg:  Bucknell  University  Press,  1973. 
Porter,  James  W.  "Biological,  Physical,  and  Historical  Forces  Structuring  Coral 

Reef  Communities  on  Opposite  Sides  of  the  Isthmus  of  Panama."  Thesis 

(1973),  pages  1-146. 
Porter,  James  W.,  and  Karen  Porter.  "The  Effects  of  Panama's  Cuna  Indians  on 

Coral  Reefs."  Discovery,  volume  8,  number  2  (1973),  pages  65-70. 
Ricklefs,  Robert  E.,  and  John  Cullen.  "Embryonic  Growth  of  the  Green  Iguana 

Iguana  iguana."  Copeia,  volume  2  (1973),  pages  296-305. 

Robinson,  Michael  H.  "The  Evolution  of  Cryptic  Postures  in  Insects,  with 
Special  Reference  to  Some  New  Guinea  Tettigoniids  (Orthoptera)."  Psyche, 
volume  80,  number  3  (1973),  pages  159-165. 

.  "Insect  Anti-predator  Adaptations  and  the  Behavior  of  Predatory  Pri- 
mates." Actas  del  IV  Congreso  Latino americano  de  Zoologia,  volume  2  (1973), 
pages  811-836. 

'The  Stabilimenta  of  Nephila   clavipes  and  the  Origins  of  Stabili- 

mentum-Building  in  Araneids."  Psyche,  volume  80,  number  4  (1973),  pages 

'The  Biology  of  Some  Argiope  Species  from  New  Guinea:  I.  Predatory 

Behavior  and  Stabilimentum  Construction."  Zoological  Journal  of  the  Lin- 
nean  Society,  London. 

Robinson,  Michael  H.,  and  Barbara  Robinson.  "Ecology  and  Behavior  of  the 
Giant  Wood  Spider  Nephila  maculata  (Fabricius)  in  New  Guinea."  Smith- 
sonian Contribution  to  Zoology,  number  149  (1973),  76  pages. 

Robinson,  Michael  H.,  B.  Robinson,  and  Yael  D.  Lubin.  "Phenology,  Species 
Diversity  and  Natural  History  of  Web-Building  Spiders  on  Three  Transects 
at  Wau,  New  Guinea."  Pacific  Insects,  volume  20  (1974),  pages  117-163. 

Rubinoff,  Ira.  "A  Sea  Level  Canal  in  Panama."  Theme  3  (1973).  Pages  1-13  in 
Les  Consequences  biologiques  des  Canaux  interoceans.  XVII  Congress  Inter- 
national de  Zoologie,  Montecarlo,  1972. 

Smith,  Wayne  L.  "Record  of  a  Fish  Associated  with  a  Caribbean  Sea  Anemone." 
Copeia,  volume  3  (1973),  pages  597-598. 

Todd,  Eric  S.  "Positive  Buoyancy  and  Air-Breathing:  A  New  Piscine  Gas  Blad- 
der Function."  Copeia,  volume  3  (1973),  pages  461-464. 

.  "A  Preliminary  Report  of  the  Respiratory  Pump  in  the  Dactyloscopi-r 

dae."  Copeia,  volume  1  (1973),  pages  115-119. 

Williams,  Norris  H.,  and  Robert  L.  Dressier.  "Oncidium  Species  Described  by 
Jacquin  and  the  Typification  of  Oncidium."  Taxon,  volume  22,  number  2/3 
(1973),  pages  221-227. 

Willis,  Edwin  O.  "The  Behavior  of  Ocellated  Antbirds."  Smithsonian  Contri- 
butions to  Zoology,  number  144  (1973),  57  pages. 

Wolda,  Hindrik.  "Ecology  of  Some  Experimental  Populations  of  the  Landsnail 
Cepaea  nemoralis  (L.) :  II.  Production  and  Survival  of  Eggs  and  Juveniles." 
Netherlands  Journal  of  Zoology,  volume  32,  number  2  (1973),  pages  168-188. 

Zaret,  Thomas  M.,  and  R.  T.  Paine.  "Species  Introduction  in  a  Tropical  Lake." 
Science,  volume  182  (1973),  pages  449-455. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  387 

Zucker,  Naida.  "Shelter  Building  as  a  Means  of  Reducing  Territory  Size  in  the 
Fiddler  Crab,  Uca  terpsichores  (Crustacea:  Ocypodidae)."  American  Midland 
Naturalist,  volume  91  (1973),  pages  224-236. 



"An  American  Museum  of  Decorative  Art  and  Design:  Designs  from  the 
Cooper- Hewitt  Collection."  Foreword,  Sir  John  Pope-Hennessy;  introduction, 
Lisa  Taylor;  drawings,  Elaine  Evans  Dee;  textiles,  Milton  Sonday;  wall- 
papers, Catherine  Lynn  Frangiamore.  118  pages,  246  black-and-white  and  2 
color  illustrations.  New  York:  Victoria  &  Albert  Museum,  London,  1973. 

"Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  Benefit  Auction  Catalogue."  Introduction  by  Lisa 
Taylor.  98  pages,  66  black-and-while  illustrations,  1974. 



Atil,  Esin.  Ceramics  from  the  World  of  Islam.  225  pages,  101  illustrations. 
Washington,  D.C. :  Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  Smithsonian  Institution,  1973. 

Lawton,  Thomas.  Chinese  Figure  Painting.  236  pages,  59  illustrations.  Wash- 
ington, D.C:  Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  Smithsonian  Institution,  1973. 


Atil,  Esin.  "Two  Ilkhanid  Candlesticks  at  the  University  of  Michigan."  Kunst 
des  Orients,  volume  VIII,  number  1-2  (1972),  pages  1-33. 

.  "Exhibition  of  Islamic  Pottery  at  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art."  Connois- 
seur, volume  185,  number  745  (March  1974),  pages  219-226. 

Chase,  W.  Thomas,  III.  "Conservation  in  the  People's  Republic  of  China."' 
Bulletin  of  the  American  Institute  for  Conservation  of  Historic  and  Artistic 
Works,  volume  14,  number  2  (1974),  pages  131-141. 

Lawton,  Thomas.  [Review]  "Die  Siegelschrift  (Chuan-shu)  in  der  Ch'ing-Zeit, 
ein  Beitrag  zu  Geschichte  due  chinesischen  Shrift  Kunst,"  by  Lothar  Ledder- 
hose.  Journal  of  the  Oriental  Society  (1973). 

Lovell,  Hin-cheung.  "Chinese  Figure  Painting  at  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art." 
Oriental  Art,  n.s.,  volume  19,  number  3  (autumn  1973),  pages  330-332. 

■ .  An  Annotated  Bibliography  of  Chinese  Painting  Catalogues  and  Re- 
lated Texts.  Michigan  Papers  in  Chinese  Studies  No.  16,  Ann  Arbor,  1973. 

Winter,  John.  [Review]  Science  and  Archaeology,  R.  H.  Brill,  editor,  MIT  Press, , 
1971,  in  ASTM  Standardization  News,  volume  2,  Number  3,  March  1974 
page  48. 


Atil,  Esin.  "Islamic  Pottery."  Darien  Community  Association,  Darien,  Conn. 

.  "Turkish  Paintings  as  Historical  Documents."  University  of  Maryland,  . 


"Exhibition  of  Islamic  Pottery  at  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art."  Smith- 

sonian Associates,  Washington,  D.C. 

-.  "Formation  of  Ottoman  Miniature  Painting."  Carnegie  Center,  New 


"Ottoman  History  through  the  Works  of  the  Court  Painters."  Textile 

Museum,  Washington,  D.  C. 
.  "Turkish  Miniature  Painting."  Washington  Club,  Washington,  D.C. 

388  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

.  "Historical  Survey  of  Islamic  Painting."  Foreign  Service  Institute,  State 

Department,  Washington,  D.C. 

Chase,  W.  Thomas,  III.  "The  Art  of  the  Hyogushi."  Royal  Ontario  Museum, 
Toronto,  Canada. 

.  "Impressions  of  China."  Westmoreland  Congregational  Church,  Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

"Conservation  in  the  People's  Republic  of  China."  Washington  Region 

Conservation  Guild,  Washington,  D.C. 

"Archaeology  in  the  People's  Republic  of  China."  Massachusetts  In- 

stitute of  Technology,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

-.  "Comparative  Analysis  of  Archaeological  Bronzes."  National  Bureau 

of  Standards,  Analytical  Chemistry  Seminar,  Washington,  D.  C. 

"Fakes  and  Forgeries  in  Sculpture — Oriental  Bronzes  and  Ceramics." 

Smithsonian  Associates  course,  "Fakes-Imposters  of  the  Marketplace,"  Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

"My  Trip  to  China."  Annual  Meeting  of  the  American  Institute  for 

Conservation,  Cooperstown,  N.Y. 

"Technical  Aspects  of  Chinese  Metalwork."  Society  of  North  American 

Goldsmiths,  Washington,  D.C. 

Lawton,  Thomas.  "Recent  Archaeological  Excavations  in  the  People's  Republic 
of  China."  Twentieth  Century  Club,  Washington,  D.C. 

.  "Chinese  Narrative  Painting."  Baltimore  Art  Society,  Maryland. 

.  "Chinese  Art."  Saint  Louis  Art  Museum  Society,  Missouri. 

.  "Chinese  Art  in  the  Freer  Gallery."  Corcoran  Gallery  Group,  Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

.  "Chinese  Buddhist  Art."  Princeton  Academic  Group,  New  Jersey. 

"Recent  Archaeological  Excavations  in  the  People's  Republic  of  China." 

Voice  of  America,  Washington,  D.C. 
Stern,  Harold  P.  "A  Survey  of  Japanese  Art."  Kimbell  Art  Museum,  Fort  Worth, 

.  "The  Freer  Gallery  of  Art — Yosa  Buson."  Friends  of  Oriental  Art  of  the 

Seattle  Art  Museum,  Washington. 

-.  "Yosa  Buson."  Seattle  Art  Museum,  Washington. 

Winter,    John.    "Archaeological    Dating    Methods."    Smithsonian    Associates, 

Washington,  D.C. 
.  "Chemistry  in  Museums :  A  Quick  Tour  of  the  Field."  Sigma  Xi  Society, 

University  of  West  Florida,  Pensacola,  Fla. 

"The  Scanning  Electron  Microscope  in  Pigment  Studies."  ICOM  Con- 

servation  Committee,   Working  Group   on   the   Paint   Layer,    Copenhagen, 


Aldrich,  Michele  L.  "Edward  Berry"  in  Edward  T.  James,  editor.  Dictionary  of 
American  Biography,  Supplement  Three:  1941-1945  (1973). 

.  "Clarence  King"  in  Charles  Gillispie,  editor.  Dictionary  of  Scientific 

Biography,  volume  7  (1973). 

"Jonathan  Homer  Lane"  in  C.  C.  Gillispie,  editor.  Dictionary  of  Sci- 

entific Biography,  volume  8,  pages  1-3.  New  York,  1973. 


Hobbins,  James  M.  "Applications  of  Computer  Technology  to  Historical  Edit- 
ing." History  Department,  University  of  Maryland,  November  1973. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  389 

Molella,  Arthur  P.  "Research  in  the  History  of  Physics — The  Case  of  Joseph 
Henry."  Symposium:  History  in  the  Teaching  of  Physics,  New  York  State 
Section  of  the  American  Association  of  Physics  Teachers,  Troy,  New  York, 
October  13, 1973. 

.  "Active  Nature  and  19th-century  German  Physics:  The  Atomic  Phi- 
losophy of  Gustav  T.  Fechner."  Zoology  Colloquium,  University  of  Maryland, 
December  12, 1973. 

with  Nathan  Reingold,  Lecture  and  Seminar  on  Science,  Technology, 

and  Public  Policy,  February  7,  1974,  Fogarty  International  Center,  National 
Institutes  of  Health. 

Reingold,  Nathan.  "Joseph  Henry  on  the  Scientific  Life :  An  AAAS  Presidential 
Address  of  1850."  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science 
session  on  the  Development  of  American  Science  in  the  19th  and  20th  Cen- 
turies, San  Francisco,  California,  March  1,  1974. 

.  "Time  and  Place  Physics."  Carnegie-Mellon/Pittsburgh  Workshop  on 

The  Place  of  the  Geophysical  Sciences  in  19th  Century  Natural  Philosophy, 
March  14-17, 1974. 

with  Arthur  P.  Molella.  Lecture  and  Seminar  on  Science,  Technology 

and  Public  Policy,  February  7,  1974,  Fogarty  International  Center,  National 
Institutes  of  Health. 


Elliott,  John  M.  "Painting  of  Special  Aircraft."  American  Aviation  Historical 
Society  Journal,  volume  18,  number  3  (3d  quarter  1973),  pages  199-202. 



Andrews,  Martha.  "Bicentennial  Inventory  of  American  Painting."  ARLIS/NA 
(Art  Libraries  Society  of  North  America)  Newsletter,  October  1973. 

Bolton-Smith.  Robin.  "The  Sentimental  Paintings  of  Lilly  Martin  Spencer." 
Antiques,  volume  103,  number  7  (July  1973). 

Booth,  Abigail.  "The  Bicentennial  Inventory."  American  Art  Review  September- 
October  1973.  (Reprint  of  "An  Inventory  for  the  Art  Researcher."  Museum 
News,  December  1972). 

Breeskin,  Adelyn  D.  Art  of  the  Pacific  Northwest:  From  the  1930s  to  the  Pres- 
ent." Exhibition  catalogue  acknowledgments,  December  7,  1973. 

.  Tribute  to  Mark  Tobey.  Exhibition  catalogue  acknowledgments,  June, 

7,  1974. 

Fink,  Lois.  "American  Artists  in  France,  1850-1870."  American  Art  Journal, 
volume  5,  number  2,  November  1973. 

Flint,  Janet.  Modern  American  Woodcuts.  Exhibition  checklist.  16  pages,  5 
illustrations.  November  30, 1973. 

.  Herman  A.  Webster:  Drawings,  Watercolors  and  Prints.  Exhibition 

checklist.  8  pages,  1  illustration,  February  15,  1974. 

Hanan,  Sara  B.  Selected  and  Annotated  List  of  Basic  Reference  Materials  in  the 
NCFA/NPC  Library:  Fine  Arts.  (Research  guide  distributed  in  the  library.) 
32  pages,  1974. 

Herman,  Lloyd  E.  Introduction  to  Form  and  Fire:  Natzler  Ceramics  1939-1972. 
Exhibition  catalogue.  12  pages,  80  illustrations,  July  27, 1973. 

.  Foreword  to  Shaker,  Furniture  and  Objects  from  the  Faith  and  Edward 

Deming  Andrews  Collection  Commemorating  the  Bicentenary  of  the  Ameri- 
can Shakers.  Exhibition  catalogue.  88  pages,  65  illustrations,  November  2, 

390  /  Smithsonian  Year  1974 

Hopps,  Walter.  Anne  Truitt.  Catalogue.  64  pages,  45  illustrations.  Baltimore, 
Md. :  Garamond/Pridemark  Press,  1974. 

.  Introduction  to  Revival!,  by  Eleanor  Dickinson,  text  by  Barbara  Ben- 

ziger.  New  York:  Harper  &  Row,  1974. 

Panzer,  Nora.  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts / Renwick  Gallery.  Information 
for  Docents.  Handbook.  20  pages.  May  1974. 

Taylor,  Joshua  C.  Foreword  to  Form  and  Fire:  Natzler  Ceramics  1939-1972. 
Exhibition  catalogue.  July  27,  1973. 

.  Introduction  to  Robert  Loftin  Newman:  1827-1912.  Exhibition  Cata- 
logue. March  18, 1974. 

.  Robert  Loftin  Newman:  1827-1912.  Checklist  essay.  October  26,  1973. 

Introduction  to  Shaker:  Furniture  and  Objects  from   the  Faith  and 

Edward  Deming  Andrews  Collection  Commemorating  the  Bicentenary  of  the 
American  Shakers.  Exhibition  catalogue.  88  pages,  65  illustrations.  November 
2,  1973. 

-.  Introduction  to  Art  of  the  Pacific  Northwest.  Exhibition  catalogue.  Feb- 

ruary 8, 1974. 

.  Tribute  to  Mark  Tobey.  Exhibition  catalogue  essay.  June  7,  1974. 

'Evolution  of  the  Fine  Arts."  Treasures  of  America  and  Where  to  Find 

Them.  Readers'  Digest  Association,  Inc.,  1974. 

Taylor,  Joshua  C,  with  L.  Quincy  Mumford.  Foreword  to  Catalog  of  the  23rd 
National  Exhibition  of  Prints.  Exhibition  catalogue.  Washington,  D.C. :  Li- 
brary of  Congress,  September  24, 1973. 

Walker,  William  B.  "Some  Notes  on  L.  C.  Class  N."  Article.  ARLIS/NA  (Art 
Libraries  Society  of  North  America)  Newsletter,  volume  2  (April  1974),  pages 


Andrews,  Martha.  "Progress  of  the  Bicentennial  Inventory  of  American  Paint- 
ing." Kansas  City  (Mo.)  Inventory  Survey,  Nelson  Gallery  of  Art.  Kansas 
City,  Mo.  June  20,  1974. 
Bermingham,  Peter.  "Crisis  in  Public  Education."  Seminar  participant.  George 
Washington  University,  Washington,  D.C.  November  1973. 

.  "Barbizon  Art  in  America."  Indianapolis  Art  Museum,  Ind.  November 

.  Discussion  and  Tour  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  for  Inter- 

national Committee  on  Museums,  American  Association  of  Museums,  Na- 
tional Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  April  1974. 

Singham,  Lois,  and  Cogswell,  Margaret.  "Programs  of  the  Office  of  Exhibitions 
Abroad."  Professional  and  Business  Women's  Association  of  Alexandria,  Va. 
November  27, 1973. 

3olton-Smith,  Robin.  "Lilly  Martin  Spencer."  Washington  Women  Art  Profes- 
sionals. Washington,  D.C.  August  9,  1973. 

.   "Miniatures  in  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts."  Smithsonian 

Associates.  December  3, 1973. 

.  "Lilly  Martin  Spencer."  Radio  interview.  Station  WMAU,  Washington, 

D.C.  August  1973. 

3ooth,  Abigail.  "Women  and  the  Museum  Profession."  Wesleyan  College, 
Macon,  Ga.  October  30, 1973. 

.  "Bicentennial  Inventory  of  American  Painting."  Gaithersburg   (Md.) 

Branch,  American  Association  of  University  Women.  November  12, 1973. 

.  "Bicentennial  Inventory  of  American  Painting."  Washington  Guild  of 

Conservators.  December  6, 1973. 

Appendix  8.  Staff  Publications  I  391 

.  "Bicentennial  Inventory  of  American  Painting."  Bay  Area  Inventory 

Survey,  Bohemian  Club,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  March  26, 1974. 

-.  "Bicentennial  Inventory  of  American  Painting."  Rockville  (Md.)  Branch, 

American  Association  of  University  Women.  May  11,  1974. 
Breeskin,  Adelyn  D.  "Women  in  the  Arts."  Akron  College  Club,  Akron,  Ohio. 

September  15, 1973. 
.  Judge.  "The  1973  Maryland  Open  Art  Shovy?."  Maryland  School  of  Art 

and  Design,  Silver  Spring,  Md.  October  29, 1973. 

"Roots  of  Modernism  in  Painting  and  Sculpture."  Abilene  Fine  Arts 

Museum,  Abilene,  Tex.  November  16, 1973. 

"Mary  Cassatt."  Northwood  Experimental  Art  Institute,  Dallas,  Tex. 

November  16,  1973. 

"The  Social  Responsibility  of  Museums  and  of  Artists."  Northern  Vir- 

ginia Fine  Arts  Association,  Alexandria,  Va.  March  26,  1974. 
.  "The  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts."  Guild  of  our  Friends  of  Art 

from  the  William  Rockhill  Nelson  Gallery  of  Art,  Kansas  City,  Mo.  National 
Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  April  18, 1974. 

"Mark  Tobey."  Smithsonian  Associates,  June  12,  1974. 

Cogswell,  Margaret.  "International  Art  Exhibitions."  Junior  Officer  Trainees, 
United  States  Information  Agency.  November  23,  1973. 

.  "The  Organization  and  Preparation  of  Traveling  Exhibitions."  Massa- 
chusetts College  of  Art,  Boston.  March  29,  1974. 

Fink,  Eleanor  E.  "Visual  Documentation  Activities:  62nd  Annual  Meeting  of 
the  College  Art  Association  of  America,  Detroit,  January  1974."  ARLIS/NA 
(Art  Libraries  Society  of  North  America)  Washington-Baltimore  Chapter, 
Washington,  D.C.  February  14, 1974. 

Fink,  Lois.  "Image  of  Innocence:  The  Child  in  Nineteenth  Century  Art."  Bir- 
mingham Museum  of  Art,  Ala.  December  12, 1973. 

.  "The  Quality  of  Sentiment:  Women,  Children,  Blacks,  Dumb  Animals 

and  Christ  in  Nineteenth  Century  Art."  Georgetown  University  Department 
of  Fine  Arts.  Washington,  D.C.  January-May  1974. 

■ .  "The  American  Renaissance:  Art  in  the  United  States  ca  1870  to  1913." 

Smithsonian  Associates  Class,  winter  1974. 

"American  Taste  and  Patronage  at  Mid-Century  as  Reflected  in  the 

Grand  Salon  of  the  Renwick  Gallery."  Lecture  to  graduate  seminar.  "Mate- 
rial Aspects  of  American  Civilization,"  George  Washington  University/ 
University  of  Maryland.  National  Portrait  Gallery.  October  18,  1973. 

"Late  19th-century  American  Art:  Cosmopolitan  Tastes  and  the  Gen- 

teel Tradition."  Sponsored  jointly  by  the  National  Collection  and  the  Uni-